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Accessibility Issues

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Transcript

  • 1. Accessibility Issues Liddy Nevile
  • 2. Overview
    • Accessibility definitions
    • Current work to minimise problems
    • IMS accessibility activities
    • Matching content to people’s needs
    • Implementations
    • References
  • 3. Overview
    • Accessibility definitions
    • Not …
    • Telecommunications …. Or is it?
    • Economic equity … or is it?
  • 4. Typical problems
    • Can’t see screen
    • Can’t see colours
    • Can’t read text
    • Can’t hear
    • Can’t control cursor
    • Can’t type
  • 5. OS support Add this to Favorites folder Add this to startup items Apple channel …..
  • 6. Browser support (?)
    • Lynx
    • IE
    • Netscape/Mozilla
    • iCab
    • Opera
    • Amaya
    • There are about 35 browsers in common use…
    • (Note W3C UAAG - includes LMS)
  • 7. ATs for people with vision disabilities
  • 8. Jason White
  • 9. Other assistive technologies
  • 10. Other accessibility problems
  • 11. Accessibility definitions
    • W3C - device independence, separation of content from presentation
    • U.S. - s. 508 for Federal Govt. contracts
    • Australia - common law system with regulations
    • UK, European Commission …
    • IMS/MMI-DC Working definition: mismatch between user needs and content
  • 12. W3C Guidelines
    • Accessibility guidelines
    • Techniques
    • Checkpoints
    • Checkpoint techniques
    • QA and Certification
    • - for authors, authoring tools, user agents
  • 13. Localisation of W3C guidelines
    • University, system, organisational guidelines
    • Controlling systems and templates
    • EuroAccessibility efforts
    • CEN MMI-DC Workshop
    • IMS Accessibility Guidelines
    • ( -> maths interest)
  • 14. W3C Technologies that work
    • Cascading style sheets (CSS1)
    • eXtensible Markup Language and CSS2
    • Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)
    • Synchronised Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL)
    • eXtensible Stylesheet Language (XSLT)
    • ChemML, MathML, MusicML, ...
  • 15. SVG example
  • 16. SVG example
    • Image is represented as vectors in text
    • Sub-images can be identified
    • Metadata can be added
    • Rights management can be used
    • Behaviours can be controlled
      • Eg an interactive knee dissection linked to external resources
  • 17. Technologies that work (contd.)
    • XML => MathML, ChemML, etc
    • MathML as an example
      • The equation x 2 + 4x + 4 =0
  • 18. Separate presentation from content
    • Presentational markup to ensure display can be controlled - with style sheets to define the display characteristics
    • Content markup to provide machine readable version of content so it could be read into content manipulators
  • 19.
    • <mrow>
    • <mrow>
    • <msup> <mi>x</MI> <mn>2</mn> </msup> <mo>+</MO>
    • <mrow>
    • <mn>4</mn>
    • <MO>&InvisibleTimes;</MO>
    • <MI>x</MI>
    • </mrow>
    • <MO>+</MO>
    • <mn>4</mn>
    • </mrow>
    • <MO>=</MO>
    • <mn>0</mn>
    • </mrow>
    MathML is like HTML…
  • 20. Screen presentation
    • It can be read aloud by screen readers
    • It can be used in maths applications
    • It can be programmed for interactivity
    • It can be programmed for feedback
    • But it can’t yet be used in Braille.
  • 21. Technologies that work (contd.)
    • XML and RDF and EARL ….
    • XML - human readable, schemas etc …..
    • RDF - this ‘object’ has property ‘this’
    • EARL - this ’agent’ said this ‘object’ has this ‘property’ on this ‘date’
    • Eg “The application ‘Lift’ evaluated this page as accessible (didn’t fail) on 3/9/2002”.
  • 22. Author support
    • W3C described what to do, how to do it, when and why,…
    • Automatic support is required ->
    • W3C Authoring Tools Accessibility Guidelines - note s. 508
  • 23. Accessibility tools
    • Accessible tools
    • Tools for accessible authoring
    • Validators ie code validators
    • Evaluators ie compliance with guidelines producing metadata (EARL)
    • Digital repositories for descriptive metadata
    • (re-usable metadata??)
    • On-the-fly repair tools (SWAP, TILE, ..)
  • 24. New IMS/DC/…approach
    • Think of the user and work towards user needs and preferences
    • Provide a good, easy way to record user needs and preferences
    • Describe content in terms of needs and preferences
    • Avoid all issues to do with disabilities and to do with legal liability
  • 25. Accessibility issues
    • Direct accessibility
    • Compatible accessibility
    • Alternative modality
    • Equivalent content
    • User choice
  • 26. User profiles
    • Control
    • Display (presentation)
    • Content
    • A special element to add to the LIP because this info is usually managed by a different person from the teacher (and sometimes the student)
    • Multiple, cascading profiles
  • 27. AccLIP (User profile)
    • AccessForAll: http://www. imsproject .org/accessibility/
  • 28. Content profiles
    • Control
    • Display (presentation)
    • Content
    • A separate element as the information is usually an EARL statement
    • Same schema for exact matching and easy maintenance
  • 29. AccMD (Content profile)
    • An EARL statement … so a URI: http://www. imsproject .org/accessibility
  • 30. Implementation
    • The Inclusive Learning Exchange at http://inclusivelearning.ca/
  • 31. References
    • http://w3.org/
    • http://w3.org/WAI/
    • http://www. imsproject .org/accessibility
    • http:// dublincore .org/groups/access/
    • http:// inclusivelearning .ca
    • http://www. OZeWAI .org/