Conferencia Magistral Bruce Corson

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Conferencia Magistral Bruce Corson

  1. 1. Corson Associates © 2010 So, What’s the Problem? Strategies for Improving Collaborative Design ITESM Querétaro Campus October 6, 2010 Bruce Corson Studio for Pre-Expert Creativity Corson Associates Sebastopol, CA bruce@corson-associates.com
  2. 2. Corson Associates © 2010 So, what’s the problem? or So, what is the problem?
  3. 3. Corson Associates © 2010 A lesson from the Kennedy Space Center: A ‘roof’ over a large public eating plaza that no one uses.
  4. 4. Corson Associates © 2010 UnUn nidonido dede gorrióngorrión
  5. 5. Corson Associates © 2010 “Todos los errores serios se cometen el primer día.” “All the serious mistakes are made the first day.” via Eberhardt Rechtin
  6. 6. Corson Associates © 2010 “No confunda un método de solución con una definición del problema – especialmente si es su proprio método de solución.” “Don’t mistake a solution method for a problem definition – especially if it’s your own solution method.” Donald C. Gause / Gerald M. Weinberg
  7. 7. Corson Associates © 2010 Conventional ‘Expert’ Collaboration A ‘Pre-Expert’ Collaboration the problematic situation Two very different concepts of ‘collaborative’ design
  8. 8. Corson Associates © 2010 Expert C Expert A Expert B Expert D Explorer A Explorer B Explorer D Explorer C Conventional ‘Expert’ Collaboration A ‘Pre-Expert’ Collaboration
  9. 9. Corson Associates © 2010 Expert C Expert A Expert B Expert D Explorer A Explorer B Explorer D Explorer C Conventional ‘Expert’ Collaboration A ‘Pre-Expert’ Collaboration
  10. 10. Corson Associates © 2010 “In the beginner’s mind there are many possibilities - - in the expert’s mind there are few.” Shunryu Suzuki Conventional ‘Expert’ Collaboration A ‘Pre-Expert’ Collaboration
  11. 11. Corson Associates © 2010 El diseño es: la transformación intencionada de una situación actual a una situación preferida. Un problema es: el espacio que separa la situación actual de la situación preferida - la diferencia entre donde estamos en realidad y donde esperamos estar. Nombrar un ‘problema’: es nuestro intento de explicar esta diferencia.
  12. 12. Corson Associates © 2010 Existing Situation Preferred Situation The ʻProblemʼ
  13. 13. Corson Associates © 2010 Three Dimensions of Design Process ProductPurpose Delivered System Delivery System Discovery System What is the “situation” ? Why do we care about it ? What are our interests in it? How do others feel about it? What is our purpose in responding to it? How shall we organize ourselves? What tools and techniques will we need? How will we communicate? What is the output action? What is the deliverable? after:Dr. Richard Evans, NASA/NSD
  14. 14. Corson Associates © 2010 There are many types of ‘problems’ - and many ways to think about them.
  15. 15. Corson Associates © 2010 "Problem" "Answer" + + Situation Response - + We need to change how we think about the relationship between ‘problems’ and ‘solutions’: “One of the lessons of this conflict is, for God sakes, think about how your enemy reacts to your actions.” Robert McNamara - on 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis “Problem” “Answer” or is it: or is it: Is it the type we learn in school:
  16. 16. Corson Associates © 2010 Three Types of ‘Problems’ Type 1: solution requires more information or better techniques for handling existing information. (linear and one-directional) Type 2: requires restructuring of information already available : an insight restructuring. (calls on us to observe our own process) Type 3: one is blocked - by the adequacy of the present situation - from moving to a much better one : the problem of no problem. (adequate: enough for what is required -- calls on us to observe and to imagine) after: The Use of Lateral Thinking, Edward DeBono 1970
  17. 17. Corson Associates © 2010 Las habilidades de ante-experto Las habilidades de experto El pensamiento del cerebro derecho El pensamiento del cerebro izquierdo La consciencia divergente La consciencia convergente El papel del líder El papel del gerente Haz lo correcto Haz lo correctamente EL ENFOQUE SE ESTRECHAEL ENFOQUE SE EXTIENDE NOMBRAR EL PROBLEMA El diseño como un ciclo respiratorio EXPLORAR El alcance de la consciencia Tiempo ? RESPONDER ! La innovación = La imaginación + La realización
  18. 18. Corson-Associates ©2009 EXPLORE RESPOND FOCUS NARROWSFOCUS EXPANDS NAME THE PROBLEM ! Design as a Breathing Cycle Scope of awareness Time ? This Breathing Cycle is an fractal process of concurrent iterations at many different scales and frequencies.
  19. 19. Corson Associates © 2010 How we think about ‘problems’ - and how we behave as we think about ‘problems’ - may ultimately cause our designs to fail.
  20. 20. Corson Associates © 2010 Pre-expert skills Expert skills ʻRight-modeʼ thinking ʻLeft-modeʼ thinking Divergent awareness Convergent awareness Leadership role Management role ‘Doing the right job’ ‘Doing the job right’ EXPLORE RESPOND FOCUS NARROWSFOCUS EXPANDS NAME THE PROBLEM Design as a Breathing Cycle Scope of awareness Time ? ! Designs can fail in either the ‘naming’ or the ‘resolution’ phase
  21. 21. Corson Associates © 2010 Some ‘problems’ can’t be ‘solved’ - they can only be ‘managed’ The Breathing Polarity
  22. 22. Corson Associates © 2010 The map is not the territory. G. Pahl
  23. 23. Corson Associates © 2010 Conventional ‘Expert’ Collaboration A ‘Pre-Expert’ Collaboration What remains unresolved when ‘the map’ is mistaken for ‘the reality’ of a problematic situation?
  24. 24. Corson Associates © 2010 ? We use arbitrary models to (try to) represent whole systems
  25. 25. Corson Associates © 2010 “We must stop acting as though nature were organized into disciplines in the same way that universities are.” Russell Lincoln Ackoff “The division of the perceived universe into parts and wholes is convenient and may be necessary, but no necessity determines how it shall be done.” Gregory Bateson
  26. 26. Corson Associates © 2010 “The meaning of a whole and a part will concurrently exist in our mind only when we think about the relationship between them instead of about the things themselves.” Amos Ih Tao Chang
  27. 27. Corson Associates © 2010 Conventional ‘Expert’ Collaboration A ‘Pre-Expert’ Collaboration Expert C Expert A Expert B Expert D Explorer A Explorer B Explorer D Explorer C The explorer’s responsibility is to discover the whole territory
  28. 28. Corson Associates © 2010
  29. 29. Corson Associates © 2010
  30. 30. Corson Associates © 2010 “Good products or services are like generous hosts. They greet you at the door, offer you refreshments, and make you feel at home.” Tom Kelley A good designer maximizes the number of users their design accommodates and minimizes the number it disables.
  31. 31. Corson Associates © 2010 © 1999 The New Yorker ‘Communication’ requires that the intended meaning is truly received.
  32. 32. Corson Associates © 2010 A good designer seeks to integrate all the individual ‘truths’ that may be affected by their proposed design.
  33. 33. Corson Associates © 2010 Scientific American / NASA GSFC Radio Continuum 408 MHz Atomic Hydrogen 1420 MHz Radio Continuum 2.4-2.7 GHz Molecular Hydrogen 115 GHz Far Infrared 12-100 microns Mid Infrared 6.8-10.6 microns Visible Light .4-.6 microns X-ray .25-1.5 kilo-e.v. Gamma Ray >300 mega-e.v.
  34. 34. Corson Associates © 2010 “La verdad es esférica y se la ve diferentemente según la cultura, el temperamento y la disposición de los que la contemplan.” “Truth is spherical and seen differently according to the culture, temperament and disposition of those who survey it.” Bronson Alcott
  35. 35. Corson Associates © 2010 “Tengo un foco de una clase peculiar, tendo a ver todo a la vista.” "I have a peculiar kind of focus, I tend to see everything in sight." Robert Rauschenberg “Observing is making sense of sensation.” R. And M. Root-Bernstein “Discovery consists of seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought.” Szent-Györgyi:
  36. 36. Corson Associates © 2010 Left-mode (“IQ”) analytic, abstract, digital, logical, linear Right-mode - synthetic, concrete, analogic, intuitive, holistic Lateral thinking Emotional intelligence (“EQ”) Social intelligence Spiritual intelligence (“SQ”) Thinking skills Observing Imaging Abstracting Recognizing patterns Forming patterns Analogizing Body thinking Empathizing Dimensional thinking Modeling Playing Transforming Synthesizing from R. and M. Root-Bernstein Intelligences and Thinking Skills “having -” vs. “being -” a genius
  37. 37. Corson Associates © 2010 RESPOND Expert skills ʻLeft-modeʼ thinking Convergent awareness Management role ‘Doing the job right’ FOCUS NARROWS Specifications, Requi rements, ‘Design Programs’, etc. Most ‘specifications’ are rigid and inelegant ‘problem names.’ Scope of awareness Time ? ! EXPLORE FOCUS EXPANDS Pre-expert skills ʻRight-modeʼ thinking Divergent awareness Leadership role ‘Doing the right job’
  38. 38. Corson Associates © 2010 “Lo contrario de una declaración corecta es una declarción falsa, pero lo contrario de una verdad profunda puede ser una otra verdad profunda.” “The opposite of a correct statement is a false statement, but the opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth. Niels Bohr
  39. 39. Corson Associates © 2010 “To be able to hold comfortably in one’s mind the validity and usefulness of two contradictory truths is the source of tolerance, openness, and, most important, a sense of humor, which is the greatest enemy of fanaticism.” Neil Postman
  40. 40. Corson Associates © 2010 (Unas Verdades Contradictorias para Considerar) La jerarquía La igualdad El individualismo El colectivismo La competencia La cooperación La certeza La ambigüedad La perspectiva a largo plazo La perspectiva a corto plazo adapted from Geert Hofstede: Cultures and Organizations Mexico (statistical average) USA (statistical average) Las Cinco Dimensiones de la Cultura Mundial
  41. 41. Corson Associates © 2010 Do the job rightDo the right job 5. 'Problem' resolved3. Name the 'Problem'1. Sense the 'Situation' 2. Explore the 'Situation' Principal Concern Design Stage: High Low Time DeadlineAwareness Remaining unknown situation Range of attention 'Problem" as understood 4. Resolve the 'Problem' Uncertainty Allowing early uncertainty to increase leads to a predictable reduction in future uncertainty.
  42. 42. Corson Associates © 2010 5. 'Problem' resolved Principal Concern Design Stage: 1. Sense the 'Situation' 2. Explore the 'Situation' 3. Name the 'Problem' Do the right job Do the job right High Low Time DeadlineAwareness Remaining unknown situation Range of attention 'Problem" as understood 4. Resolve the 'Problem' Uncertainty Rushing to minimize initial uncertainty leads to a predictable increase in future uncertainty.
  43. 43. Corson Associates © 2010 Blinded by their own false certainty, the ‘roof experts’ mistakenly design a first-class bird sanctuary.
  44. 44. Corson Associates © 2010 UnUn nidonido dede gorrióngorrión
  45. 45. Corson Associates © 2010 Nombrar el problema con cuidado, conscientemente, y no apretarlo mucho. Name the problem very carefully very consciously and don’t hold it too tightly.
  46. 46. Corson Associates © 2010 Creative exploration is the key to discovering the opportunity spaces in which elegant problem names reside.
  47. 47. Corson Associates © 2010 La creatividad: la combinación de la voluntad y la habilidad para descubrir y engranar productivamente los espacios de oportunidad que existen más allá de la conciencia previa. • las creencias • el coraje • la persistencia
  48. 48. Corson Associates © 2010 La identificación/ articulación de problemas Ver nuevas pantas de la conducta o acción La integración por las disciplinas Crear nuevas ideas La comodidad sin “repuestas correctas” La curiosidad fundamental La originalidad y la inventiva en el trabajo La resolución de problemas La habilidad de tomar riesgos La tolerancia de la ambigüedad Transmitir nuevas ideas a otros La resolución de problemas La integración por las disciplinas Ver nuevas pantas de la conducta o acción La originalidad y la inventiva en el trabajo Transmitir nuevas ideas a otros Crear nuevas ideas La tolerancia de la ambigüedad La habilidad de tomar riesgos La identificación/ articulación de problemas La curiosidad fundamental La comodidad sin “repuestas correctas” 89 ejecutivos 155 educadores Las manifestaciones de la creatividad más frecuemente citadas The Conference Board 2008 (3 elecciones por participante)
  49. 49. Corson Associates © 2010 La identificación/ articulación de problemas Ver nuevas pantas de la conducta o acción La integración por las disciplinas Crear nuevas ideas La comodidad sin “repuestas correctas” La curiosidad fundamental La originalidad y la inventiva en el trabajo La resolución de problemas La habilidad de tomar riesgos La tolerancia de la ambigüedad Transmitir nuevas ideas a otros La resolución de problemas La integración por las disciplinas Ver nuevas pantas de la conducta o acción La originalidad y la inventiva en el trabajo Transmitir nuevas ideas a otros Crear nuevas ideas La tolerancia de la ambigüedad La habilidad de tomar riesgos La identificación/ articulación de problemas La curiosidad fundamental La comodidad sin “repuestas correctas” 89 ejecutivos 155 educadores Las manifestaciones de la creatividad más frecuemente citadas The Conference Board 2008 (3 elecciones por participante)
  50. 50. Corson Associates © 2010 Las habilidades de ante-experto Las habilidades de experto El pensamiento del cerebro derecho El pensamiento del cerebro izquierdo La consciencia divergente La consciencia convergente El papel del líder El papel del gerente Haz lo correcto Haz lo correctamente EL ENFOQUE SE ESTRECHAEL ENFOQUE SE EXTIENDE NOMBRAR EL PROBLEMA El diseño como un ciclo respiratorio EXPLORAR El alcance de la consciencia Tiempo ? RESPONDER ! La innovación = La imaginación + La realización
  51. 51. Corson Associates © 2010 Pre-expert skills Expert skills ʻRight-modeʼ thinking ʻLeft-modeʼ thinking Divergent awareness Convergent awareness Leadership role Management role ‘Doing the right job’ ‘Doing the job right’ EXPLORE RESPOND FOCUS NARROWSFOCUS EXPANDS NAME THE PROBLEM How the ‘real world’ values the design Breathing Cycle Scope of awareness Time ? ! Business executives value problem-naming Education executives value problem-solving
  52. 52. Corson Associates © 2010 Searching for elegant problem names will lead to elegant problem solutions.
  53. 53. Corson Associates © 2010 Elegance “Richness and polish in harmonious simplicity.” range of issues successfully addressed resources required Elegance = Una simplicidad armoniosa de la riqueza y el pulimento.
  54. 54. Corson Associates © 2010
  55. 55. Corson Associates © 2010
  56. 56. Corson Associates © 2010 52,560 data points From Edward Tufte Sunshine in London (One year in 5-minute increments)
  57. 57. Corson Associates © 2010 Vulture wing - metacarpal Sydney Harbor Bridge Jumping Cholla - skeleton
  58. 58. Corson Associates © 2010
  59. 59. Corson Associates © 2010 NASA y la elegancia “Algunas veces me presentan los resultos de un análisis de sistemas de tal forma que me obliga a hacer estas preguntas: ”¿ Está bien, pero es realmente un buen sistema? ¿ A usted le gusta? ¿ Es harmonioso? ¿ Es una solución elegante a un problema real?” Usualmente recibo como repuesta una mirada perpleja y una expresión indicandome que acabo de decir algo realmente obsceno.” Robert Frosch : NASA Administrator, 1977-1981
  60. 60. Corson Associates © 2010 Conventional ‘Expert’ Collaboration A ‘Pre-Expert’ Collaboration the problematic situation An inelegant process and an elegant process
  61. 61. Corson Associates © 2010 Expert C Expert A Expert B Expert D Explorer A Explorer B Explorer D Explorer C Conventional ‘Expert’ Collaboration A ‘Pre-Expert’ Collaboration An inelegant process and an elegant process
  62. 62. Corson Associates © 2010 Expert C Expert A Expert B Expert D Explorer A Explorer B Explorer D Explorer C Conventional ‘Expert’ Collaboration A ‘Pre-Expert’ Collaboration An inelegant process and an elegant process
  63. 63. Corson Associates © 2010 “In the beginner’s mind there are many possibilities - - in the expert’s mind there are few.” Shunryu Suzuki Conventional ‘Expert’ Collaboration A ‘Pre-Expert’ Collaboration An inelegant process and an elegant process
  64. 64. Corson Associates © 2010 Las habilidades de ante-experto Las habilidades de experto El pensamiento del cerebro derecho El pensamiento del cerebro izquierdo La consciencia divergente La consciencia convergente El papel del líder El papel del gerente Haz lo correcto Haz lo correctamente EL ENFOQUE SE ESTRECHAEL ENFOQUE SE EXTIENDE NOMBRAR EL PROBLEMA El diseño como un ciclo elegante EXPLORAR El alcance de la consciencia Tiempo ? RESPONDER ! La innovación = La imaginación + La realización
  65. 65. Corson Associates © 2010 Use an elegant format for discovery after:Dr. Richard Evans, NASA/NSD use: The objective of discovery is to free the smallest voice - it is not to yield to the loudest voice. (“Here are some of our ideas.”) 1 2 3 (“There is no way I’m saying a word.”) 4 not:
  66. 66. Corson Associates © 2010 UnUn nidonido dede gorrióngorrión
  67. 67. Corson Associates © 2010 Performance differential attributed to unique leadership style: “a paradoxical combination of fierce resolve and humility.” The design success of Level 5 organizations
  68. 68. Corson Associates © 2010 (In Catholicism, Pride is the first of the Seven Deadly Sins.) Pride: having an unduly high opinion of oneself, arrogance. Humility: consciousness of one’s own shortcomings, modesty. ‘Level 5’ Organizations: after:Good-to-Great, Jim Collins 2001 • performance: radically better that competitors. • leadership: a ‘paradoxical’ combination of humility and resolve.
  69. 69. Corson Associates © 2010 Level 5 organizations: • implement solutions that are inherently more elegant than their competitors’ • those elegant solutions can come only from elegant problems • those elegant problems can come only from elegant processes of exploration • those elegant processes of exploration are driven by ‘humility’ - knowing that what we think we “know” is small compared to what there really is to know. Level 5 organizations practice elegant design
  70. 70. Corson Associates © 2010 Las habilidades de ante-experto Las habilidades de experto El pensamiento del cerebro derecho El pensamiento del cerebro izquierdo La consciencia divergente La consciencia convergente El papel del líder El papel del gerente Haz lo correcto Haz lo correctamente EL ENFOQUE SE ESTRECHAEL ENFOQUE SE EXTIENDE NOMBRAR EL PROBLEMA El diseño como un ciclo respiratorio EXPLORAR El alcance de la consciencia Tiempo ? RESPONDER ! La innovación = La imaginación + La realización
  71. 71. Corson Associates © 2010 Conventional ‘Expert’ Collaboration A ‘Pre-Expert’ Collaboration Expert C Expert A Expert B Expert D Explorer A Explorer B Explorer D Explorer C
  72. 72. Corson Associates © 2010 Intellectual PhysicalEmotional/Spiritual Exhale Inhale Diverge Converge Inward Outward Heart Function Structure Purpose The Dimensions of Being
  73. 73. Corson Associates © 2010 Muchas Gracias

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