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Bibliometrics: Now There Are Options


Presentation about new bibliometric tools using citation data from ISI, Scopus, and Google Scholar for University at Albany Librarians, 4/28/11

Presentation about new bibliometric tools using citation data from ISI, Scopus, and Google Scholar for University at Albany Librarians, 4/28/11

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  • G index, contemporary h index, factors in age of articles, individual h index: per author, hm index, corrects for multiple authors by reducing paper counts,


  • 1. Bibliometrics :
    Now There are Options
    Elaine M. Lasda Bergman
    Bibliographer for Social Welfare
    and Dewey Reference
    Dewey Graduate Library
    April 28, 2011
  • 2. What is bibliometrics?
    Scholarly communication
    Influence of articles, journals, scholars
  • 3. The birth of citation analysis
    Eugene Garfield
    Citation indexes and JCR
    Better coverage on hard sciences than on social sciences and worse still on humanities
  • 4. Garfield’s metrics
    Citation count
    Impact Factor
    Immediacy Index
    Citation Half-Life
  • 5. Citation count
    Number of times cited within a given time period
    Does not take into account
    Materials not included in citation database
    Self citations
  • 6. Impact factor
    Measures “impact” of a journal (not an article) within a given subject
    Formula is a ratio:
    Number of citations to a journal in a given year from articles occurring in the past 2 years Divided by the number of scholarly articles published in the journal in the past 2 years
  • 7. Concerns with impact factor
    Cannot be used to compare cross disciplinary (per Garfield himself) due to different rates of publication and citation
    Two year time frame not adequate for non-scientific disciplines
    Coverage of some disciplines not sufficient in the ISI databases
    Is a measure of “impact” a measure of “quality”?
  • 8. Immediacy index
    What it’s supposed to measure: how quickly articles in a given journal have an impact on the discipline
    Formula: the average number of times an article in a journal in a given year was cited in that same year
  • 9. Citation Half-Life
    What it’s supposed to measure: duration of relevance of articles in a given journal
    Formula: median age of articles cited for a particular journal in a given year
  • 10. Twenty first century tools
  • 11. Influence of Google Page Rank
    Eigenvector analysis:
    “The probability that a researcher, in documenting his or her research, goes from a journal to another selecting a random reference in a research article of the first journal. Values obtained after the whole process represent a ‘random research walk’ that starts from a random journal to end in another after following an infinite process of selecting random references in research articles. A random jump factor is added to represent the probability that the researcher chooses a journal by means other than following the references of research articles.” (Gonzales-Pereira,, 2010)
  • 12. Sources Using ISI Data
  • 13.
    Journal uses ISI data and eigenvector (PageRank) algorhythm to create one’s own categories
    Can assign different weights to citations from the same journal, the same category and from other categories or only whithin a specific list
    Not updated since 2005
  • 14.
    Uses ISI data
    Similar to PageRank
    Listed in JCR as of 2009
    Eigenfactor Score :
    Influence of the citing journal divided by the total number of citations appearing in that journal
    Example: Neurology (2006): score of .204 = an estimated 0.2% of all citation traffic of journals in JCR (Bergstrom & West, 2008).
    Larger journals will have more citations and therefore will have larger eigenfactors
  • 15. Article Influence Score
    From Eigenfactor: measure of prestige of a journal
    Average influence, per article of the papers on a journal
    Comparable to the Impact Factor
    Corrects for the issues of journal size in the raw Eigenfactor score
    Neurology’s 2006 article influence score = 2.01. Or that an avg. article in Neurology is 2X as influential as an avg. article in all of JCR
  • 16. ScienceWatch
    Provides “quick and dirty” articles on hot researchers, trending research topics, institutions and journals
    Much on this site (in-cites, etc) are now parts of analytical products being sold byThompson; no longer free
    There are still some good articles, but not searchable, hit or miss information
  • 17. New sources for citation information
    Google Scholar
  • 18. Scopus: alternate database of citation data
    Review panel, i.e., quality control
    Bigger field than ISI: covers all the journals in WoS and more
    Strongest in “hard”sciences”, ostensibly improved social science coverage, arts and humanities: are “getting there”
    Algorithmically determined with human editing
  • 19. Google Scholaralternate database of citation data
    No rhyme or reason to what is included
    Biggest source of citation data
    Foreign language sources
    Sources other than scholarly journals
    Entirely algorithmically determined, no human editing
  • 20. Scopus analytics
    Author Evaluator
  • 21. SNIP (Source Normalized Impact Per Paper)
    Journal Ranking based on citation analysis with adjustments for the frequency of citations of the other journals within the field (the field is all journals citing this particular journal)
    SNIP is defined as the ratio of the journal’s citation count per paper and the citation potential in its subject field. (Moed, 2009)
  • 22. SJR:SCImago Journal Rank
    What it’s supposed to measure: “current “average prestige per paper”
    SCImago website uses journal/citation data from Scopus, and is also available from scopus db
    Formula: citation time window is 3 years instead of 2 like JIF
    Corrections for self citations
    Strong correlation to JIF
  • 23. SCImago Journal Rank
    Prestige factors include: number of journals in db, number of papers from journal in database, citation numbers and “importance” received from other journals: size dependent: larger journals have greater prestige values
    Normalized by the number of significant works published by the journal: helps correct for size variations
    Corrections made for journal self citations
  • 24. Scopus Author Evaluator
    Breakdown of documents by source
    Citations per year (graph)
  • 25. Google Scholar
    Publish or Perish
  • 26. Publish or Perish
    Provides a variety of metrics for measuring scholarly impact and output.
    More useful for metrics on authors than journals or institutions
    Uses Google Scholar citation information
    Useful for interdisciplinary topics, fields relying heavily on conference papers or reports, non-English language sources, new journals, etc.
    Continuously updated since 2006
  • 27. Publish or Perish Metrics
    Basic metrics:
    # papers, #citations, active years, years since first published, average #of citations per paper, average # of citations per year, average # citations per author, etc.
    Complex metrics
    H index (and its many variations, mquotient, g-index (corrects h-index for variations in citation patterns), AR index, AW index
    Does not have any corrections for SELF CITATIONS
  • 28. CIDS
    Measures output of authors for prestige and influence
    Similar to PoP
    Corrects for Self-Citations
    Uses Google Scholar data
  • 29. CIDS metrics
    Citations per year, h-index, g-index, total citations, avg cites per paper, self citations included and excluded, etc.
  • 30. Mesur
    Metric based on usage, citation and bibliographic data
    Uses its own datbases of documents/metadata/reference, users & authors, “usage events” and citations
    Project seems to be dead?
  • 31. Considerations
    Don’t measure an individual journal’s impact by the metrics for the entire journal
    Cluster of years of citations
    Negative citations
    A few high impact citations or a lot of low impact ciations
    Source of citing documents
    Foreign, conference proceedings, traditional
  • 32. Questions???