Accessibility Issues
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Transcript

  • 1. Accessibility Issues - 2005 Liddy Nevile
  • 2. Inaccessibility
    • NOT telecommunications problems ..??
    • NOT economic equity
    • NOT a list of disabilities
    • IS a list of requirements
    • NOT a human classification
    • IS a description of a relationship between a resource and a user
  • 3. Inaccessibility definitions
  • 4. Problem Definition
    • Many people have visual, aural, tactile and cognitive disabilities.
    • We don’t always know who has what disability - but do we want to know?
    • We all have symptoms of disabilities according to where we are and what we are doing.
  • 5. Problem Definition
    • People’s symptoms change over time
    • Users’ needs change with purpose and context
    • Sites with accessibility problems are almost impossible to fix
    • The W3C ‘good construction’ guidelines do not necessarily cover a particular user’s problem - broad improvement but specific failure
  • 6. Problem Definition
    • Authors just cannot learn to make universally accessible resources
    • Technical training is very expensive in terms of time and money
    • The recommended user agents are often not standards compliant
    • Alternative content production is often a skilled 3rd party activity
  • 7. What is the solution?
    • Give authors better tools because the tools often can make accessible content
    • Distribute the burden between technology and authors
    • Make greater demands on publishing systems
    • Support re-use and interoperability
    • Use metadata!!!
  • 8. Accessibility definitions
    • Original W3C - device independence, separation of content from presentation - universal accessibility - test the resource
      • U.S. - s. 508 for Federal Govt. contracts
      • Australia - common law system with regulations
      • UK, European Commission …
    • New IMS/DC/ISO etc Working definition: mismatch between user needs and content - universal user-centred accessibility - test the service
  • 9. Accessibility definitions
    • Continuing W3C definition - universal accessibility - test the resource
    • New IMS/DC/ISO etc definition: - universal user-centred accessibility - test the service
  • 10. Accessibility definitions
    • W3C - universal accessibility - test the resource
    • Self-contained accessibility, just-in-case
    • ISO/IMS/DC Working definition: - universal user-centred accessibility - test the service
    • Distributed accessibility, just-in-time
  • 11. How big is the problem?
  • 12. How big is the problem?
  • 13. How big is the problem?
    • Visual, dexterity, and hearing difficulties are the most common among working-age adults:
    • Approximately one in four (27%) have a visual difficulty or impairment.
    • One in four (26%) have a dexterity difficulty or impairment.
    • One in five (21%) have a hearing difficulty or impairment.
    • Somewhat fewer working-age adults have a cognitive difficulty or impairment (20%) and very few (4%) have a speech difficulty or impairment.
  • 14. How big is the problem?
  • 15. How expensive is the problem?
    • Fairfax Digital have
    • 40 sites - 5 or 6 key destinations
      • smh.com.au, theage.com.au, drive.com.au, mycareer.com.au, domain.com.au, afr.com.au
    • SMH/AGE alone
      • 135 million PI's per month - 6 mill uv's ▪
    • The leading News sites in Australia
    • 3 to 4 minute average session times
  • 16. How expensive is the problem?
        • What Fairfax did:
        • moved their biggest sites across to XHTML/CSS in a 6 month timeframe
        • Had the smoothest rollout they have ever experienced , and
        • will save a million $ in bandwidth per year!
  • 17. Typical users’ problems
    • Can’t see screen
    • Can’t see colours
    • Can’t read text
    • Can’t hear
    • Can’t control cursor
    • Can’t type
  • 18. OS support Add this to Favorites folder Add this to startup items Apple channel …..
  • 19. Browser support (?)
    • Lynx
    • IE
    • Netscape/Mozilla
    • iCab
    • Opera
    • Amaya
    • There are about 35 browsers in common use…
    • (Note W3C UAAG - includes LMS)
  • 20. Assistive Technologies
  • 21. Assistive Technologies
  • 22. Anti-access Technologies
  • 23. New IMS/DC/…approach
    • Think of the user and work towards user needs and preferences
    • Provide a good, easy way to record user needs and preferences
    • Describe content in terms of needs and preferences
    • Avoid all issues to do with disabilities and to do with legal liability
  • 24. User accessibility profiles
    • An independent accessibility element
    • Multiple, cascading profiles
    • Three main classes of requirements
      • Control
      • Display (presentation)
      • Content
  • 25. AccLIP (User profile)
    • AccessForAll: http://www. imsproject .org/accessibility/
  • 26. Resource accessibility profile
    • An independent accessibility element
    • Simple or composite profiles
    • Three main classes of characteristics
      • Control
      • Display (presentation)
      • Content
  • 27. AccMD (Resource Profile)
    • A statement of media/modality types:
      • hasImage, hasText, hasVideo, hasAudio
    • An EARL statement … so a URI: http://www. imsproject .org/accessibility
  • 28. Implementation
    • The Inclusive Learning Exchange at http://inclusivelearning.ca/
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31. Learner priorities
    • Users should always have final say over choice of resources and items
    • Content/display/control choices can be ‘exploited’ easily
    • Mixed groups can negotiate / accommodate conditions for collaborative work
  • 32. Pedagogical priorities
    • The approach promotes choice
    • And inclusivity
    • Without emphasis on abilities and disabilities and with
    • far less effort for authors and teachers
  • 33. Tools and Implementations
    • Accessible tools
    • Tools for accessible authoring
    • Validators ie code validators
    • Evaluators ie compliance with guidelines producing metadata (EARL)
    • Digital repositories for descriptive metadata
    • On-the-fly repair tools (SWAP, ...)
    • Web-4-All (smart card adaptation to needs)
  • 34. Tools and Implementations
    • In the ePortfolio demonstator tool for the EPICC project, Giunti have implemented a small part of AccLIP 1.0 that adjusts the interface (fonts etc.) on importing a portfolio.
    • The USB standards group headed by ATIA will be using AccLIP as the basis and referent for their USB device communication standard. This will mean a universal Web-4-All and adherence to AccLIP by all USB devices.
  • 35. References
    • http://www. imsproject .org/accessibility
    • http://w3.org/WAI/
    • http: //dublincore .org/groups/access/
    • http: //inclusivelearning .ca