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At present, the University of Southampton’s worldwide registry of OAI compliant open access repositories lists more than 1000 repositories. Number of IRs produced by India is around 50. To make it available as single virtual archive and also means of providing seamless search, it is becoming essential to form a network of connected research repositories and resource discovery services to form National digital repository system. Examples are CARL, ARROW, DRIVER etc
It is a hybrid model where metadata is harvested into a central searchable server and also distributed as content (full text) would be provided by individual repositories. Under this model, service provider would harvest metadata from existing institutional repositories using the Open Archives Initiatives Protocol for Metadata harvesting (OAI-PMH). Service provider can enhanced the quality of metadata and provide the various services from their centralized server. The metadata canbe further exposed via OAI_PMH, SRU/W, RSS feed for use by other service providers.
Technical issues at data provider levels such as installation of IR software, server, server malfunctioning, backup of data and updating of IR software etc whereas in case of service provider level, successful harvesting of data involves error free network, the proper use of Dublin core metadata field, data sets and problems with the correct use of date stamp etc.
Coordination among IR members
Federated Authentication and Authorization
Long term preservation, format, migration and access
Sustainability in providing ling term access to NDRS
Current Scenarios of Institutional Repositories in India
Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR) lists 52 repositories have been registered, however, this number may be higher as certain repositories have yet not been registered with ROAR.
Analysis of IRs in India
Out of 52, 13 were not functional at the time of writing paper
Number of them have not been updating
To look further, it is not reaching the critical mass
As per survey conduced by Webometrics 2010 for latest ranking of World’s open access repositories for visibilities, quality and available items, there are seven repositories listed from India and their details as given in the following table.
3164 9-11-2004 National Aerospace Laboratories Institutional Repository 278 6 3731 19-04-2005 Raman Research Institute Digital Library 278 6 3528 06-04-2010 National Institute of Oceanography Digital library 245 5 2468 11-11-2004 Indian Institute of Astrophysics 218 4 188 17-01-2004 Indian Statistical Institute digital Library 180 3 2645 22-03-2005 OpenMed, National Informatics Centre 148 2 19477 05-04-2004 Indian Institute of Science 82 1 No of records Year of establishment Name of IR Rank Sr No.
There are 9 service providers in the country who are harvesting data majority of them follows OAI-PMH and harvesting software used is PKP Harvester. Out of 9, four are not functional, though these are highly cited in the literature.
Establishing successful, well populated National level repositories, we need to look at prevailing information system in our country. For example, ICMR, CSIR, ICAR, Envis, Deptt of Atomic Energy, ISRO. Onus should be on those national information system should able to provide “publications arising out of public funded research should make it available free of cost to researchers”
NDRS ICMR CSIR Agriculture Inflibnet IR IR IR IR IR IR IR IR IR Metadata refine Document Delivery Alert service Social Science IISc RSS(for further processing) OAI-PMH OAI-PMH OAI-PMH OAI-PMH OAI-PMH OAI-PMH OAI-PMH OAI-PMH OAI-PMH
There is a new challenge to create an environment based on OAI protocol so that public funded research should be made available to the whole community
National level body is needed so that development in institutional repositories should be more coherent as it may able to provide the best advisory services and adoption of guidelines set and best practices followed by various national level systems such as DRIVER, DAREnet, HAL