July 19, 2000 . BioMed Central published its first free online article.
July 1, 2002 . Eprints , the OA archiving software, went open source and affiliated with GNU .
June 20, 2003 . The Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing is released.
October 13, 2003 . The Public Library of Science launched its first open-access journal, PLoS Biology .
February 24, 2004 . The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions ( IFLA ) released the IFLA Statement on Open Access to Scholarly Literature and Research Documentation .
June 3, 2004 . Elsevier announced its new policy permitting authors to post the final editions of their full-text Elsevier articles to their personal web sites or institutional repositories.
June 15, 2004 . The European Commission launched an inquiry into the system for publishing European research. Among the major topics are rapidly rising journal prices and open access to research findings.
July 14, 2004 . The U.S. House Appropriations Committee adopted language proposing that the National Institutes of Health ( NIH ) require open access to NIH-funded research through deposit in the NIH's PubMed Central .
July 20, 2004 . The U.K. House of Commons Science and Technology Committee issued a lengthy report based on its inquiry into journal prices and open access. The report recommended that public funding agencies require open access to publicly-funded research through deposit in the authors' institutional repositories.
August 26, 2004 . Twenty-five Nobel laureates from the U.S. wrote an open letter to the U.S. Congress in support of the NIH open-access plan .
October 5, 2004 . Sage Publications adopted a new policy to allow its authors to deposit their postprints on open-access institutional repositories without case-by-case permission.
September 23, 2005 . Participants at the 9th World Congress on Health Information and Libraries, Commitment to Equity (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, September 20-23, 2005) issued two declarations on access to knowledge. The first, The Declaration of Salvador - Commitment to Equity , asks governments to promote equitable and
open access. The second, The Salvador Declaration on Open Access: The Developing World Perspective , asks governments to require open access to publicly-funded research.
October 1, 2005 . The Wellcome Trust starts implementing its new open-access mandate for Wellcome-funded research.
December 1, 2005 . The Ukrainian Parliament adopted a resolution identifying open access as a national priority ( Ukranian text , English summary ).
January 2006 . The European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics (ERCIM) published its Statement on Open Access .
November 22, 2006. Participants in a Bangalore conference (November 2-3, 2006) drafted a model National Open Access Policy for Developing Countries .
December 1, 2006 . IFLA and UNESCO released the IFLA/UNESCO Internet Manifesto Guidelines (dated September 2006), recommending open access as one way to implement the 2002 IFLA Internet Manifesto (see August 2002 above).
The Open Access research literature is composed of free, online copies of peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers as well as technical reports, theses and working papers . In most cases there are no licensing restrictions on their use by readers . They can therefore be used freely for research, teaching and other purposes.
What Open Access is not
It is not self-publishing, nor a way to bypass peer-review and publication, nor is it a kind of second-class, cut-price publishing route. It is simply a means to make research results freely available online to the whole research community.
Commitment to Equity (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, September 20-23, 2005) issued two declarations on access to knowledge. The first, The Declaration of Salvador - Commitment to Equity , asks governments to promote equitable and open access. The second, The Salvador Declaration on Open Access: The Developing World Perspective , asks governments to require open access to publicly-funded research.
National Open Access Policy for Developing Countries
There are many degrees and kinds of wider and easier access to this literature. By ‘open access’, we mean it’s free availability….. The only constraint …authors’control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged.
…let users “copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship…”
… let users “copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship…”
We define open access journals as journals that use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access. From the BOAI definition  of "open access" we take the right of users to "read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles" as mandatory for a journal to be included in the directory.
The Two Colors of Open Access Budapest Initiatives
http://www.library.uiuc.edu/scholcomm/glossary.htm “An online, searchable, web-accessible database containing works of research deposited by scholars. Purpose is both increased access to scholarship and long-term preservation. Digital repositories are often built to serve a specific institution's community of users, in which cases they are called institutional repositories . There are also discipline-specific digital repositories, like arXiv.org . Most digital repositories may be searched together via OAIster .”
http://www.bl.uk/about/strategic/glossary.html “An organisation that has responsibility for the long-term maintenance of digital resources, as well as for making them available to communities agreed on by the depositor and the repository.”
http://www.edtechpost.ca/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/GlossaryAnalysis “A collection of digital assets and/or metadata accessible via a network without prior knowledge of the digital repository’s structure. A repository is a network accessible server that can process the 6 OAI-PMH requests in the manner described in this document. A repository is managed by a data provider to expose metadata to harvesters.”
SPARC “An institutional repository is a digital archive of the intellectual product created by the faculty, research staff, and students of an institution and accessible to end users both within and outside of the institution, with few if any barriers to access. In other words, the content of an institutional repository is:
JISC It is “as a managed storage system with content deposited on a personal, departmental, institutional, national, regional or consortia basis, providing services to designated communities, with content drawn from the range of digital resources that support learning, teaching and research.”
Clifford Lynch (2003), Executive Director of the Coalition for Networked Information “IR is described as “a set of services that a university offers to the members of its community for the management and dissemination of digital materials created by the institution and its community members.
• “ Some proponents of the open access movement see the IR or open access archive as the most cost effective and immediate route to providing access to the results of publicly funded research, thereby maximizing the potential research impact of these publications”.
• “ Some research libraries see IRs as a means to expand on the amount and diversity of scholarly material that is collected and preserved, thus enhancing teaching, learning and research at the host institution and beyond.”
Description: Developed at Laval University Library, Archimede is open source software for building institutional repositories. It has been developedwith a “multilingual perspective,” offering English, French and Spanish interfaces.
Free, open source software, delivered under the GNU general public licence.
Description: Developed by CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, based in Geneva, CDSware is designed to run an electronic preprint server, online library catalogue, or a document system on the web.
Free, open source software distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
Description: DSpace is a digital library system designed to capture, store, index, preserve, and redistribute the intellectual output of a university’s research faculty in digital formats. Developed jointly by HP Labs and MIT Libraries.
Free, open source software jointly developed by MIT and Hewlett Packard Labs.
Distributed through the BSD open source licence
Download at http://sourceforge.net/projects/dspace/
Description: GNU EPrints is free, open source software developed at the University of Southampton. It is designed to create a pre-print institutional repository for scholarly research, but can be used for other purposes.
Distributed under the GNU general public licence Download software at http://software.eprints.org/download.php
Description: Jointly developed by University of Virginia and CornellUniversity, Fedora (Flexible Extensible Digital Object Repository) serves as a foundation for building interoperable web-based digital libraries, institutional repositories, and other information management systems.
Free, open source, Distributed under the Mozilla open source licence, Download at http://www.fedora.info/
Description: Developed by the New Zealand Digital Library Project at the University of Waikato, It is a suite of software for building digital library collections and developed and distributed in cooperation UNESCO and the Human Info NGO .
Free multi-lingual, open source software, Distributed under the GNU General Public Licence, Download at
Understanding Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) for Institutional Repositories
Copyright offers protection to content creators to control how their materialcan be used and distributed.
Institutional repositories deal with copyright issues on two fronts: in collecting content from scholars, by which they must secure the rights to distribute and preserve the content, and in distributing content to end users, by which they must balance the tenets of open access with copyright protection.
Understanding Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) for Institutional Repositories…contd
As you work with faculty who want to submit their content to an institutionalrepository, you might want to encourage them to retain copyright to their work or at least retain rights to publish their work electronically when they publish their papers.
The Creative Commons Licences offer content creators and distributors a variety of licences, letting the content creator stipulate conditions for using the licenced content. See the Creative Commons site at
http://creativecommons.org/ for information on the licences offered and tools
For content creators/distributors.
The Creative Commons site also offers excellent background information onthe legal concepts of fundamental intellectual property concepts:
Scholars who place their research in institutional repositories may need additional information on copyright issues. Several organisations provide excellent information and guides to understanding copyright for scholarly research.
The Creative Commons group offers important information on content licensing for faculty, researchers, and authors
Publishers usually will agree to an author’s request to retain rights to postcontent to a website or institutional repository. Faculty should be encouraged to retain these rights before and after publishing their work so they can contribute their content to online repositories.
Project RoMEO offers excellent guidance for scholars interested in selfarchiving. Their website provides valuable information on negotiating content agreements with publishers, with a guide to how publishers commonly licence content from faculty.
Rights Management generally refers to how content is distributed in accordance with copyright rules and to indicate whoowns the copyright for the content. Institutional repositories usually aim foropen access. However, there may be instances where access needs to berestricted, such as information related to patentable materials.
Policy Guidelines for Institutional Repositories
Most successful institutional repository projects form a Policy Group to adviseon all policy decisions. The Policy Group can help to determine your institutional repository’s policies on content submission and distribution, privacy and licensing issues, and other policy guidelines.
there are no shortcuts or “turn key solutions” to building an institutional repository. You still need to design aservice, apply the proper technology platform, create policies, recruit content communities, enlist faculty participation, and market the service to your users.
At present, the University of Southampton’s worldwide registry of OAI compliant open access repositories lists more than 1000 repositories. Number of IRs produced by India is around 50. To make it available as single virtual archive and also means of providing seamless search, it is becoming essential to form a network of connected research repositories and resource discovery services to form National digital repository system. Examples are CARL, ARROW, DRIVER etc
As per survey conduced by Webometrics 2010 for latest ranking of World’s open access repositories for visibilities, quality and available items, there are seven repositories listed from India out of 400 IRs surveyed and their details as given in the following table.
3164 9-11-2004 National Aerospace Laboratories Institutional Repository 278 6 3731 19-04-2005 Raman Research Institute Digital Library 278 6 3528 06-04-2010 National Institute of Oceanography Digital library 245 5 2468 11-11-2004 Indian Institute of Astrophysics 218 4 188 17-01-2004 Indian Statistical Institute digital Library 180 3 2645 22-03-2005 OpenMed, National Informatics Centre 148 2 21472 05-04-2004 Indian Institute of Science 82 1 No of records Year of establishment Name of IR Rank Sr No.