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Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
Accessibility Issues
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Accessibility Issues

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  1. Accessibility Issues Liddy Nevile
  2. Overview <ul><li>Accessibility definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Current work to minimise problems </li></ul><ul><li>IMS accessibility activities </li></ul><ul><li>Matching content to people’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>Implementations </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. Overview <ul><li>Accessibility definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Not … </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications …. Or is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Economic equity … or is it? </li></ul>
  4. Typical problems <ul><li>Can’t see screen </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t see colours </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t read text </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t hear </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t control cursor </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t type </li></ul>
  5. OS support Add this to Favorites folder Add this to startup items Apple channel …..
  6. Browser support (?) <ul><li>Lynx </li></ul><ul><li>IE </li></ul><ul><li>Netscape/Mozilla </li></ul><ul><li>iCab </li></ul><ul><li>Opera </li></ul><ul><li>Amaya </li></ul><ul><li>There are about 35 browsers in common use… </li></ul><ul><li>(Note W3C UAAG - includes LMS) </li></ul>
  7. ATs for people with vision disabilities
  8. Jason White
  9. Other assistive technologies
  10. Other accessibility problems
  11. Accessibility definitions <ul><li>W3C - device independence, separation of content from presentation </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. - s. 508 for Federal Govt. contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Australia - common law system with regulations </li></ul><ul><li>UK, European Commission … </li></ul><ul><li>IMS/MMI-DC Working definition: mismatch between user needs and content </li></ul>
  12. W3C Guidelines <ul><li>Accessibility guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Checkpoints </li></ul><ul><li>Checkpoint techniques </li></ul><ul><li>QA and Certification </li></ul><ul><li>- for authors, authoring tools, user agents </li></ul>
  13. Localisation of W3C guidelines <ul><li>University, system, organisational guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling systems and templates </li></ul><ul><li>EuroAccessibility efforts </li></ul><ul><li>CEN MMI-DC Workshop </li></ul><ul><li>IMS Accessibility Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>( -> maths interest) </li></ul>
  14. W3C Technologies that work <ul><li>Cascading style sheets (CSS1) </li></ul><ul><li>eXtensible Markup Language and CSS2 </li></ul><ul><li>Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronised Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) </li></ul><ul><li>eXtensible Stylesheet Language (XSLT) </li></ul><ul><li>ChemML, MathML, MusicML, ... </li></ul>
  15. SVG example
  16. SVG example <ul><li>Image is represented as vectors in text </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-images can be identified </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata can be added </li></ul><ul><li>Rights management can be used </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviours can be controlled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg an interactive knee dissection linked to external resources </li></ul></ul>
  17. Technologies that work (contd.) <ul><li>XML => MathML, ChemML, etc </li></ul><ul><li>MathML as an example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The equation x 2 + 4x + 4 =0 </li></ul></ul>
  18. Separate presentation from content <ul><li>Presentational markup to ensure display can be controlled - with style sheets to define the display characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Content markup to provide machine readable version of content so it could be read into content manipulators </li></ul>
  19. <ul><li><mrow> </li></ul><ul><li><mrow> </li></ul><ul><li><msup> <mi>x</MI> <mn>2</mn> </msup> <mo>+</MO> </li></ul><ul><li><mrow> </li></ul><ul><li><mn>4</mn> </li></ul><ul><li><MO>&InvisibleTimes;</MO> </li></ul><ul><li><MI>x</MI> </li></ul><ul><li></mrow> </li></ul><ul><li><MO>+</MO> </li></ul><ul><li><mn>4</mn> </li></ul><ul><li></mrow> </li></ul><ul><li><MO>=</MO> </li></ul><ul><li><mn>0</mn> </li></ul><ul><li></mrow> </li></ul>MathML is like HTML…
  20. Screen presentation <ul><li>It can be read aloud by screen readers </li></ul><ul><li>It can be used in maths applications </li></ul><ul><li>It can be programmed for interactivity </li></ul><ul><li>It can be programmed for feedback </li></ul><ul><li>But it can’t yet be used in Braille. </li></ul>
  21. Technologies that work (contd.) <ul><li>XML and RDF and EARL …. </li></ul><ul><li>XML - human readable, schemas etc ….. </li></ul><ul><li>RDF - this ‘object’ has property ‘this’ </li></ul><ul><li>EARL - this ’agent’ said this ‘object’ has this ‘property’ on this ‘date’ </li></ul><ul><li>Eg “The application ‘Lift’ evaluated this page as accessible (didn’t fail) on 3/9/2002”. </li></ul>
  22. Author support <ul><li>W3C described what to do, how to do it, when and why,… </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic support is required -> </li></ul><ul><li>W3C Authoring Tools Accessibility Guidelines - note s. 508 </li></ul>
  23. Accessibility tools <ul><li>Accessible tools </li></ul><ul><li>Tools for accessible authoring </li></ul><ul><li>Validators ie code validators </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluators ie compliance with guidelines producing metadata (EARL) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital repositories for descriptive metadata </li></ul><ul><li>(re-usable metadata??) </li></ul><ul><li>On-the-fly repair tools (SWAP, TILE, ..) </li></ul>
  24. New IMS/DC/…approach <ul><li>Think of the user and work towards user needs and preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a good, easy way to record user needs and preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Describe content in terms of needs and preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid all issues to do with disabilities and to do with legal liability </li></ul>
  25. Accessibility issues <ul><li>Direct accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative modality </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent content </li></ul><ul><li>User choice </li></ul>
  26. User profiles <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Display (presentation) </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>A special element to add to the LIP because this info is usually managed by a different person from the teacher (and sometimes the student) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple, cascading profiles </li></ul>
  27. AccLIP (User profile) <ul><li>AccessForAll: http://www. imsproject .org/accessibility/ </li></ul>
  28. Content profiles <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Display (presentation) </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>A separate element as the information is usually an EARL statement </li></ul><ul><li>Same schema for exact matching and easy maintenance </li></ul>
  29. AccMD (Content profile) <ul><li>An EARL statement … so a URI: http://www. imsproject .org/accessibility </li></ul>
  30. Implementation <ul><li>The Inclusive Learning Exchange at http://inclusivelearning.ca/ </li></ul>
  31. References <ul><li>http://w3.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://w3.org/WAI/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. imsproject .org/accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>http:// dublincore .org/groups/access/ </li></ul><ul><li>http:// inclusivelearning .ca </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. OZeWAI .org/ </li></ul>

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