Green Buildings Around the WorldA Look at the Green Building Movement Technologico de Monterrey Campus Queretaro Thursday, April 7, 2011 Robert J. Kobet, AIA, LEED Faculty President, The Kobet Collaborative Pittsburgh, PA and Coconut Grove, FL www.thekobetcollaborative.com
Bedouin Tent Tanja Toraja, Indonesia Igloo, Artic Circle Green Buildings?Santorini, Greece Raiu Archipeligo?
Very Green! Less Green?Variations on a theme:What defines green?Who defines green? Pittsburgh Civic Arena Not green at all DRS Architects 1961
The Hannover Principles Bill McDonough and Partners Prepared for EXPO 2000 The Hannover World’s Fair1. Insist on rights of humanity and nature to co-exist2. Recognize interdependence.3. Respect relationships between spirit and matter.4. Accept responsibility for the consequences of design.5. Create safe objects of long-term value.6. Eliminate the concept of waste.7. Rely on natural energy flows.8. Understand the limitations of design.9. Seek constant improvement by the sharing of knowledge.
There are Different Points of View and Tools BEE - Building Environmental Efficiency United Kingdom BREAM - BRE Environmental Assessment Method United Kingdom LEED - Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design US and other Countries Green Star Australia CASBEE – Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency Japan
There are Different Points of View and Tools And different degrees of difficulty!Building Environmental Efficiency Calculation Method
Fuzhou, China Baima Canal 500 meters long Baimi Canal Restoration 12,000 pe(City Average: 8,000 pe/km) John Todd, Ecological DesignOcean Arks International, 2002 Green gestures amongstgreen buildings can be very significant.
Village Homes Davis, CA. Michael and Judy Corbett 1964 - 70
Village Homes Davis, CA. Michael and Judy Corbett
Village Homes Davis, CA. Michael and Judy Corbett
Village Homes Davis, CA. Michael and Judy Corbett
Village Homes Davis, CA. Michael and Judy Corbett
LEED™ v2.1 SILVER Fossil Ridge High School 2005 Certification Fort Collins, COOwner: Poudre School District “Building a LEED certified school is the right thing to do, theCompletion Date: August 2004 right thing to teach kids, and the right message to send toCost: $38,500,000 ($135.37/SF, bldg + site) the community. And it doesn’t cost more.”Size: 288,685 SF Michael SpearnakAnnual Utilities Savings: $110,000+ /yr Poudre School District
Fossil Ridge High School Fort Collins, CO Sustainable Sites • 1930’s farm bldg now equipment storage • PSD & City of Ft.Collins share ballfields • Soccer field is recycled turf material • White, reflective roof lessens heat island •Xeriscaping and bio-swales throughout siteWater Efficiency•Native plantings established with efficient irrigation system•Water conservation charrette by project team benefited many regional projects• Low-flow plumbing fixtures for showers + sinks Fossil Ridge Site Plan
Energy and Atmosphere Fossil Ridge High School•Energy use – 59% below ASHRAE 90.1 Fort Collins, CO•Thermal ice storage HVAC system•60% of required light levels achieved with daylight•Sensors in operable windows halt HVAC flow•5.2 kW PV system located at main entry•Wind energy purchased for 100% of electrical use Daylighting Study Diagram
Fossil Ridge High SchoolMaterials and Resources Fort Collins, CO• Over 50% of project materials manufactured regionally• 17% of project materials comprised of recycled content• 70% of construction waste diverted from landfills• Gymnasium floor – wood from a Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certified sustainable forest
Fossil Ridge High School Fort Collins, CO Indoor Environmental Quality •Daylighting has an immediate, positive impact on occupants •Non-toxic school – Low-VOC & no-VOC products used • PSD implemented a district- wide green cleaning program •Two week building flush out prior to occupancy
Innovations/Lessons Learned Fossil Ridge High School•Hosts Green School conferences and Fort Collins, COon–going tours•Highlighted in numerous green buildingvideos and articles•Green Schools do not have to costmore than conventional buildings –must employ effective integrated designDesign Team:Architect: RB+B ArchitectsGeneral Contractor: Haselden Construction All photography by David PatersonDaylighting Consultant: Rocky Mtn. InstituteLEED Consultant: Inst. for the Built Envir’mtLandscape Arch: BHA Design For more information on Green Building & LEED:Commissioning: Architectural Energy Corp. USGBC – Colorado Chapter www.usgbccolorado.orgEnergy Modeling: EMC Engineers Case Study paid for by the USGBC Colorado Chapter with support from Xcel Energy Foundation Case Study by Kristi Barnes, Dan Hady & Brian Dunbar CSU Institute for the Built Environment
HSBC BankPaseo de la Reforma, Mexico CityHOK Architects 2007 LEED Gold
Compressed Earth Bricks •Made on site with local soil •10% cement • Load Bearing and structural •Natural and non- toxic •Traditional- used to build the Great Wall Developed under theMarch 30, 2006 US/China Cooperation on the Green Olympics 2008
Solar Greenhouses with EarthWalls in Ching Hai Province China Developed under theMarch 30, 2006 US/China Cooperation on the Green Olympics 2008
Earth Brick Thermal Mass Earth Brick thermal mass with insulation outside stabilizes indoor temperature. It absorbs solar heat from the Earth Greenhouse in winter to Brick warm the building at night and cloudy days. In summer it keeps the building coolSoy Foam Developed under the March 30, 2006 US/China Cooperation on the Green Olympics 2008
GE PV System PV system and solar water heating system is integrated into the roof glass system Developed under theMarch 30, 2006 US/China Cooperation on the Green Olympics 2008
Solar Heated and Ground Water Cooled Radiant Mass Walls •PEX tube is cast in all the mass walls and floors •Solar hot water is circulated to the walls and floors in winter •Cool water from a ground water heat exchanger circulates through the walls in summer for cooling •Ceiling fans in each room provide additional cooling •Humidity is controlled by a desiccant dehumidifier Developed under theMarch 30, 2006 US/China Cooperation on the Green Olympics 2008
Rain Water and Compost Toilet System •Rain Water collected from roof and stored •Filtered and sanitized with UV •City water back up •Sink water (grey water) filtered in Plant Bed Filters in the Greenhouse •Grey water used to flush 0.5 litre toilets •Toilets flush to composter to make fertilizerMarch 30, 2006 Developed under the US/China Cooperation on the Green Olympics 2008
Beijing Rainfall Rain Water Collection Potential •Clean rain water is collected from roof and stored in a large underground tank • From 2335 litres in Winter Garden School Rainwater Collection Potential January to 168174 litres in August can be 200,000 collected from the roof 150,000 •Rain water couldLitres 100,000 supply most of the 50,000 water all year with a 0 large storage tank v n n l c g r ar pt b ct ay Ju Ap No Ja Ju Au De Fe Se O M M Developed under theMarch 30, 2006 US/China Cooperation on the Green Olympics 2008
Grey Water Filtration in Passive Solar Greenhouse •Sink water filters through plant bed filters in the greenhouse. •Pre treatment filter removes grease and hair •Plants and microbes in the soil absorb and filter toxins •Naturally cleans water as Clear Clean Water Out in a wetland •Clean clear water is used to flush the 0.5 litre toilets Developed under theMarch 30, 2006 US/China Cooperation on the Green Olympics 2008
Composting Toilet System •Low flush toilets and waterless urinals move waste to composting chamber in the basement •Composting chamber is ventilated to promote aerobic bacteria that digest the waste naturally •Dry, odorless compost is removed once per year and used in the landscaping Developed under theMarch 30, 2006 US/China Cooperation on the Green Olympics 2008
Compost Toilet compared to Conventional Sewage System Compost system •Low water •Low energy •Non polluting •Decentralized •Completes the biological cycle Conventional Sewage System •High water use •High energy for pumping •Polluting- Nitrate runoff to Developed under theMarch 30, 2006 US/China Cooperation on the rivers… Green Olympics 2008 •Requires large infrastructure
In Vancouver, British Columbia, a 2787 sq. meter office complex, utilizescomposting toilets and urinals for human waste disposal. The new building,which houses The Institute of Asian Research, is not connected to the cityssewer system. As well, a subsurface, grey water recycling system with phragmite(tall grasses) plant varieties, cleanses the grey water which is then used for on-site irrigation. Developed under theMarch 30, 2006 US/China Cooperation on the Green Olympics 2008
Guilin Olympic City. Giao Investment Group Sustainable Design and Development Observations and RecommendationsJoe Huang, PE Robert J. Kobet, AIA, LEED FacultyPresident CEOWhite Box Technologies, Inc. The Kobet Collaborative346 Rheem Blvd., Suite 108D 2951 South Bayshore Drive, Unit 913Moraga, CA 94556 Coconut Grove, FL email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org www.bobkobet.com(o) (925)388-0265 (c) (510)928-2683 (o) 412-661-5410 (c) 412-980-9725
Guilin Olympic City Pattern and DesignThe design of Olympic City should: Locate in or near existing development and transit Avoid endangering sensitive natural areas (i.e., wetlands, critical wildlife habitat) Not fragment habitat Minimize impact on agricultural land
Olympic City Pattern and DesignThe design of Olympic City should: Consider how people connect to place and to one another Provide shared public spaces Locate housing nearby goods and services Connect walkable streets to public transit
1 3 4 2 Managing regional and community water systems can support agri- business enterprises like 5 aquaculture. Local food and jobs are created while maintaining superior water quality. Design should respond to microclimate condition – available solar energy, prevailing winds,1 and seasonal variations in rainfall, temperature and relative humidity. The hydrology and geology of the site should be analyzed for it’s ability to provide potable2 water, absorb storm water and support the the use of geothermal space conditioning systems. The existing agricultural uses should be integrated into the new town development.3 Community gardens can benefit from recycled waste water and composting organic waste.4 All development should respect local water ways and wildlife habitat. Buffer zones between development and water ways should be designed to minimize5 impact on water ways while providing biodiversity and propagation of native plants.
1 3 4 2 New town developments lend themselves to large scale 5 applications of renewable energy systems1 Regional and local wind regimes should be analyzed to determine the feasibility The hydrology and geology of the site should be analyzed for it’s ability to provide potable2 water, absorb storm water and support the the use of geothermal space conditioning systems. The existing agricultural uses should be integrated into the new town development.3 Community gardens can benefit from recycled waste water and composting organic waste.4 All development should respect local water ways and wildlife habitat. Buffer zones between development and water ways should be designed to minimize5 impact on water ways while providing biodiversity and propagation of native plants.
2 1 4 5 Use light colored permeable 3 paving materials and native plants Develop greenways as pedestrian paths using native plants and permeable paving of1 recycled content. Consider the use of living (green) roofs as part of the storm water management2 strategy. Occupants can also enjoy the roof top environment3 Playing surfaces can be permeable materials with recycled content. Use integrated pest management to minimize the use of chemicals. Landscape with4 native plants and species that provide food. Use permeable paving materials to minimize the need for and size of civil infrastructure.5 Use light colored paving materials to minimize the urban heat island effect.
1 2 3 4 Green roofs have multiple benefits 5 such as storm water management, increased green space and food production. Consider using the roof tops as habitable space. Base color of roofing materials on1 whether the units can benefit from light or dark colors. Orientation of buildings should enable the effective use of solar energy systems. East / west2 axis should be within 20° of true south. Roof slope should be same as latitude. Exterior balconies can be effective buffer spaces if they are design to open up and close3 down with the seasons. Water features should be part on an integrated waste water / storm water management4 system. They can also be used for irrigation. Water features can be part of the pest management strategy and can be used for5 aquaculture. Avoid the use of chemical treatments in water features.
1 2 Use energy efficient site lighting with full cut off. There are many solar powered site lighting 3 4 equipment choices. Building orientation should enable the efficient use of photovoltaic and solar thermal1 energy systems for space conditioning and water heating. Balconies on the south south of the buildings can serve as shading devices. They2 can also be designed as buffer spaces if they can be fully opened and closed in. Outside spaces are used more often if fitted with insect screens. Landscaping should be done with indigenous plants, minimize turf monocultures, and3 avoid the use of toxic herbicides and insecticides. Project lighting should be done with energy efficient lamps and fixtures that do not contribute to4 light pollution. Dark sky design conditions are best.
Integrated PV 3 1 2 Design buildings to integrate solar 4 5 energy systems or anticipate future applications.1 Orient the building within 20° of true south. Use this surface to mount solar energy collectors. Optimize the building envelope using computer modeling. Balance daylighting, vision glazing2 and energy performance. Provide kinetic shading devices to control over heating and glare. Provide roofing material with a high solar reflective index (SRI). Penetrate roof with skylights or3 light tubes as required to optimize daylighting. Use rain water harvesting to recharge water conserving plumbing fixtures, irrigation of service water.4 Use light colored, pervious paving material with high recycled content. Use native plants as much as possible. Avoid toxic herbicides and pesticides. Implement a5 development wide composting program and distribute compost on community gardens.
2 1 3 4 Living walls can be used to provide shade, food and habitat. Roof systems should be designed for rainwater harvesting and the installation of1 solar energy systems. Exterior shading devices can be used to support living walls. These features are very2 effective for glare control and shading when placed on east and west elevations. The have less value when placed on the north elevation. Building envelope performance should be optimized using computer modeling. Quality3 construction is necessary to insure the buildings perform as anticipated. Glazing choices should be made using computer modeling to balance daylighting,4 thermal performance, reduced air infiltration and cost.