Low carb diets – high in protein, other things? What have you heard?
When Atkins first published his ''Diet Revolution'' in 1972, - first of the low carb/carb restricted diets and counter to the message on fat Americans were just coming to terms with the proposition that fat -- particularly the saturated fat of meat and dairy products -- was the primary nutritional evil in the American diet. Atkins managed to sell millions of copies of a book promising that we would lose weight eating steak, eggs and butter to our heart's desire, because it was the carbohydrates, the pasta, rice, bagels and sugar, that caused obesity and even heart disease. Fat, he said, was harmless. Atkins allowed his readers to eat ''truly luxurious foods without limit,'' as he put it, ''lobster with butter sauce, steak with béarnaise sauce . . . bacon cheeseburgers,'' but allowed no starches or refined carbohydrates, which means no sugars or anything made from flour. Atkins banned even fruit juices, and permitted only a modicum of vegetables, although the latter were negotiable as the diet progressed. What if It’s All Been a Big Fat Lie? - New York Times. (n.d.). New York Times. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/2002/07/07/magazine/what-if-it-s-all-been-a-big-fat-lie.html
Righthttp://www.zonediet.com/tools/quick-start-guideLefthttp://www.atkins.com/Science/Atkins-Food-Pyramid.aspxDiscuss. What’s the primary difference here? Americans were just coming to terms with the proposition that fat -- particularly the saturated fat of meat and dairy products -- was the primary nutritional evil in the American diet. Atkins managed to sell millions of copies of a book promising that we would lose weight eating steak, eggs and butter to our heart's desire, because it was the carbohydrates, the pasta, rice, bagels and sugar, that caused obesity and even heart disease. Fat, he said, was harmless. Atkins allowed his readers to eat ''truly luxurious foods without limit,'' as he put it, ''lobster with butter sauce, steak with béarnaise sauce . . . bacon cheeseburgers,'' but allowed no starches or refined carbohydrates, which means no sugars or anything made from flour. Atkins banned even fruit juices, and permitted only a modicum of vegetables, although the latter were negotiable as the diet progressed. What if It’s All Been a Big Fat Lie? - New York Times. (n.d.). New York Times. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/2002/07/07/magazine/what-if-it-s-all-been-a-big-fat-lie.html
This is the oldest popular one of the low carb dietsa.Paleo - http://thepaleodiet.com/what-to-eat-on-the-paleo-diet/b. Atkins- low carb, fat is fine, veggies are ?http://www.atkins.com/Program/Phase-1/What-You-Can-Eat-in-this-Phase.aspxc. Mcdougall - http://www.drmcdougall.com/free_2a.htmld. Zone = http://www.zonediet.com/tools/quick-start-guide
http://thepaleodiet.com/books/Fast forward 30-40 years, have Cordain, a professor in the department of health and exercise science at Colorado State University since 1982. He was introduced to the Paleo Diet concept in about 1987 when he read Dr. Boyd Eaton’s seminal New England Journal of Medicine paper, “Paleolithic Nutrition.”
The world’s healthiest diet, is based upon the fundamental concept that the optimal diet is the one to which we are genetically adapted. The therapeutic effect of the Paleo Diet is supported by both randomized controlled human trials and real-life success stories.
The moderate-fat, restricted-calorie, Mediterranean diet was rich in vegetables and low in red meat, with poultry and fish replacing beef and lamb. We restricted energy intake to 1500 kcal per day for women and 1800 kcal per day for men, with a goal of no more than 35% of calories from fat; the main sources of added fat were 30 to 45 g of olive oil and a handful of nuts (five to seven nuts, <20 g) per day. The diet is based on the recom- mendations of Willett and Skerrett.21
Why would you give up carbs!!!!?????Short term weight lossCholesterolSeizuresOther issuesNo doubt that it works to lose weight and it may or may not be bad for your heart in the long run. Reducing obesity is a good thing.
These diets claim to work too and have medical evidence……
How do you communicate with your friends?Same language you use in talking with your parents or grandparents?Same you imagine you’d use getting a job? At work?NOScientists = talk to each other In journal articles – state what they did, stake their claim to findings, show they know how to research, get grants and fameIn specialized language – just like you and your friends with texts and emojicons and whatnot - and they use scholarly journal articles and usually the peer review process
When you say or hear this, after this class you should say HOW
In groups talk about answering these questions for 5 minutes. Have some of them report back.
In your groups again -
Ketosis occurs when you don't have enough sugar (glucose) for energy, so your body breaks down stored fat, causing ketones to build up in your body.
Does this sound familiar?What you eat can make a HUGE difference
What you eat can make a HUGE difference
What you eat can make a HUGE difference
Most of these are treatable! Is this sustainable way to live? If it’s keeping your weight down, or seizures, or overall chlolesterol, then yes, maybe? Is it environmentally sustainable? Likely the high-protein diet’s biggest negative impact is it’s carbon footprint.Kristen D’Anci in the February 2009 issue of the journal Appetite concluded that, “The present data show memory impairments during low-carbohydrate diets at a point when available glycogen stores would be at their lowest.” Women followed a low-carbohydrate diet, similar to the Atkins diet, or a reduced-calorie balanced diet, similar to that recommended by the American Dietetic Association (ADA). “Results showed that during complete withdrawal of dietary carbohydrate, low-carbohydrate dieters performed worse on memory-based tasks than ADA dieters. These impairments were ameliorated after reintroduction of carbohydrates.” After about one week of severe carbohydrate deprivation subjects demonstrated impairment of memory.
Is it worth it? Certainly for controlling seizures, it would be.Ketosis is associated with loss of appetite, nausea, fatigue, and hypotension (lower blood pressure). The result is a decrease in food (calorie) intake. Much of the weight lost is diuretic and appetite suppressed. You will lose weight!
You will all likely have to answer a complicated question some day – house? Car? Job? Diet?Need to know how to search and what you want to find.And where to look
researching a topic throughly. Library databases aren’t answer machines. You have to figure out how to use them to get the information you need.
what was 1 thing you thought was useful about this resource?(i.e. sorting records and saving them)Which found the best articles?Fastest?Easy to use?
Lose weight? Yes – long term impacts are still ?Reverse type 2 diabetes? YesImprove cardiac health? Maybe or maybe notMay also harm bone developmentLong term healthy? Maybe not?
Point out, using an example, that natural language searching is just keyword searching with stop words added. A question like, “What is the cause for the climate change problem?” is for Google, ““What is the cause for the climate change problem?” The difficulties here are that climate change is not in quotation marks to designate it as a phrase, climate change is not the first term (which is important for Google) and there is the additional word “problem,” which may not appear in some otherwise useful websites. Natural language removes control from the searcher. If searchers want to control their search terminology, it is much better to use crucial words and order them as the searcher wants, not as the natural language question demands. Thus: “climate change” cause.
• At the end of the class students will:
• Understand that there is valid scientific
research to support many sides of a
controversial topic – especially in nutrition.
• Research is messy.
• The UO librarians can help.
What have you heard about lowcarbohydrate/Paleo Diets?
1st very successful
First published a
book in 1972.
What if It’s All Been a Big Fat Lie? - New York Times. (n.d.). New York Times. Retrieved
January 26, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/2002/07/07/magazine/what-if-it-s-allbeen-a-big-fat-lie.html
What is this Diet?
A. Grass fed meat and some oils (coconut, avocados walnuts, etc.), no
cereal grains, potatoes, legumes, dairy, or sugar. – Paleo http://thepaleodiet.com/what-to-eat-on-the-paleo-diet/
B. protein, healthy fats and some vegetables (meat, eggs, cheese, butter,
cooking oils are fine, few fruits), little bread or grains, no sugar. – Atkins http://www.atkins.com/Program/Phase-1/What-You-Can-Eat-in-thisPhase.aspx
C. Eat complex carbohydrates (grains and beans), plenty of fruits and
veggies, small amounts of protein; no oil of any kind (including olive oil), no
dairy, no sugar. – McDougall - http://www.drmcdougall.com/free_2a.html
D. Lots of veggies and low fat protein, certain fats, very few grains and
starches. Zone - http://www.zonediet.com/tools/quick-start-guide
Paleo Diet says
The world’s healthiest diet, is based upon the
fundamental concept that the optimal
the one to which we are genetically adapted.
The therapeutic effect of the Paleo Diet is
supported by both randomized
controlled human trials and real-life
What is the Paleo Diet?
A. Grass fed meat and some oils (coconut, avocados walnuts, etc.), no cereal
grains, potatoes, legumes, dairy, or sugar. Paleo
B. Lots of fruits and veggies, carbohydrates are ok in limited amounts, fish and
poultry, olive oil, with small amounts of red meat, wine and sugar Mediterranean
C. Eat complex carbohydrates (grains and beans), plenty of fruits and veggies,
small amounts of protein; no fat of any kind (no olive oil, butter, etc.), no
dairy, no sugar. McDougall D. Eat meat & vegetables, nuts & seeds, some fruit, little starch, and no sugar.
Keep intake to levels that will support exercise, but not body fat. Crossfit http://community.crossfit.com/what-is-crossfit
What’s the science?
Where do scientists discuss their research?
How do they discuss their work and their
Peer review at NEJM
① Manuscript reviewed by Deputy editor+ – ½ rejected
② If it passes it goes to an Associate editor*
③ Then to 2 outside-reviewers (out of a database of 10,000 with
④ Recommendations are to make changes and publish or reject
⑤ Reviewed at least 1 time by contracted Statistical consultants
⑥ Associate editor and Author(s) make changes
⑦ Passed back to Deputy editor/Editor-in-Chief
⑧ Editor-in-Chief formally accepts paper for publication
+has an M.D. or Ph.D. and does some teaching/research
*holds a full time research/teaching position
Peer Review Process
Sent to journal editor
Sent to three to five experts in the field
What’s the science?
Groups of 3 or 4
1 person is the recorder
1 person is the speaker
1 person is the skeptic
1 person is the timekeeper
Answer these questions using the 5
articles from the Bb survey
1. Which articles were scholarly? Which were
2. Did they convince you that the information
presented/conclusions reached were valid?
3. How did they convince you?
4. What are you going to do next?
What is Ketosis?
• What is it?
• What are the benefits of it?
• What are the disadvantages?
Right number of keywords
What is Ketosis?
Frigolet, M.-E., Ramos Barragán, V.-E., & Tamez González, M.
(2011). Low-carbohydrate diets: a matter of love or hate. Annals
of nutrition & metabolism, 58(4), 320–334.
Ketogenic diet =
High fat, low carbohydrate, calorie
Benefits of ketosis?
Stops difficult to control seizures
Modified Atkins diet might work for some and
be followed more
Other benefits of a diet
that puts you in state of ketosis?
help with type 2 diabetes
May help with other issues like recovery from
concussions, Alzheimer’s, Parkinsons
Is this popular or scholarly?
Bielohuby, M., Matsuura, M., Herbach, N.,
Kienzle, E., Slawik, M., Hoeflich, A., &
Bidlingmaier, M. (2010). Short-Term Exposure to
Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diets Induces Low
Bone Mineral Density and Reduces Bone
Formation in Rats. Journal of Bone & Mineral
Research, 25(2), 275–284.
Constipation, kidney stones, decreased bone
density, slows growth in children, increases
cholesterol and lipids, causes micronutrient
deficiencies, may impact energy and memory
Many of these low carb diets put
you in a form of ketosis
Or the primal blueprint:
Start at minute 9:35, if you don’t want to watch the
What do we know?
Sugar is evil.
So are simple carbohydrates.
How would you search for information
on this topic?
How many carbs should I eat?
Can I eat butter? Olive oil?
What about fruit?
Is the paleo diet safe? Effective?
Should I be a starchavore?
Google is an answer machine…
type in your topic and get 1,000s of results.
…library databases aren’t
You have to know how to get the information
you need out of library database.
Library databases have:
Ways to sort, save and retrieve
Specific information on a topic
Complex carbohydrates – a little or a lot?
Fat – in any form, just some forms, very little?
Fruit, vegetables, meat (protein sources)?
Short term v. long term?
In groups, answer for each :
A. library catalog
C. Google Scholar
How did you find something on your topic?
Was the item available?
Where is FindText?
What was 1 thing you thought was useful
about this resource?
5. Can you use the limits?
Is there scientific evidence that suggests that
a low carbohydrate diet will help someone
What about google scholar?
• Might work for your topic and work well. I use
it sometimes, but find it difficult to sort
through the results of a broad search.
• Your mileage may vary. Unless you are already
an expert, GS won’t be any better than a