Accessibility Issues
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Accessibility Issues






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    Accessibility Issues Accessibility Issues Presentation Transcript

    • Accessibility Issues - 2005 Liddy Nevile
    • Inaccessibility
      • NOT telecommunications problems ..??
      • NOT economic equity
      • NOT a list of disabilities
      • IS a list of requirements
      • NOT a human classification
      • IS a description of a relationship between a resource and a user
    • Inaccessibility definitions
    • Problem Definition
      • Many people have visual, aural, tactile and cognitive disabilities.
      • We don’t always know who has what disability - but do we want to know?
      • We all have symptoms of disabilities according to where we are and what we are doing.
    • Problem Definition
      • People’s symptoms change over time
      • Users’ needs change with purpose and context
      • Sites with accessibility problems are almost impossible to fix
      • The W3C ‘good construction’ guidelines do not necessarily cover a particular user’s problem - broad improvement but specific failure
    • Problem Definition
      • Authors just cannot learn to make universally accessible resources
      • Technical training is very expensive in terms of time and money
      • The recommended user agents are often not standards compliant
      • Alternative content production is often a skilled 3rd party activity
    • What is the solution?
      • Give authors better tools because the tools often can make accessible content
      • Distribute the burden between technology and authors
      • Make greater demands on publishing systems
      • Support re-use and interoperability
      • Use metadata!!!
    • Accessibility definitions
      • Original W3C - device independence, separation of content from presentation - universal accessibility - test the resource
        • U.S. - s. 508 for Federal Govt. contracts
        • Australia - common law system with regulations
        • UK, European Commission …
      • New IMS/DC/ISO etc Working definition: mismatch between user needs and content - universal user-centred accessibility - test the service
    • Accessibility definitions
      • Continuing W3C definition - universal accessibility - test the resource
      • New IMS/DC/ISO etc definition: - universal user-centred accessibility - test the service
    • Accessibility definitions
      • W3C - universal accessibility - test the resource
      • Self-contained accessibility, just-in-case
      • ISO/IMS/DC Working definition: - universal user-centred accessibility - test the service
      • Distributed accessibility, just-in-time
    • How big is the problem?
    • How big is the problem?
    • How big is the problem?
      • Visual, dexterity, and hearing difficulties are the most common among working-age adults:
      • Approximately one in four (27%) have a visual difficulty or impairment.
      • One in four (26%) have a dexterity difficulty or impairment.
      • One in five (21%) have a hearing difficulty or impairment.
      • Somewhat fewer working-age adults have a cognitive difficulty or impairment (20%) and very few (4%) have a speech difficulty or impairment.
    • How big is the problem?
    • How expensive is the problem?
      • Fairfax Digital have
      • 40 sites - 5 or 6 key destinations
      • SMH/AGE alone
        • 135 million PI's per month - 6 mill uv's ▪
      • The leading News sites in Australia
      • 3 to 4 minute average session times
    • How expensive is the problem?
          • What Fairfax did:
          • moved their biggest sites across to XHTML/CSS in a 6 month timeframe
          • Had the smoothest rollout they have ever experienced , and
          • will save a million $ in bandwidth per year!
    • Typical users’ problems
      • Can’t see screen
      • Can’t see colours
      • Can’t read text
      • Can’t hear
      • Can’t control cursor
      • Can’t type
    • OS support Add this to Favorites folder Add this to startup items Apple channel …..
    • Browser support (?)
      • Lynx
      • IE
      • Netscape/Mozilla
      • iCab
      • Opera
      • Amaya
      • There are about 35 browsers in common use…
      • (Note W3C UAAG - includes LMS)
    • Assistive Technologies
    • Assistive Technologies
    • Anti-access Technologies
    • New IMS/DC/…approach
      • Think of the user and work towards user needs and preferences
      • Provide a good, easy way to record user needs and preferences
      • Describe content in terms of needs and preferences
      • Avoid all issues to do with disabilities and to do with legal liability
    • User accessibility profiles
      • An independent accessibility element
      • Multiple, cascading profiles
      • Three main classes of requirements
        • Control
        • Display (presentation)
        • Content
    • AccLIP (User profile)
      • AccessForAll: http://www. imsproject .org/accessibility/
    • Resource accessibility profile
      • An independent accessibility element
      • Simple or composite profiles
      • Three main classes of characteristics
        • Control
        • Display (presentation)
        • Content
    • AccMD (Resource Profile)
      • A statement of media/modality types:
        • hasImage, hasText, hasVideo, hasAudio
      • An EARL statement … so a URI: http://www. imsproject .org/accessibility
    • Implementation
      • The Inclusive Learning Exchange at
    • Learner priorities
      • Users should always have final say over choice of resources and items
      • Content/display/control choices can be ‘exploited’ easily
      • Mixed groups can negotiate / accommodate conditions for collaborative work
    • Pedagogical priorities
      • The approach promotes choice
      • And inclusivity
      • Without emphasis on abilities and disabilities and with
      • far less effort for authors and teachers
    • Tools and Implementations
      • Accessible tools
      • Tools for accessible authoring
      • Validators ie code validators
      • Evaluators ie compliance with guidelines producing metadata (EARL)
      • Digital repositories for descriptive metadata
      • On-the-fly repair tools (SWAP, ...)
      • Web-4-All (smart card adaptation to needs)
    • Tools and Implementations
      • In the ePortfolio demonstator tool for the EPICC project, Giunti have implemented a small part of AccLIP 1.0 that adjusts the interface (fonts etc.) on importing a portfolio.
      • The USB standards group headed by ATIA will be using AccLIP as the basis and referent for their USB device communication standard. This will mean a universal Web-4-All and adherence to AccLIP by all USB devices.
    • References
      • http://www. imsproject .org/accessibility
      • http: //dublincore .org/groups/access/
      • http: //inclusivelearning .ca