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Bibliometrics: Now There Are Options


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Presentation about new bibliometric tools using citation data from ISI, Scopus, and Google Scholar for University at Albany Librarians, 4/28/11

Presentation about new bibliometric tools using citation data from ISI, Scopus, and Google Scholar for University at Albany Librarians, 4/28/11

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  • G index, contemporary h index, factors in age of articles, individual h index: per author, hm index, corrects for multiple authors by reducing paper counts,
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    • 1. Bibliometrics :
      Now There are Options
      Elaine M. Lasda Bergman
      Bibliographer for Social Welfare
      and Dewey Reference
      Dewey Graduate Library
      April 28, 2011
    • 2. What is bibliometrics?
      Scholarly communication
      Influence of articles, journals, scholars
    • 3. The birth of citation analysis
      Eugene Garfield
      Citation indexes and JCR
      Better coverage on hard sciences than on social sciences and worse still on humanities
    • 4. Garfield’s metrics
      Citation count
      Impact Factor
      Immediacy Index
      Citation Half-Life
    • 5. Citation count
      Number of times cited within a given time period
      Does not take into account
      Materials not included in citation database
      Self citations
    • 6. Impact factor
      Measures “impact” of a journal (not an article) within a given subject
      Formula is a ratio:
      Number of citations to a journal in a given year from articles occurring in the past 2 years Divided by the number of scholarly articles published in the journal in the past 2 years
    • 7. Concerns with impact factor
      Cannot be used to compare cross disciplinary (per Garfield himself) due to different rates of publication and citation
      Two year time frame not adequate for non-scientific disciplines
      Coverage of some disciplines not sufficient in the ISI databases
      Is a measure of “impact” a measure of “quality”?
    • 8. Immediacy index
      What it’s supposed to measure: how quickly articles in a given journal have an impact on the discipline
      Formula: the average number of times an article in a journal in a given year was cited in that same year
    • 9. Citation Half-Life
      What it’s supposed to measure: duration of relevance of articles in a given journal
      Formula: median age of articles cited for a particular journal in a given year
    • 10. Twenty first century tools
    • 11. Influence of Google Page Rank
      Eigenvector analysis:
      “The probability that a researcher, in documenting his or her research, goes from a journal to another selecting a random reference in a research article of the first journal. Values obtained after the whole process represent a ‘random research walk’ that starts from a random journal to end in another after following an infinite process of selecting random references in research articles. A random jump factor is added to represent the probability that the researcher chooses a journal by means other than following the references of research articles.” (Gonzales-Pereira,, 2010)
    • 12. Sources Using ISI Data
    • 13.
      Journal uses ISI data and eigenvector (PageRank) algorhythm to create one’s own categories
      Can assign different weights to citations from the same journal, the same category and from other categories or only whithin a specific list
      Not updated since 2005
    • 14.
      Uses ISI data
      Similar to PageRank
      Listed in JCR as of 2009
      Eigenfactor Score :
      Influence of the citing journal divided by the total number of citations appearing in that journal
      Example: Neurology (2006): score of .204 = an estimated 0.2% of all citation traffic of journals in JCR (Bergstrom & West, 2008).
      Larger journals will have more citations and therefore will have larger eigenfactors
    • 15. Article Influence Score
      From Eigenfactor: measure of prestige of a journal
      Average influence, per article of the papers on a journal
      Comparable to the Impact Factor
      Corrects for the issues of journal size in the raw Eigenfactor score
      Neurology’s 2006 article influence score = 2.01. Or that an avg. article in Neurology is 2X as influential as an avg. article in all of JCR
    • 16. ScienceWatch
      Provides “quick and dirty” articles on hot researchers, trending research topics, institutions and journals
      Much on this site (in-cites, etc) are now parts of analytical products being sold byThompson; no longer free
      There are still some good articles, but not searchable, hit or miss information
    • 17. New sources for citation information
      Google Scholar
    • 18. Scopus: alternate database of citation data
      Review panel, i.e., quality control
      Bigger field than ISI: covers all the journals in WoS and more
      Strongest in “hard”sciences”, ostensibly improved social science coverage, arts and humanities: are “getting there”
      Algorithmically determined with human editing
    • 19. Google Scholaralternate database of citation data
      No rhyme or reason to what is included
      Biggest source of citation data
      Foreign language sources
      Sources other than scholarly journals
      Entirely algorithmically determined, no human editing
    • 20. Scopus analytics
      Author Evaluator
    • 21. SNIP (Source Normalized Impact Per Paper)
      Journal Ranking based on citation analysis with adjustments for the frequency of citations of the other journals within the field (the field is all journals citing this particular journal)
      SNIP is defined as the ratio of the journal’s citation count per paper and the citation potential in its subject field. (Moed, 2009)
    • 22. SJR:SCImago Journal Rank
      What it’s supposed to measure: “current “average prestige per paper”
      SCImago website uses journal/citation data from Scopus, and is also available from scopus db
      Formula: citation time window is 3 years instead of 2 like JIF
      Corrections for self citations
      Strong correlation to JIF
    • 23. SCImago Journal Rank
      Prestige factors include: number of journals in db, number of papers from journal in database, citation numbers and “importance” received from other journals: size dependent: larger journals have greater prestige values
      Normalized by the number of significant works published by the journal: helps correct for size variations
      Corrections made for journal self citations
    • 24. Scopus Author Evaluator
      Breakdown of documents by source
      Citations per year (graph)
    • 25. Google Scholar
      Publish or Perish
    • 26. Publish or Perish
      Provides a variety of metrics for measuring scholarly impact and output.
      More useful for metrics on authors than journals or institutions
      Uses Google Scholar citation information
      Useful for interdisciplinary topics, fields relying heavily on conference papers or reports, non-English language sources, new journals, etc.
      Continuously updated since 2006
    • 27. Publish or Perish Metrics
      Basic metrics:
      # papers, #citations, active years, years since first published, average #of citations per paper, average # of citations per year, average # citations per author, etc.
      Complex metrics
      H index (and its many variations, mquotient, g-index (corrects h-index for variations in citation patterns), AR index, AW index
      Does not have any corrections for SELF CITATIONS
    • 28. CIDS
      Measures output of authors for prestige and influence
      Similar to PoP
      Corrects for Self-Citations
      Uses Google Scholar data
    • 29. CIDS metrics
      Citations per year, h-index, g-index, total citations, avg cites per paper, self citations included and excluded, etc.
    • 30. Mesur
      Metric based on usage, citation and bibliographic data
      Uses its own datbases of documents/metadata/reference, users & authors, “usage events” and citations
      Project seems to be dead?
    • 31. Considerations
      Don’t measure an individual journal’s impact by the metrics for the entire journal
      Cluster of years of citations
      Negative citations
      A few high impact citations or a lot of low impact ciations
      Source of citing documents
      Foreign, conference proceedings, traditional
    • 32. Questions???