Links to all studies & articles discussedmay be found on the last 3 pages ofthis presentation and in a blog post athttp://bit.ly/teachtenstepsThis presentation is also available as aYouTube video that will play after thelast slide, and is available atwww.YouTube.com/findingdulcinea
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“It is very likely that our students’ brains have physically changed– and are different from ours – as a result of howthey grew up.” 1-- Marc Prensky
So, are “digital natives” experts at searching the Web?
• After a year long information literacy program,most fifth grade students continued to relyentirely on Google and “never questioned thereliability of the websites they accessed.” 2-- Vrije University Netherlands
• Even when high school students found a good source they did not recognize it and instead launched a new search. A high level of browsing is carried on at the expense of thinking and planning. 3-- Shu Hsien L. Chen
• “Electronic media can “overwhelm youth with information that they may not have the skills or experience to evaluate.” And literacy skills overlap with safety skills. 4• -- Harvard’s Berkman Center for Internet & Society, March 2010
• Students without Web research training show up at college “beyond hope”….”they have learned to ‘get by’ with Google.” 5-- University College London
• Not one of the 600 college students surveyed"could give an adequate conceptual definition of howGoogle returns results.” 6--ERIAL study (Illinois)
In Conclusion….A majority of students: don’t know how to form a sound search query; don’t have a strategy for dealing with poor results; can’t articulate how they know content is credible; don’t check the author or date of an article.
Improving Internet skills starts with educators
“Librarians must be able to retool and stay ahead of teachers and students-Joyce Valenza media specialist Springfield Township, PA
Recognizing reliable sources + consider infinite options + Understanding intellectual property rights +Engaging modern audiences with conclusions = EFFECTIVE USE OF THE WEB
“Students see educatorsmodeling an effectiveresearch process andlearn from it.”-Colette Cassinelli librarian/ technology teacher Portland, OR
Models & Resources for Web Research• Review the Big6 model.7• Share the Ergo search model with students. 8• Teach Ten Steps for Better Web Research.http://www.SweetSearch.com/TenSteps
No Quick Fix• Effective web research skills cannot be learned in a week, a semester, or a year.• They must be taught year-round, throughout primary school years, and can be mastered only as students mature and gain experience.
A New Approach?• Authors of ERIAL study: teach broad concepts and strategies, not use of specific tools.
"Unless we can demonstrate some measurablepayoff to searching, students aren’t going to do it.” - Lisa Rose-Wiles librarian Seton Hall University
How Do Effective Researchers Behave?• Start general with several keywords• Try new combinations in a systemic manner• Use more precise, or even natural language. 9• Look well beyond the first few results, and return often to favorite, reliable sites.
“Use better interfaces and more sophisticatedindexing methods to nudge students, incrementally,toward competence.” - Casper Grathwohl Oxford University Press
Step 1: Where to Search• The Internet may not be the best place tostart; databases may help you find what you’reseeking far faster.
Step 1: Where to Search• Don’t count on search engines to do all thework for you. Ask a librarian or teacher torecommend individual sites.• Use student-friendly tools for aggregatingyour own favorite sites. e.g. Symbaloo or Diigo.
Step 1: Where to Search• Give students a list of 10 sites; include two poor sources.• Students must defendtheir sources and point outweak links.- Michelle BaldwinVocal Music TeacherOmaha, NE
Step 2: Try Several Search Engines• Suggest a two-week “Google Holiday” tolessen dependency.• Introduce meta-search engines (eg. Zuula).More about search engines: http://bit.ly/bO7FbB
Step 2: Try Several Search Engines…..• SweetSearch searches35,000 websites that researchexperts have evaluated andapproved.• SweetSearch4Me featuressites for emerging learners.•We created these, yet don’tuse them exclusively– we usethe full range of resources.
Step 3: Dig deep for the best results• Many websites rank high for reasonsunrelated to the quality of their content.• Professionals and academics don’t practiceSearch Engine Optimization.• Don’t stop at the first page!!
Step 3: Dig deep….• Google and other search engines optimizetheir results for adults, who want to know “whathappened today.” Google recently promised todeliver “50% fresher” results.• For school research, “fresher” is not usuallybetter.
Step 3: Dig deep….• Yolink enables users to browse searchresults in context without opening them.• Integrated into SweetSearch, Yolink can beused on other sites through a browser add-on.
Step 4: Think Before You Search“If you don’t knowwhere you’re going,you’ll probably endup somewhere else.”- Yogi Berra
Step 4: Think Before You Search • Define your task. • Have students rewrite assignments in their own words. - Angela Maiers education consultant Maiers Education Services
Step 5: Make Search Engines Work for You• Connectors AND and OR can be moderatelyeffective.• Quotation marks are a critical tool studentsshould know when to use.• But advanced search options are the best wayto mandate or exclude certain words.
Step 5: Make Search Engines Work for You• As you search, add new keywords.• Avoid “looping” by documenting your searchwith a bookmarking tool, or keep a writtenrecord.
Step 6: Don’t Believe Everything You Read• No single element determines a website’scredibility.•ALWAYS verify critical information withseveral sources.
Step 7: Find Primary Sources•Think of primary sources such as photos,diaries and newspapers as “eyewitnessaccounts” – which are generally consideredmore reliable than second-hand information.More: http://bit.ly/6CnTrq
Step 7: Looking at the Original Source?• If you suspect a site may not be the originalsource of information, google a key phrase.• If the phrase appears on another site,evaluate the credibility of that site.More: http://bit.ly/9k6a2v
Step 8: Who Published the Article?• Do editors or experts review the information?Is it thorough?• Do the author and publisher have a well-established reputation? Search their names in asearch engine.
Step 8: Who Published the Article?• If the site does not provide the name of thepublisher and its editors you cannot relyon it.• Even if it “looks good or sounds good.”
Step 8: Who Published the Article?• See 10 Reasons WhyStudents Can’t CiteWikipedia.More: http://bit.ly/dlxX6i
Step 8: Who Published the Article?• Assessing the top level domain (.com. .gov,.org, .edu) is not as useful as commonlybelieved.• Be wary of sites containing words like"free/discount/best/your/Web.”• Be critical of sites where advertisements blendwith content.
Step 9: Why Was the Article Written?• Always ask, “why did the writer write this?”• Is the site trying to sell you something?• Does the site have any social or politicalbiases? Eg. WhiteHouse.gov is not a neutralsource for information on U.S. Presidents.
Step 9: Why Was the Article Written?• Many websites that appear to offer validinformation but were created for anotherpurpose. •More: http://bit.ly/9dzELE
Step 10: When was information written or last revised?• Determine when an article was published orlast updated.• If you can’t, then confirm the currency of theinformation elsewhere.• Use a news search engine, add the currentyear as a search term, or Advanced SearchOptions to restrict dates (imperfect).More: http://bit.ly/9dzELE
The End?Yes, but it’s only the beginning of our efforts to helpeducators teach students how to use the Webeffectively.We will offer versions of the Ten Steps foremerging learners, and lesson plans and videos.Sign-up for our newsletter to be kept updated onour progress.http://www.findingdulcinea.com/info/newsletter.html
Works Cited:1. Prensky, Marc. “Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants” : On the Horizon. NCB University Press, Vol. 9 No. 5, October 20012. Els Kuiper, Monique Volman and Jan Terwel. “Students use of Web literacy skills and strategies: searching, reading and evaluating Web information.” Information Research: Vol. 13, No.3, (September, 2008.http://www.informationr.net/ir/13-3/paper351.html3. Shu-Hsien L. Chen. “Searching the Online Catalog and the World Wide Web.” Journal of Educational Media & Library Sciences, 41 1 (September 2003) 29-434. On “Empowering Parents and Protecting Children in an Evolving Media landscape” Berkman Center for Internet & Society. February 24, 2010. http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/node/59515. UCL. “Information behavior of the researcher of the future”: 11 January 2008.http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/reppres/gg_final_keynote_11012008.pdf6. Steve Kolowich, Searching for Better Research Habits, Inside Higher Ed, September 29, 2010http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2010/09/29/search (cont’d)
Works Cited:7. Eisenberg, Mike. “What is the Big 6.” The Big 6: Information & Technology Skills for StudentAchievement, (1997)http://www.big6.com/what-is-the-big6/8. “Research Skills.” State Library of Victoria. Ergo. (2010)http://www.slv.vic.gov.au/ergo/research_skills9. Media Post: Google Research Focuses on Search Failures, September 21, 2010http://www.mediapost.com/publications/?fa=Articles.showArticle&art_aid=136114&nid=11885410. Kasman Valenza, Joyce. “PowerSearching 501”: Springfield Township High School Libraryhttp://www.sdst.org/shs/library/jvles.html