Conferencia Chiara Piazzesi

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Participación de Chiara Piazzci en el Programa de Líderes Académicos en el Tec de Monterrey Campus Querétaro

Participación de Chiara Piazzci en el Programa de Líderes Académicos en el Tec de Monterrey Campus Querétaro

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  • http://hannarosin.com/the-end-of-men/
  • http://www.jackizehner.com/2012/07/15/why-women-still-cant-have-it-all-a-response/
  • http://www.huffingtonpost.com/marcus-buckingham/whats-happening-to-womens_b_289511.html
  • http://blogs.villagevoice.com/runninscared/2012/06/why_women_still.php
    Et
    http://onlinestore.usatoday.com/modern-woman-p16491.aspx
  • http://newint.org/features/2006/09/01/women/
    Et
    http://www.richardcassaro.com/tag/modern-woman-vs-traditional-woman
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_Health_%28magazine%29
    Et
    http://www.whosdatedwho.com/tpx_3325/kendra-wilkinson/magazinecovers_5
  • http://ifuwerentafraid.tumblr.com/
    Et
    http://ifuwerentafraid.tumblr.com/

Transcript

  • 1. ON THE “ILLUSION” OF HAVING IT ALL Western women questioning their current condition Chiara Piazzesi Université du Québec à Montréal (Canada) Academic Leaders Program - Tecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Querétaro February 24th, 2014
  • 2. “The End-of-Men” Camp  Increasing improvements in social, professional, reproductive, sexual chances for women  Crisis of men, of masculine norms and practices, of masculinity  Women as the “new” power, while men are struggling CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 2
  • 3. “Women-Can’t-Have-It-All” Camp  A great deal is still to accomplish in order to empower women  Women still cannot have it all (career + family)  Women struggle for perfection in a way that may become selfdestructive (high standards of efficiency, availability, success) CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 3
  • 4. Hanna Rosin’s “The End-of-Men” (2010-) • Evolution of economy has reduced the demand for male workers and increased the demand for female workers • Post-industrial economy encourages communication, thinking, adaptability • Growing number of college educated women • Dominance of women in 13 out of 15 “fastest growing job categories” in the U.S. • “Women are also starting to dominate middle management, and a surprising number of professional careers as well” • Transformation of family (“matriarchy”) and women’s biographical paths (sex, marriage, reproduction) CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 4
  • 5. The End of Men, really? Source: Philip Cohen’s blog, http://familyinequality.wordpress.com/tag/hannarosin/ CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 5
  • 6. The Paradox of Declining Female Happiness (Stevenson, Wolfers 2009) CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 6
  • 7. Happiness “Women in the U.S. have become less happy, both absolutely and relative to men [...]. The relative decline in women’s well-being is ubiquitous, and holds for both working and stayat-home mothers, for those married and divorced, for the old and the young, and across the education distribution”. “[…] these same trends are also evident across those industrialized countries for which we have adequate subjective well-being data”. B. Stevenson, J. Wolfers, “The Paradox of Declining Female Happiness”, American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 2009 http://www.nber.org/papers/w14969.pdf?new_window=1 CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 7
  • 8. A.-M. Slaughter: “Women-Can’t-Have-ItAll” • Persisting structural factors thwarting women’s attempts to “have it all” • Societal and economic arrangements, policies, and the organization of work should be thus blamed – yet women blame themselves, and each other • Women are “told” that they can have it all, and nevertheless fail (even privileged ones) • Highly demanding work schedules are to blame in the first place • The consequence: less career advancement for women, less women at the top of the ladder CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 8
  • 9. Change the way we work «The huge value that so many employers place on a standard work schedule affects more than the careers of women. Anyone who, for whatever reason, needs to take time off or work flexible hours gets penalized. The broader economy suffers when businesses are unable to make full use of highly educated and productive people». C. Goldin, “Close the gender pay gap, change the way we work”, Bloomberg, jan. 21st, 2014 CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 9
  • 10. Equality between working women and men?  Women are relatively absent from leading positions (due to the structure and the organisation of high-profile jobs)  “Gender wage gap”: 77 cents earned by a full-time working woman for every dollar earned by a full-time working man (U.S.)  The “gender wage gap” is not rapidly decreasing: it will probably be filled around 2057 in the U.S. CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 10
  • 11. The gender wage gap (2011) Source: Philip Cohen’s blog, http://familyinequality.wordpress.com/tag/hanna-rosin/ CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 11
  • 12. Change the way we work “To be sure, some professions may never be able to offer much flexibility. Merger-andacquisition bankers, trial lawyers and the U.S. secretary of state have 24/7, on-call-all-thetime jobs. That said, the universe of such jobs is probably smaller than it appears”. Claudia Goldin, “Close the Gender Pay Gap, Change the Way We Work”, Bloomberg, Jan. 21st, 2014 CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 12
  • 13. Half-truth # 1 Having it all is possible if you are committed enough a.k.a. “The Ambition Gap” CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 13
  • 14. Sheryl Sandberg: Lean in “How are we going to take down the barriers that prevent more women from getting to the top ?” CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 14
  • 15. “The Ambition Gap” according to S. Sandberg: “in addition to external barriers erected by society, women are hindered by barriers that exist within ourselves. We hold ourselves back in ways both big and small, by lacking self-confidence, by not raising our hands, and by pulling back when we should be leaning in. We internalize the negative messages we get throughout our lives - the messages that say it’s wrong to be outspoken, aggressive, more powerful than men. We lower our own expectations of what we can achieve”. From Lean in (2013) CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 15
  • 16. Half-truth # 2 Having it all is possible if you marry the right person CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 16
  • 17. Individual or collective responsibility? “For the United States to catch up with its more successful neighbors, we’d need to reconsider some of our beliefs about community and government. Many Americans resist the idea of government help in abstract: they want to fix the stalled revolution privately”. A. Hochschild, The Second Shift. Working Families and the Revolution at Home (19892012) CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 17
  • 18. The Wonder Woman Syndrome (according to Debora Spar, 2013) CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 18
  • 19. The Wonder Woman Syndrome (according to Debora Spar, 2013)  Women understood possibility as (from “can be/have everything” be/have everything”)  Women assumed the obligation of being perfect mother, the perfect worker, perfect lover, of having the perfect home, perfect body, the perfect children, perfect garden etc.  Second-wave feminism contributed to spread and inculcate this (delusional) ambition CHIARA PIAZZESI obligation to “'must February 24th, 2014 the the the the 19
  • 20. Wonder women CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 20
  • 21. Wonder women CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 21
  • 22. Wonder women CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 22
  • 23. “Feminism” and capitalism? “The rising new forces of consumer manipulation—mass media, mass entertainment, national advertising, the fashion and beauty industries, popular psychology—all seized upon women’s yearnings for independence and equality and redirected them to the marketplace. Over and over, mass merchandisers promised women an ersatz version of emancipation, the fulfillment of individual, and aspirational, desire. Why mount a collective protest against the exploitations of the workplace when it was so much more gratifying—not to mention easier—to advance yourself (and only yourself) by shopping for “liberating” products that expressed your “individuality” and signaled your (seemingly) elevated class status?”. Susan Faludi, “Facebook Feminism, Like It or Not”, The Baffler, Nov. 23, 2013 CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 23
  • 24. “Feminism” and capitalism? “On the one hand, [young girls], like their mothers, are being constantly urged to excel, to do whatever they want and be whoever they want to be. On the other hand, and at the same time, they are being pummeled by a bizarrely narrow set of gender stereotypes. Girls as princesses; girls as sex objects; girls as pretty things to be dressed up, jeweled up, and carried off by men”. Debora Spar, Wonder Women, 2013 CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 24
  • 25. Feminist critique of state capitalism (Nancy Fraser 2009)  Second wave feminism criticized capitalism’s economism (narrow conception of injustice & inequalities as simply economic)  Second wave feminism criticized capitalism’s androcentrism (gender division of labor which devalued activities performed by women)  Second wave feminism criticized capitalism’s étatism (it demanded strong political institutions capable to put economic life in the service of justice)  Inclusion of matters traditionally considered as “private”, such as sexuality, housework, reproduction, and violence against women  Erosion of the gender division of labor, fairer “work culture” CHIARA PIAZZESI February social justice 25  Growing political commitment for promoting 24th, 2014
  • 26. Nancy Fraser on feminism & neo-liberal capitalism What went wrong?  New economic framework promoting deregulation, and personal responsibility privatization,  Feminism ambiguously insisted on recognition at the expense of socio-economic struggles  Focus on recognition contributed to isolating individuals and categories  Critique of family wage promoted the shift to the “twoearner family”, thus supporting neo-liberal deregulation and “disorganization”  Gender justice turned into an “individual” matter (and no longer a social one) “The cultural changes jump-started by the second wave [of feminism], salutary in themselves, have served to legitimate a structural transformation of capitalist society that runs directly counter to feminist vision of a just society” (Fraser 2009) CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 26
  • 27. The Lean In Movement CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 27
  • 28. Susan Faludi on the « Lean in » movement “That Lean In is making its demands of individual women, not the corporate workplace, is evident in the ease with which it has signed up more than two hundred corporate and organization “partners” to support its campaign. The roster includes some of the biggest American corporations: Chevron, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, Comcast, Bank of America and Citibank, Coca-Cola and Pepsico, AT&T and Verizon, Ford and GM, Pfizer and Merck & Co., Costco and Wal-Mart, and, of course, Google and Facebook. Never before have so many corporations joined a revolution”. Susan Faludi, “Facebook Feminism, Like It or Not”, The Baffler, Nov. CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 28 23, 2013
  • 29. Thank you! piazzesi.chiara@uqam.ca CHIARA PIAZZESI February 24th, 2014 29