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Food and beverage_operations Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Food & Beverage Operations May2010www.cthresources.com 1 Page 1 www.cthawards.com
  • 2. Content I. Description II. Learning Outcomes III. Syllabus IV. Assessment V. Chapters 1 - 8www.cthresources.com Page 2 www.cthawards.com
  • 3. Description Description The aim of the Food & Beverage Operations module is to provide students with an understanding of the operational & supervisory aspects of running a food & beverage operation for an international clientele in a range of establishments. To encourage an appreciation of the origins of such systems & to understand the various factors involved in meeting customer needs. Students will gain an understanding of food & beverage & its service in a variety of styles of restaurant & establishments & they will have sufficient knowledge to produce a broad plan for specified food & beverage operations.www.cthresources.com Page 3 www.cthawards.com
  • 4. Content I. Description II. Learning Outcomes III. Syllabus IV. Assessment V. Chapters 1 - 8www.cthresources.com Page 4 www.cthawards.com
  • 5. Learning Outcomes Summary of Learning Outcomes On completion of this module, students will be able to: Demonstrate knowledge of the key functional areas of the food & beverage operation Describe the kitchen operation including food production systems, methods of cookery, kitchen layout & commodities Demonstrate the different methods of purchasing & food storage Examine the appropriateness of the different methods of food & beverage service to manage customer expectations Develop & plan menus according to customer requirements Describe the different types & requirements of banqueting functionswww.cthresources.com Page 5 www.cthawards.com
  • 6. Content I. Description II. Learning Outcomes III. Syllabus IV. Assessment V. Chapters 1 - 8www.cthresources.com Page 6 www.cthawards.com
  • 7. Syllabus – Part 1 of 3 Syllabus ● Restaurant concepts & types of outlets; banqueting, fast food, hotel, Introduction to food & industrial, outside catering, institutional, in-flight, restaurant, public beverage operations house & transport catering ● Typical organization structures & job titles in kitchen, restaurant & banqueting departments ● Food production systems including traditional, centralised, cook-chill, Food production cook-freeze & sous vide operations ● The suitability of these systems to the operation. Methods of cookery. Kitchen layout & equipment. Commodities: food & non-food ● The policies & procedures for purchasing of food & non-food items for a hospitality operation Purchasing & storage of ● The use of standard purchasing specifications & other recognised goods standards/brand names when ordering both food & non-food items. ● The correct storage of commodities. The security aspects of storing high value items ● Procedures for the issuing of stock items, including all records kept, & checks on the use of commoditieswww.cthresources.com Page 7 www.cthawards.com
  • 8. Syllabus – Part 2 of 3 Syllabus ● Methods of food service, silver service, plate service, buffet, counter Food service systems service, room service, self service, assisted service. Suitability & cost of service styles ● Meeting managing customer expectations. Staff skill levels. Preparation & layout of food & service operations Production & sale of ● Preparation & layout of beverage service, service of alcoholic & non- non-alcoholic & alcoholic beverages & hot beverages alcoholic beverages ● Beverage menu & wine list ● Menu structure & trends Menu planning ● Factors affecting the compilation of menus, menu development ● Catering for customer requirements & trends in modern diets.www.cthresources.com Page 8 www.cthawards.com
  • 9. Syllabus – Part 3 of 3 Syllabus Providing excellent ● Employee attitude, personal appearance, hygiene practices customer service in food & beverage ● Attentiveness, body language, effective communication, team work, operations attention to detail ● Types of events, planning, organising & costing of an event. Menu & Banqueting & functions service styles ● Health, safety & hygiene considerations. Staffing the event. Evaluationwww.cthresources.com Page 9 www.cthawards.com
  • 10. Content I. Description II. Learning Outcomes III. Syllabus IV. Assessment V. Chapters 1 - 8www.cthresources.com Page 10 www.cthawards.com
  • 11. Assessment Assessment This module will be assessed via a 2 ½ hour examination, set & marked by CTH. The examination will cover the whole of the assessment criteria in this unit & will take the form of 10 x 2 mark questions & 5 x 4 mark questions in section A (40 marks). Section B will comprise of 5 x 20 mark questions of which candidates must select & answer three (60 marks). CTH is a London based awarding body & the syllabus content will in general reflect this. Any legislation & codes of practice will reflect the international nature of the industry & will not be country specific. International centres may find it advantageous to add local legislation or practice to their teaching but they should be aware that the CTH examination will not assess this local knowledge.www.cthresources.com Page 11 www.cthawards.com
  • 12. Content I. Description II. Learning Outcomes III. Syllabus IV. Assessment V. Chapters 1 - 8www.cthresources.com Page 12 www.cthawards.com
  • 13. Chapters 1. Introduction to food & beverage 2. Food production 3. Purchasing food & beverage 4. Food service delivery 5. Beverages 6. Menu planning 7. Service quality in food & beverage 8. Conference & banquetingwww.cthresources.com Page 13 www.cthawards.com
  • 14. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Objectives In this chapter you will learn to :- ● Present the key characteristics, objectives & challenges of the sector ● Detail the diverse structure & scope of the sector ● Explain the complexity of the classifying the sector ● Describe & evaluate the characteristics & aims of a range of different types of food & beverage operationswww.cthresources.com Page 14 www.cthawards.com
  • 15. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1. Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1.1 Food & beverage: main objectives & expectations 1.2 Characteristics of the food & beverage sector 1.3 Trends in food & beverage 1.4 Size & structure of the food & beverage industry 1.5 Classification & organisation of the sector: the challengewww.cthresources.com Page 15 www.cthawards.com
  • 16. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector Fig 1.1 The food & beverage cycle Most food & beverage businesses operate within the cycle & the different stages of the cycle present both challenges & opportunities for operators . 1. Purchasing 8. Consuming 2. Receiving 7. Serving 3. Storing 6. Cooking 4. Issuing 5. Preparingwww.cthresources.com Page 16 www.cthawards.com
  • 17. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1.1 Food & beverage: main objectives & expectations Most food & beverage operations aim to provide: - Quality food & beverages A clean, hygienic & safe environment Comfortable & well designed facilities Professional, attentive & friendly service Value for moneywww.cthresources.com Page 17 www.cthawards.com
  • 18. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector The main challenges of the hospitality industry & the food sector are:- ● Intangibility – such as ambiance ● Simultaneous production & consumption - where mass production is difficult for it requires large amounts of customers & producers in one placer which would cause environmental, social, cultural & economic problems ● Heterogeneity – where service experience may vary due to different producers & consumers with different needs & requirements ● Consistency – is difficult to achieve due to the intangible element in food & beverage ● Perishability – where unused hospitality services cannot be stored, returned, claimed or resold Ownership – where the consumer only owns a hospitality product only for a certain period of time No guarantees – with little aftercare or service Imitation is easy – with no patents on service processes & easily copied by competitors Seasonality – where staffing & expenses are challenging to many restaurant operators External variables – that impact the running of the business such as political, economic, social, technological, legal & environmental changewww.cthresources.com Page 18 www.cthawards.com
  • 19. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1.2 Characteristics of the food & beverage sector Following are the main characteristics:- ● A vital part of everyday life ● Major contributor to the national economy ● Highly fragmented & complex ● Creates employment ● Encourages entrepreneurship ● Promotes diversity through many different food concepts & cuisines ● Fuels innovation ● Local multiplier using many other peripheral services ● Consumer led ● Competitive ● An opportunity to enjoy the company of friends, family & colleagues ● Fulfils basic needs (see Fig 1.2)www.cthresources.com Page 19 www.cthawards.com
  • 20. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector Fig 1.2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Food is a basic need for everyday life Self - actualization Self Esteem Love & belonging Safety needs Physiological needswww.cthresources.com Page 20 www.cthawards.com
  • 21. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1.3 Trends in food & beverage Following are some key trends in the UK:- ● Guests become more sophisticated ● More emphasis on food safety & sanitation ● More casual/less formal & theme restaurants ● Increase in ethnic restaurants & ethnic food ● Growth in chains –all cuisines ● Increase in convenience food ● Increase in coffee chains – coffee culture ● Increased take out meals & home meal replacement ● Outsourcing outlets in hotels – co-branding ● More focus on healthier eating ● Increase in organic food consumption, food sustainability & provenancewww.cthresources.com Page 21 www.cthawards.com
  • 22. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1.4 Size & structure of the food & beverage industry Fig 1.3 The United Kingdom Food Service Industry (2006)www.cthresources.com Page 22 www.cthawards.com
  • 23. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1.5 Classification & organisation of the sector: the challenge The food & beverage sector is extremely diverse & fragmented that the size & scope of the industry creates a challenge when attempting to organise & classify it. It has many subsectors. Following are the classification approaches & options:- ● Commercial & non-commercial ● Size ● Ownership ● Star rating or quality ● Service method ● Food or beverage ● Concept or theme ● Revenue or turnover ● Location ● Meal time or meal period ● Customer type ● Cuisine ● Awards & schemeswww.cthresources.com Page 23 www.cthawards.com
  • 24. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector Fig 1.4 Classification of food & beverage Food & Beverage outlets Non Commercial Commercial General Restricted Institutional Employee market market catering catering Travel In-house Hotels Schools catering catering Restaurants University Contract Clubs & snack bars catering caterer Institutional Fast food & The military & employee take away services catering Function & event Prisons cateringwww.cthresources.com Page 24 www.cthawards.com
  • 25. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector Variety of food & beverage operations Ethnic restaurants Ethnic chains Educational Institutions Shopping malls, (Chinese, Japanese, (Wagamama, Bombay Transport (rail, air & (schools, colleges, airports, food counters French, Malaysian, Bicycle Yo Sushi, marine) universities) Caribbean) Nandos) Restaurants (bistros, Welfare catering brasseries, coffee shops, Supermarkets – food hospitals, healthcare, cafeterias, wine bars, Employee dining Outside catering retail ( food to go) prisons, military public houses, roadside restaurants) Themed restaurants Private clubs Street vendors Fine dining (Hard Rock Café, Planet Cafes & sandwich bars Hollywood) Fast food chains Accommodation (hotels, Leisure (museums, Conference centres Takeaway (kiosks, fish & (McDonalds, Subway motels, guest houses, theme parks, theatres, chips, snack bars) KFC, Wendy’s) hostels) cinemas)www.cthresources.com Page 25 www.cthawards.com
  • 26. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Management options in food and beverage: main approaches 2. Management options in food & beverage: main approaches 2.1 Self – operated 2.2 Franchise agreement 2.3 Management contracting 2.4 Outsourcingwww.cthresources.com Page 26 www.cthawards.com
  • 27. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Management options in food and beverage: main approaches 2.1 Self-operated The owner or organisation manages the operation themselves. It could be a small, large or a franchised situation 2.2 Franchise agreement Ninemeier (2000) explains: ‘ With a franchise, the franchisee (the owner of the facility) pays fees to the franchisor (or franchise company) in exchange for the right to use the name, building design, and business methods of the franchisor. Furthermore, the franchisee must agree to maintain the franchisor’s business & quality standards’.www.cthresources.com Page 27 www.cthawards.com
  • 28. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Management options in food and beverage: main approaches Figure 1.5 Evaluation of Franchise agreement: Franchiser & Franchisee (Mc Donalds)www.cthresources.com Page 28 www.cthawards.com
  • 29. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Management options in food and beverage: main approaches 2.3 Management contracting When an owner or operator of an establishment employs or contracts specialised hospitality or food & beverage service company to manage the whole or part of the operation. This could b don either in a hotel or in a non-commercial institution, for example a university Figure 1.6: Management contracting analysiswww.cthresources.com Page 29 www.cthawards.com
  • 30. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Management options in food and beverage: main approaches 2.4 Outsourcing Increasingly, hotels are realising that hotel-run restaurants are in some cases unprofitable due to many residents opting to dine at known branded outlets. Therefore, a new & emerging trend is where the hotel forms a partnership with a restaurant/coffee chain/bar brand that would operate from a designated area within the hotel. Fig 1.7 Food & beverage outsourcing in hotels (Starbucks) http://www.litchfieldbeach.comwww.cthresources.com Page 30 www.cthawards.com
  • 31. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3. Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.1 Food & beverage in accommodation 3.2 Food & beverage services in hotels 3.3 Independent restaurants (small/medium enterprise – SME) 3.4 Ethnic restaurants 3.5 Themed restaurants 3.6 Public houses or licensed premises 3.7 Chained restaurants & bars 3.8 Food & beverage in transportation 3.9 Non-commercial food & beverage 3.10 Characteristics of non-commercial operationswww.cthresources.com Page 31 www.cthawards.com
  • 32. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations Main types of commercial & non-commercial food & beverage:- Commercial ● Food & beverage in accommodation ● Independents operations ● Themed restaurants ● Public houses ● Fast food chains ● Transport services Non-commercial ● Military ● Schools ● Universities ● Hospitals ● Employee cateringwww.cthresources.com Page 32 www.cthawards.com
  • 33. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.1 Food & beverage in accommodation Can vary depending on location specific areas, size, ownership, location, goals, customer & quality. Coffee shop, Fine dining restaurant/s, Specialty restaurant, Bar, Coffee 5-star hotels lounge/pastry counter, Conference & banqueting, Outside catering, 24- hour full room service menu, Executive lounge food & beverage services, In room guest amenities, Mini bar, Nightclub, karaoke, cigar room, pool café, delicatessen, Employee dining Coffee shop, Specialty restaurant, Bar & lounge, Room service (limited 4-star hotels throughout the night), Guest amenities, Conference & banqueting, Mini bar, Employee dining Budget hotels Breakfast buffet, Bar, Vending machines, Employee dining Bed & breakfast Breakfast, Limited set menu available at set times on request Hostel Snack bar, Vending, Food prepared on request to take awaywww.cthresources.com Page 33 www.cthawards.com
  • 34. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations Fig 1.8 The food & beverage structure within a 4-star hotel Food & Beverage Manager Assistant food & Executive Chef Beverage Manager Food and Beverage Sous Chef coordinator Conference and Restaurant Coffee shop Chief Steward Bar Manager Banqueting Manager Manager Manager Conference and Room service Restaurant Team Bar Team Banqueting and Mini Bar Kitchen team Team Manager Room Service teamwww.cthresources.com Page 34 www.cthawards.com
  • 35. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.2 Food & beverage services in hotels Most hotels operate multiple food & beverage outlets. Outlets, products and services offered are subject to change from property to property. The outlets could be:- ● Coffee shop ● Restaurant ● Fine dining ● Bar ● Lounge ● Executive lounge ● Conferencing & banqueting ● Outside catering ● Room service ● Mini bar ● Guest amenities ● Employee diningwww.cthresources.com Page 35 www.cthawards.com
  • 36. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.3 Independent restaurants An independent restaurant is an individual trading entity, and in most cases the unit is managed by the owner. The restaurants could be themed ethnic, have a variety of service methods such as self-service, cafeteria, take-away, sit down or drive-through. They rely heavily on passing trade and word of mouth advertising. Almost 70% are often dynamic & varied. As the team is much smaller, many of the positions overlap. Fig 1.13 Typical organisational chart of a small independent food & beverage organisation Restaurant Manager/ Owner Assistant food & Restaurant Beverage Supervisors Manager Kitchen Team Restaurant Team Bar Supervisor Kitchen Porters Cleanerswww.cthresources.com Page 36 www.cthawards.com
  • 37. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations An independent restaurant is an individual trading entity, and in most cases the unit is managed by the owner. The restaurants could be themed ethnic, have a variety of service methods such as self-service, cafeteria, take-away, sit down or drive-through. They rely heavily on passing trade and word of mouth advertising. Almost 70% are often dynamic & varied. As the team is much smaller, many of the positions overlap. Fig 1.13 Typical organisational chart of a small independent food & beverage organisationwww.cthresources.com Page 37 www.cthawards.com
  • 38. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.4 Ethnic restraints These type of restaurants can be part of a chain but also independent in nature. Manage by owners and operated around a central theme such as Chinese, Japanese and Middle Eastern. 3.5 Themed restaurants These type of restaurants are operations that have a central theme throughout such as music, entertainment or sport for example. For a example the Hard Rock Cafe. 3.6 Public houses or licensed premises Public houses (‘pubs’) offer comfortable, relaxing environments for groups or individuals can get together to enjoy beverages. Beverages are the main products but they offer great verity of foods due to declining beverage sales. They outsource their kitchen to chef entrepreneurs and the growth in gastro pubs.www.cthresources.com Page 38 www.cthawards.com
  • 39. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.7 Chain restaurants and bars Key characteristics of chain restaurants ● Several units operating in different locations. ● Can be national, regional or global ● Operations normally duplicated and featured the same design, menus and operations in each unit. ● Good infrastructure and support networks – training and purchasing for example. ● Provide consistency and standardisation to customers. ● Centralised purchasing and distribution networks. ● Operations are normally themed around a central concept. ● Service systems can vary from take-away, drive thru, dine in, causal or fine dining. ● The operations can be owned by a parent company, a franchise or private owners.www.cthresources.com Page 39 www.cthawards.com
  • 40. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.8 Food and beverage in transportation Range from cafeteria-style snacks on short routes to fine dining on cruise lines. Sea Normally transfer large quantities in short period of time. Range from purchased snack on budget airlines or gourmet set menus for first- class passengers. The food is mass produced and prepared off-site. The on-board Air catering is normally contracted out to a specialist cater. Beverage can be range from trolley to full. Range from fine dining to trolley service. Provide on-board kiosk where customers can purchase a basic selection of hot and cold food and beverages. Another Rail common method is an on-board trolley service, move from carriage to carriage. Fine dining is offered in first-class long journeys. 3.9 Non-commercial food and beverage Main focus is on providing nutritious food and beverages but the primary mission is not to sell food and beverages.www.cthresources.com Page 40 www.cthawards.com
  • 41. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.10 Characteristics of non-commercial operations ● Non-commercial institutions hire commercial food service management(contract) companies from outside to manage food service in their institutions. ● Commercial food service management companies exist to make profit. ● They carry out fully the food and service responsibilities for the institutions under contract. ● The institution or workplace can free itself from the day-to-day concern of managing food service operations. ● They are professional food service companies. ● These operations are planned to keep the expenses/ costs low; they are budget-oriented. ● They are part of properties that exist for reasons other than the service of food and beverages, which is only supportive. ● Competition is limited as the service is provided in a private, closed environment. ● Normally large scale, delivered at particular times of day. ● Business levels are quite predictable making it easier for production and planning. ● Emphasis is not placed on nutrition.www.cthresources.com Page 41 www.cthawards.com
  • 42. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Summary Introduction to food and beverage Objectives, Challenges and characteristics Food and beverage classifications and types Management options Commercial Non commercial operations operations Hotel food and Military beverage Independent Schools operations Ethnic, themed and chain University operations Transport Employee cateringwww.cthresources.com Page 42 www.cthawards.com
  • 43. Chapters 1. Introduction to food & beverage 2. Food production 3. Purchasing food & beverage 4. Food service delivery 5. Beverages 6. Menu planning 7. Service quality in food & beverage 8. Conference & banquetingwww.cthresources.com Page 43 www.cthawards.com
  • 44. Chapter 2 – Food production Objectives In this chapter you will learn to :- ● Explain kitchen organization and the responsibilities of key personnel employed ● Describe and appraise the different food production methods ● Identify the main food groups and commodities ● Describe the main considerations in kitchen designs ● Discuss the importance of achieving food cost ● Explain the importance of food hygiene and controlwww.cthresources.com Page 44 www.cthawards.com
  • 45. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1. Kitchen introduction 1.1 Communication 1.2 Kitchen chef characteristics 1.3 Staffing and responsibilities 1.4 Kitchen organization 1.5 Partie system analysis 1.6 The stewarding departmentwww.cthresources.com Page 45 www.cthawards.com
  • 46. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction Fig 2.1 Main objectives of the kitchen department To provide safe meals for all consumers To prepare food To provide in the time quality meals expected, to for all avoid customer consumers waiting To meet or To prepare the exceed the food right quantity of needs of food organization’s Kitchen target market Objectives To create To utilize food menus that will stocks in the both attract and best way retain possible customers To achieve monthly To minimize financial food stock wastages targetswww.cthresources.com Page 46 www.cthawards.com
  • 47. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction Most kitchens will be managed by an Executive or Head Chef. Their responsibilities can be, Fig 2.2 Executive Chef job descriptionwww.cthresources.com Page 47 www.cthawards.com
  • 48. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.1 Communication Fig 2.3 Executive Chef communication Purchasing & Stores Competitors Department Bar Genaeral Customers Managers office External Suppliers Room service Housekeeping EXECUTIVE Accounts CHEF department Sales and Marketing Human Resources Stewarding Front office & Reception Conference & Banqueting Restaurantwww.cthresources.com Page 48 www.cthawards.com
  • 49. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.2 Kitchen chef characteristics 1.2.1Qualities of a good chef Ability to work under pressure Ability to multi task Creative Consistent Good palate Ability to work in a team 1.2.2 Challenges for a chef Fast paced and hot work environment Many stakeholders Risk of food poisoning In most cases a high level of competition High perishability of stock items Frequently changeable external environment (i.e. food trends or scares) Unsociable workwww.cthresources.com Page 49 www.cthawards.com
  • 50. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.2.3 Opportunities for a chef Be creative and showcase skills Satisfy customers Acquire and pass on skills Meet lots of interesting people Learn and sample a wide variety of different food Travel Obtain awards for culinary expertise 1.2.4 Chef presentation Appearance – trimmed hair, clean hair, hair tied back if long, neatly shaven, no earrings on males, studded earrings only for women Accessories – wristwatch, maximum two rings, body piercings or tattoos should not be visible, no visible necklaces Trousers – pin striped, clean, well pressed Shoes – slip resistant, in good repairwww.cthresources.com Page 50 www.cthawards.com
  • 51. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.3 Staffing and responsibilities The organizational structure of a kitchen will depend on a number of factors including : - Size and kitchen space available Quantity of food output (demand) Number of food outlets to cater Sophistication and type of menu Equipment requirement Location where production is taking place (in kitchen or outsourced) Service methods (Buffets, plated)www.cthresources.com Page 51 www.cthawards.com
  • 52. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.4 Kitchen organization “Partie system” is a method of kitchen organization which is formal, structured brigade and in most cases, only found in high quality kitchens and restaurants. Fig 2.4 The ‘Partie’ system Executive Chef Sous Chef Chef Tournant Chef de partie Chef de partie Chef de partie Chef de partie Chef de partie Grade Manager Saucier Poissonier Patiser Entremetier Demi Chef de Demi Chef de Demi Chef de Demi Chef de Demi Chef de Partie Grade Partie partie Partie Partie Poissonier Partie Patiser Manager Saucier Entremetier Commis Grade Commis Commis Commis Saucier Commis Patiser Manager Poissonier Entremetierwww.cthresources.com Page 52 www.cthawards.com
  • 53. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction Role Responsibilities Sous Chef Assistant to the executive chef, deputies in his/her absence Chef Tournant Covers each section as and when required – has the skills and knowledge to cover all sections Chef Grade Manager Responsible for the preparation of all cold savoury foods Chef Saucier Responsible for all sauteed items Chef Poissonnier Preparation and cooking of all fish dishes Chef Patissier Preparation of desserts and pastries Chef Entremetier Preparation of all vegetables, soups and hot appetiserswww.cthresources.com Page 53 www.cthawards.com
  • 54. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.5 Partie system analysis Advantages Disadvantages Chefs specialize in a particular section of a Although chefs specialize, they only focus on kitchen one section of the kitchen as opposed to learning a wide range of skills in more conventional kitchen systems. Each section has a support infrastructure to Staff can be ideal when particular section of the avoid any weaknesses kitchen are not busy Chef have a clear route f or progression Can be expensive for the organization due to the large numbers of staff required Customers receives quality meals Chefs becomes bored Kitchen managers are able to allocate responsibility and accountability to the various sections Kitchen managers are able to detect and monitor problems more easilywww.cthresources.com Page 54 www.cthawards.com
  • 55. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction Many kitchens now provide chefs with opportunities to work and rotate in other sections of the kitchen. The benefits of this for the organization: - Chefs become multi skilled and therefore more flexible Job satisfaction is more greater due to acquiring a more divers skill set Labour cost are more streamlined due to better utilization of labourwww.cthresources.com Page 55 www.cthawards.com
  • 56. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.6 The stewarding department Stewarding is a sub department of the kitchen and it’s staffing requirements for a large operation are detailed below: - Fig 2.5 Basic Stewarding organization chart in a large kitchen Chief Steward Assistant Chief Steward Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen Porter Porter Porter Porter Porterwww.cthresources.com Page 56 www.cthawards.com
  • 57. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction Position Responsibilities Chief Steward and assistant • Report to Executive Chef and Food and Beverage Manager • Supervise team of porters • Schedule work of Porters • Create cleaning standards • manage and control equipment stores (in/out) •Responsible for the maintenance of hygiene within kitchen • Control of kitchen chemicals (COSHH) • Co-ordinate booking of any maintenance of kitchen cleaning contractors or casual staff • Responsible for inventory and maintenance of kitchen cleaning equipments Kitchen Porters • Carry out day-to-day cleaning of the kitchen • Operate the dishwasher machine • Clean kitchen equipment after use • Empty dustbins • Periodically sweep and mop floors • Clean kitchen work topswww.cthresources.com Page 57 www.cthawards.com
  • 58. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen design and planning considerations 2. Kitchen design and planning considerations When planning a kitchen there are many factors to consider. Each design element must work together, to create smooth running kitchen operation, and include control, safety, business yield and employee satisfaction. Poor planning often lead to, Wasted capacity Poor stock rotation Employee accidents Low employee motivation Slow production and output Risk of food poisoningwww.cthresources.com Page 58 www.cthawards.com
  • 59. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen design and planning considerations Figure 2.6 Kitchen design considerations Maximum Standards of Work flow of Production POS Systems Space available Output organisation employees efficiency Heating, Service Environmental Utilisation of Communication HACCP ventilation and methods of regulations space with services requirements air conditioning restaurants Legislation- Efficient Equ8ipment Supervision by Employees Menu types communication Gas & Electricity requirements managers working space between chefs ratios Health and Storage Drainage & safety of Production Control of stock Refuse disposal requirements plumbing employees & methods (bulk & section) customers Restaurant Allocation of preparation Ergonomics Task Lighting cleaning space areawww.cthresources.com Page 59 www.cthawards.com
  • 60. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3. Production methods and organisation 3.1 Production methods 3.2 The conventional food production method 3.3 The sous-vide method of food production (vacuum cooking) 3.4 Sous-vide - evaluation 3.5 Cook-chill method of food production 3.6 Cook-freeze method of food production 3.7 The central distribution method of food productionwww.cthresources.com Page 60 www.cthawards.com
  • 61. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation And efficient kitchen is where the chefs prepare and cook food in minimal time whilst maintaining a very high standard. This could be achieved through a methodical and economical method of working by, Ensuring all kitchen equipment is up to standard and ready to use. E.g.: A sharp Source: http//www.luxuryhomedesign.blogspot.com knife over a blunt one at all times. Using electrical equipment for appropriate and worth while purposes, for instances a potato peeler for 4 portions of potatoes which is likely to take more time in putting the machine to use than the time taken to peel potatoes it self is unworthy. Working systematically as possible The kitchen crew holding right postures in order to avoid fatigue and so forth. E.g. when standing for ;long periods of times standing correctly with weight evenly on both legs.www.cthresources.com Page 61 www.cthawards.com
  • 62. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation Ensuring all necessary equipment is ready and usable at the start of each working session. Positioning all work tops, sinks, stores, and refrigerators within easy reach to eliminate unnecessary movements of chefs. Storing all ingredients as close to the practical work area, starting from most frequently used items close at hand. Preparing the mise en place thoroughly to ensure the follow-on of a smooth and efficient service. Following a clear and continuous work plan, opposed to a haphazard one. E.g. preparing those dishes first which demands more time to prepare. Source: Caterer & Hotelkeeperwww.cthresources.com Page 62 www.cthawards.com
  • 63. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.1 Production methods Food production is differing methods of preparing, cooking and serving food to produce meals to the customer. Food Preparation Cooking Holding Regeneration Presentation Fresh Weigh/Measure Blanch Chill Regithermic Bain-marie Fresh cooked clear/open Warm Sous-vide Microwave Service flats Fresh Chop/cut Simmer Freeze Convection Plates Prepared Combine/mix Boil Tray Traditional Trays Canned Blend Steam Hot Vending Fresh Shape/coat Grill Cupboard Buffet Chilled Form Sauté Cold Trolley Vacuum Brown Cupboard Dishes Dehydrated Bake Smoked Roast Salted Broil Crystallised Fry Acidified Microwave Pasteurized Bottled UHT Foods in Process Outputwww.cthresources.com Page 63 www.cthawards.com
  • 64. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.1.1 Key considerations in food production Food hygiene Quality raw materials Foods should be stored properly Appropriate preparation for each food item Minimised wastage Employees should comply with handling regulations Foods should be cooked to proper temperatures Methods differ in relation to: Actual location where food is produced Total time from preparation to service Staff numbers required Level of hygiene and control Quantity of food producedwww.cthresources.com Page 64 www.cthawards.com
  • 65. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation Figure 2.7 Food production methods Conventional Cook- chill Cook-freeze Food Production Methods Centralised Sous-vide distributionwww.cthresources.com Page 65 www.cthawards.com
  • 66. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.2 The conventional food production method The conventional method is used in most kitchen establishments and follows the process as shown in figure 2.8. Figure 2.8 Conventional food production process Refrigeration Preparation Ordered Goods in to Freezing (Mise en from Cooking Serving kitchen Dry Store place) customerwww.cthresources.com Page 66 www.cthawards.com
  • 67. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation Food as given in the table below can be cooked in variety of methods during the food production process. Method Explanation Baking Cooked in dry heat, in the oven Blanching Dipping the food in to boiling water or oil for a short time Boiling Cooked in a boiling or rapidly simmering liquid Braising Browned in small amount of fat, then cooked slowly in a small amount of liquid Boiling Cooked by direct heat from above or below Fried Cooked in fat or oil Deep fried Cooked in enough fat to cover the food Grilled Cooked on a grill, over direct heat Poaching Cooked in a liquid , just below boiling point (simmering) Roasting Cooked uncovered, usually by in oven by dry heat Sautéing Browned or cooked in a small amount hot fat or oil Steaming Cooked in steam with or without pressure Stewing Simmering slowly in enough liquid to cover the food Adapted from cichy & wise (1999)www.cthresources.com Page 67 www.cthawards.com
  • 68. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.3 The sous-vide method of food production (vacuum cooking) Figure2.9 Sous vide process Portioned in to plastic pouches and Food is Sealed arranged vacuum Customer pouches Re- Pouch is on plate Goods in Prepared Cooked packed orders placed in heated cut open and meals boiling served water Chilled and refrigeratedwww.cthresources.com Page 68 www.cthawards.com
  • 69. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.4 Sous – vide - evaluation Advantages Disadvantages Pouches retain freshness Capital investment in equipment During re-heating juices are retained in and storage pouch and not lost Not as fresh as conventional Individual pouches are labeled for easy method stock rotation Not able to adjust to customer There is less risk of cross contamination requirements during storage due to sealed pouches Not all foods suitable for sous- and labeling vide method Less wastage as foods is used only when Negative stigma attached(Boil in ordered the bag!) Food can be produced and accurately portioned Chef does not need to be present for reheating and finishing stage Pouched can be frozen to extend life Inexpensive regenerationwww.cthresources.com Page 69 www.cthawards.com
  • 70. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.5 Cook-chill method of food production Cook chill is a catering system based on normal preparation and cooking of food followed by rapid chilling and storage. In controlled low temperature conditions above freezing point, subsequently reheating prior to consumption. The chilled food is regenerated in finishing kitchens which require low capital investment and minimum staff. All most any food can be cook chilled provided that the correct methods are used. Foskett et al. ( 2004) Figure 2.11 The cook- chill process Goods in to Preparing and Portioning Packaging Blast chilling Re-heating Consumption kitchen store cookingwww.cthresources.com Page 70 www.cthawards.com
  • 71. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.6 Cook freeze method of food production The method is similar to cook-chill apart from refrigeration temperatures . Figure 2.12 The cook- freeze process Preparing Blast Blast Goods in Re-heating Serving and cooking freezing thawingwww.cthresources.com Page 71 www.cthawards.com
  • 72. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.7 The central distribution method of food production Centralised food production is when food is produced in bulk-off site. The method is frequently adopted by large chains who are looking to outsource all or part of their food production. source;:http//www.stangard-online.netwww.cthresources.com Page 72 www.cthawards.com
  • 73. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation Advantages Disadvantages CPU is specialised in food production Pass control to another company Due to bulk production costs, prices are Potential delays in delivery to operation cheaper for buyers High levels of hygiene during production Figure 2.11 The cook- freeze process Central CPU delivers Hotel or Operation production food to hotel Food is Food is restaurant stores food in Consumers unit (CPU) Blast chilling or other thawed and reheated and creates dish refrigeration order food produces hospitality en place served specification or freezers food off site operationwww.cthresources.com Page 73 www.cthawards.com
  • 74. Chapter 2 – Food production Food classifications 4. Food classifications There are many different types and varieties of food. One way of organising ingredients is to categorise them into particular groups of families. Few of food are detailed below.www.cthresources.com Page 74 www.cthawards.com
  • 75. Chapter 2 – Food production Food classifications 4.1 Cheese Semi-hard Soft Blue Gouda Camembert Dolcelatte Edam Brie Stilton Emmenthal Mozzarella Roquefort 4.2 Vegetables Root Leaf Brassicas Shoot Fruit Bulb Squash Pods Spinach Cauliflower Fennel Avocado Garlic Cucumber Corn Turnip Lettuce Brussels sprouts Asparagus Aubergine Onion Zucchini Bean sprouts Radish Chicory Broccoli Artichoke Peppers Shallot Pumpkin Peas Potato Beet Celery Tomato Marrow Okrawww.cthresources.com Page 75 www.cthawards.com
  • 76. Chapter 2 – Food production Food classifications 4.3 Fruits Berries Citrus Tropical Other Blackberry Lime Guava Apples Raspberry Orange Mango Melon Blueberry Lemon Papaya Bananas 4.4 Fish Freshwater Seawater Trout Mullet Ecl Mackerel Carp Snapper Salmon Codwww.cthresources.com Page 76 www.cthawards.com
  • 77. Chapter 2 – Food production Food classifications 4.5 Seafood Crustaceans Mollusc Lobster Octopus Shrimp Oyster Crab Mussel 4.6 Poultry and game Poultry Feathered game Furred game Chicken Woodcock Rabbit Capon Quail Hare Goose Partridge Turkeywww.cthresources.com Page 77 www.cthawards.com
  • 78. Chapter 2 – Food production Food cost and control 5. Food cost and control 5.1 Food cost 5.2 Benefits of food cost for an organisation 5.3 How to achieve food cost targets?www.cthresources.com Page 78 www.cthawards.com
  • 79. Chapter 2 – Food production Food cost and control To ensure food is prepared to ‘optimum condition’, the following factors must be implemented to ensure a quality product. Dish Purchase specifications Qualified chefs specifications (standard recipes) HACCP Functioning Batch implementation equipment cooking Good supervisionwww.cthresources.com Page 79 www.cthawards.com
  • 80. Chapter 2 – Food production Food cost and control 5.1 Food cost Food cost is the percentage of total restaurant sales spent on the food product, It is normally around 28·30% as an industry guideline and can be considered as a performance measure for kitchen managers. Food cost can be calculated as: Total cost of food consumption / total food sales x100% When there are more than one outlet (such as in a large hotel), the internal requisitioning system assists in keeping track of food consumption for each outlet.www.cthresources.com Page 80 www.cthawards.com
  • 81. Chapter 2 – Food production Food cost and control 5.2 Benefits of food cost for an organisation Fig 2.14 Benefits of food cost Target for the Executive Chef Measurement of An industry Food cost performance benchmark Overall assessments of food management cycle Some organisations with food operations provide incentives for Executive Chefs if food coast targets are achieved.www.cthresources.com Page 81 www.cthawards.com
  • 82. Chapter 2 – Food production Food cost and control 5.3 How to achieve food cost targets? Fig 2.15 Key considerations for achievement of food cost target No meals leave the kitchen Qualified employees avoid Monitor food prices for Monitor refrigerator Demonstrate first in first out unless posted through POS errors fluctuations temperatures (FIFO) roattion system system All management meals Discourage employees Monthly and mid monthly Slow moving items utilised Lockable fridges through POS system picking food in kitchen food stock takes Remove poor selling items Good security procedures in Minimise food wastage, Only prepare what is Have and adhere to dish from menu monitor ‘Sales place utilise food fully needed specifications for each dish Mix’ Cook and serve foods Employees eat employee correctly – avoid customer Store goods correctly DO not let foods spoil! Incorrect costing and pricing food returns and complaintswww.cthresources.com Page 82 www.cthawards.com
  • 83. Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning 6. Food poisoning 6.1 Main types of food poisoning 6.2 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)www.cthresources.com Page 83 www.cthawards.com
  • 84. Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning 6.1 Main types of food poisoning Salmonella Staphylococcus Clostridium Listeriawww.cthresources.com Page 84 www.cthawards.com
  • 85. Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning Figure 2.16: Impacts of food poisoning for a food & beverage operation Loss of business Employee turnover Illness to and loss of customer employme nt Food Poisoning Fines and impact Poor penalties ‘unclean’ from image authorities Possible Bad closure by publicity authoritieswww.cthresources.com Page 85 www.cthawards.com
  • 86. Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning Figure 2.17: Ways in which to minimize a food positioning outbreak Implement Food hygiene Risk assessment Correct thawing Frequent hand HACCP training washing Pay particular Keep foods Clean equipment Always cover and Do not leave food attention when outside the between use label foods hanging around dealing with danger zone- in kitchen eggs, pork and between 40F poultry (4.4C) and 140 F (60C) Food should be Discard old food No pets or vermin Uncooked, raw Leftover food to cooked (pest control) meats should be thoroughly thoroughly always be stored cooked on lower shelves Wash vegetables After preparation Serve hot food Serve cold food Sick employees and food of food, keep hot cold should be sent thoroughly refrigerated until home cooking or serving Do not cross Keep buns covered Food should be Clean kitchen surface contaminate thoroughly destroyed frequently before cookingwww.cthresources.com Page 86 www.cthawards.com
  • 87. Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning 6.2 Hazard analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) The HACCP system entails identifying potential risks during the food cycle and production stage and implementing controls to reduce those risks. This includes implementing regular checking systems and maintaining good records.www.cthresources.com Page 87 www.cthawards.com
  • 88. Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning Figure 2.18: The HACCP food control process Analyse Hazards Identification of CCPs (Critical Control Points) CCP prevention measures Monitoring of CCP Prevention Measures CCP not met HACCP and CCP Logwww.cthresources.com Page 88 www.cthawards.com
  • 89. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen equipment 7. Kitchen equipment Large commercial kitchens have a wide selection of equipment to assist staff in their varying roles.www.cthresources.com Page 89 www.cthawards.com
  • 90. Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning Considerations when purchasing equipment Can we afford it? Can we get spare parts? Who requires training? Will it be easy to use? Guarantees Warrantees Will it add value? What is the company support if it breaks down? Where is the best location for this equipment? What training is required? What is the procedure for cleaning? Instructions for use? How long will it last? Who else has purchased one- testimonials? What are the safety risks (risk assessments)? Has it been safety approved?www.cthresources.com Page 90 www.cthawards.com
  • 91. Chapter 2 – Food production Summary Kitchen introduction Organisation and Production methods Kitchen design Kitchen equipment Food cost and control Food classifications structure and organisation Cheese, vegetables, Objectives Food cost fruit, poultry, game, Cooking methods fish & seafood Conventional, cook – chill, cook – freeze, Staffing Standard recipes sous – vide &centralised Communication Food poisoningwww.cthresources.com Page 91 www.cthawards.com
  • 92. Chapters 1. Introduction to food & beverage 2. Food production 3. Purchasing food & beverage 4. Food service delivery 5. Beverages 6. Menu planning 7. Service quality in food & beverage 8. Conference & banquetingwww.cthresources.com Page 92 www.cthawards.com
  • 93. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Objectives In this chapter you will learn to :- ● Explain the importance and the process of selecting the right suppliers ● Describe the key standards required when purchasing, receiving, storing and issuing food and beverages ● Recommend the tools required for the effective control of finances and hygiene throughout the procurement and storage processwww.cthresources.com Page 93 www.cthawards.com
  • 94. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Departmental goals and structure 1. Departmental goals and structure 1.1 Departmental objectives 1.2 Factors that impact purchasing 1.3 Departmental personnel 1. 4 Sample job description: Food and Beverage Managerwww.cthresources.com Page 94 www.cthawards.com
  • 95. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Departmental goals and structure Fig 3.1: The purchasing cycle 1. Purchasing 4. Issuing 2. Receiving 3. Storing The purchasing department is responsible for sourcing, receiving, storing and issuing of stocks. These stocks could be in the form of: food, beverage, supplies, equipment.www.cthresources.com Page 95 www.cthawards.com
  • 96. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Departmental goals and structure 1.1 Departmental objectives ● To meet financial targets ● To maintain quality ● To meet buyers requirements ● To meet consumers requirementswww.cthresources.com Page 96 www.cthawards.com
  • 97. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Departmental goals and structure 1.2 Factors that impact purchasing Business Levels Geographic Organization location of Size and type operation Fig 3.3 : Purchasing considerations Availability The of storage organization space budget Standard of Time of Year operations (seasonality)www.cthresources.com Page 97 www.cthawards.com
  • 98. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Departmental goals and structure 1.3 Departmental personnel Purchasing department is managed and supervised by the Accounts department . their responsibilities are given in the following table. Person Responsibilities Purchaser ● Liaising with departments ● Obtaining quotations ● Researching suppliers ● Researching market prices ● Finding suppliers ● Negotiating prices Receiver ● Receiving goods ● Dealing with delivery personnel ● Checking goods ● Signing for deliveries Store man ● Data entry of new stocks ● Liaising with purchasing, receiving and ● Maintaining of quality of stocks department personnel ● Issuing of stocks to departments• Updating stock ● • Maintaining the hygiene of stocks records ● • Assisting with stock-takes and inventories Cost ● Observing stock transactions ● Identifying weakness in stock control controller ● Conducting impromptu stock –takes ● Making recommendations for improved stock ● Checking stock documentation control ● Assisting with stock-takeswww.cthresources.com Page 98 www.cthawards.com
  • 99. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Departmental goals and structure 1.4 Sample job description: Food and Beverage Manager (Skills & duties) Skills ● Strong communication skills(verbal ,l listening, writing) ● Innovative ● Proactive and reliable ● Able to work alone and within a team Duties ● To supervise in all aspects of purchasing food and beverage to ensure quality and profitability ● To support the Director of Food and Beverage and Executive Chef to order food and beverage ● To assist in accurate administration of all delivery notes, requisitions and invoices in accordance with hotel and company standards ● Manage the receiving and inspecting of all food and beverage deliveries ● Maintain inventory controls and proper levels, dating and rotation of all food and beverage items that are receivedwww.cthresources.com Page 99 www.cthawards.com
  • 100. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Departmental goals and structure ● To ensure high standards of work performance, conduct and appearance of himself and his departments are met ● To maintain healthy inter-departmental relationships ● To support the Financial Controller in monthly product line checks ● To be responsible for the safe keeping of all keys relating to purchasing and stores ● To maintain the highest level of cleanliness, health and safety and security within the delivery area, storage area and kitchen ● To forecast weekly food and beverage cost figures in conjunction with other departments and hotel occupancy ● To maintain healthy inter-departmental relationships ● To promote awareness of health and safety within the department for associates and guests. Example fire alert points, exits, extinguishers, table clips etc. ● To attend relevant training courses to aid self-development ● Adhere to all current legislation including food safety and health and safety ● Attend all food and beverage meetings and morning briefing when necessary ● Check all invoices for price fluctuations and take action where necessarywww.cthresources.com Page 100 www.cthawards.com
  • 101. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Purchasing 2. Purchasing 2.1 Purchasing responsibilities 2.2 Capital purchases 2.3 Quality control 2.4 Selecting suppliers 2.5 Financial control 2.6 Changes in product cost +/-www.cthresources.com Page 101 www.cthawards.com
  • 102. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Purchasing 2.1 Purchasing responsibilities ● Liaising with Suppliers ● Liaising with department managers ● Gaining approval ● Obtaining quotes for more expensive items ● Sending orders ● Maintaining records ● Market surveys on food priceswww.cthresources.com Page 102 www.cthawards.com
  • 103. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Purchasing 2.2 Capital purchases 4.Purchaser selects best 5. Delivery of supplier offer and refrigerator creates purchase order 1. Chef needs a Supplier 1 2.Provides model, 3.Purchasing new refrigerator employee brand and specification to sources Supplier 2 purchasing quotations department from suppliers Supplier 3www.cthresources.com Page 103 www.cthawards.com
  • 104. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Purchasing 2.3 Quality control Specifications The first step in achieving control in the purchasing of food and beverages is to create a product specification. The specification should: ● Set out clearly the standard required for each product ● Ensure mangers set out exact requirements in advance ● Provide the supplier ● Guide the supplier ● Minimise discrepancies on delivery ● Be used when bidding for contracts ● Act as a checking tool on deliverywww.cthresources.com Page 104 www.cthawards.com
  • 105. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Purchasing 2.4 Selecting suppliers The following questions needs to be asked when selecting suppliers: ● Are they reputable? ● Are they certificated? ● Can they supply the products that I want at the right quality? ● Are their prices competitive? ● Will they be consistent? ● Which other companies do they serve? ● Can they deal with the volume that I want? ● What are their credit terms, do their payment terms meet the ● criteria of our accounts department? ● Will they add value to my product overall?www.cthresources.com Page 105 www.cthawards.com
  • 106. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Purchasing 2.5 Financial control Purchasers periodically check market prices to ensure that suppliers are quoting competitively to give the best deal. My Supplier Supplier 3 £3.00 kg Supplier 2 £3.05 kg £2.75 kgwww.cthresources.com Page 106 www.cthawards.com
  • 107. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Purchasing 2.6 Changes in product cost +/- Changes in costs can occur due to, ● Seasonal availability ● Variations in the external environment ● Quantities ordered Fig 3.6 :Bulk discounting High Cost Low High Low Quantity Orderedwww.cthresources.com Page 107 www.cthawards.com
  • 108. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Purchasing Fig 3.7:Purchasing steps 1.Idenify what stock is needed to meet business demands 2.Check stock available and order 3.Order Goods the difference. Compare Purchase Orderwww.cthresources.com Page 108 www.cthawards.com
  • 109. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Receiving 3. Receiving 3.1 Equipment 3.2 Product checks on receipt of delivery 3.3 Delivery temperatures 3.4 Meat checks 3.5 Beverages 3.6 Health and safety tips: receiving areawww.cthresources.com Page 109 www.cthawards.com
  • 110. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Receiving 3.1 Equipment In order to carry out all the tasks of a receipt of a delivery , the receiver requires the following equipment to be available on the “receiving area” or “loading bay”: ● Scales ● Trolleys ● Thermometer and thermopin ● Sink ● Calculator ● Scissors and box cutterswww.cthresources.com Page 110 www.cthawards.com
  • 111. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Receiving 3.2 Product checks on receipt of delivery On the receipt of delivery the following checks should be carried out by the receiver. ● The delivery note matches the purchase order ● The products match any food specifications ● Checks the weight of items against delivery note ● Counts items purchased by unit against delivery note ● Checks prices against purchase order ● Checks expiry dates of items ● Checks temperatures of meats and fresh foods ● Checks for any breakages or damaged items ● Opens any boxes or containers to check insidewww.cthresources.com Page 111 www.cthawards.com
  • 112. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Receiving 3.3 Delivery temperatures ● Most refrigerated items should be received at 41°F or below ● Dry goods are received at room temperature, packaged intact and in good condition ● Frozen products should of course be received frozen ● Signature of the receiving clerk who conforms accuracy of the order ● Company stamp Note: It is also good for the receiver to randomly check the temperature of the delivery vehicles.www.cthresources.com Page 112 www.cthawards.com
  • 113. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Receiving 3.4 Meat checks ● Check for excess blood seepage ● Ensure no cross contamination has occurred and all meats are separated ● Pork products should be wrapped in dry paper ● Frozen meats should be unthawed ● Poultry should have no strong smell ● Chicken meat should be golden yellow, not whitewww.cthresources.com Page 113 www.cthawards.com
  • 114. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Receiving 3.5 Beverages Beverage checks include examination: ● For any breakages ● That seals are not broken ● That the vintages are correct ● That the label is in good conditionwww.cthresources.com Page 114 www.cthawards.com
  • 115. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Receiving 3.6 Health and safety tips: receiving area ● Lift correctly and avoid lifting heavy items ● Wash hands frequently ● Keep area clear of debris and rubbish ● Sweep and mop regularlywww.cthresources.com Page 115 www.cthawards.com
  • 116. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Storage 4. Storage 4.1 Perishability 4.2 Storeroom health tips and good practicewww.cthresources.com Page 116 www.cthawards.com
  • 117. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Storage After goods are checked-in, stock is transferred into the correct storage facilities and records updated. Different types of goods have varying storage temperature requirements, as given below. Most establishments have a computerised system whereby all new products received are entered into the computer so that accurate stock levels are held. Store Temperature oC Dry Room temperature Refrigerated 0 to 5 Frozen -18 to -24www.cthresources.com Page 117 www.cthawards.com
  • 118. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Storage 4.1 Perishability Storage requirements are based on each type of food item’s perishability. Fig 3.10: Categorisation of stock Perishability and cost Long life Dried food Wines,liquuers, (spices, canned deluxe spirits drinks,tobacco,fro sharks fin zen food) Low cost High cost Fruit,salads, Fresh seafood, Dairy items caviar, fresh meats Short lifewww.cthresources.com Page 118 www.cthawards.com
  • 119. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Storage ● A daily ,weekly and monthly cleaning schedule ● Ensure all heavy goods are lifted correctly ● Avoid storing items to high ● Clean any spills as they occur ● Do not store anything on the floor that may cause an obstruction ● Cover dustbins to prevent infestation ● Enforce a pest control schedule ● Store goods in clear well –ventilated containers ● All products should have a label and an expiry date ● All fresh meats stored on lower shelves ● Refrigerate perishable ingredients promptly ● Ensure labels are clear and visiblewww.cthresources.com Page 119 www.cthawards.com
  • 120. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Issuing 5. Issuing 5.1 Secure storage 5.2 Internal requisitions 5.3 Issuing rationale 5.4 Steps in requisitioning 5.5 Issuing times 5.6 Stock rotation 5.7 Stock movement 5.8 Reportswww.cthresources.com Page 120 www.cthawards.com
  • 121. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Issuing 5.1 Secure storage For control of goods they should be kept in a lockable store room permitting access to only authorized personnel. 5.2 Internal requisitions Fig3.11 Departments with main stock demands Main kitchen Room Bar service Stores Conference And Mini Bar Banquetingwww.cthresources.com Page 121 www.cthawards.com
  • 122. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Issuing 5.3 Issuing rationale Departments issues stocks to: ● Have the appropriate goods to run their departments ● Prevent running out of stocks ● Maintain departmental par stock levels The stocks are requested by completing an internal department requisition The purpose of the requisition form is to: ● Have a paper trail in stock movements ● Force departments to plan stock requests ● Accurately allocate cost expenditure and usage per department ● Document individual request and supply ● Use as a back-up when discrepancies in stock occur ● Act as backup when computer errors occur ● Detail consumption of stock items ● Be an internal accounting document between stores and the department.www.cthresources.com Page 122 www.cthawards.com
  • 123. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Issuing 5.4 Steps in requisitioning 1. Departmental employee identifies what stock is required. 2. Department employee completes a requisition from detailing date,departmnet,stock and units required. 3. The requisition form is submitted to stores. 4. Store person gathers stock items in readiness for collection 5. If items are not available ,unit adjustments have to be made or substitutes are provided. 6. Department employee collects stock, and checks that all items and quantities are fulfilled. 7. Both parties sign to confirm the goods issued. 8. In most cases-one copy of the requisition form goes to the department, one to stores, one copy to the accounts department. 9. Store person updates stock records. 10. Department employee replenishes departmental stock levels.www.cthresources.com Page 123 www.cthawards.com
  • 124. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Issuing 5.5 Issuing times In busy organizations specific times are allocated to different departments for collection of orders Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 8.00-9.00 am. Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen 9.00-10.00 am. Rest and Bar Rest and Bar Rest and Bar Rest and Bar Rest and Bar 11.00 -12.00 am Banqueting Banqueting Banqueting Banqueting Banquetingwww.cthresources.com Page 124 www.cthawards.com
  • 125. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Issuing 5.6 Stock rotation Stock is rotated and issued on a “FIFO” sysytem.Basically FIFO means using the oldest stock first, which reduces wastage. 5.7 Stock movement Bin Cards- a manual system whereby a small card is allocated to each stock item. As stock is added it is recorded in the card. As stock is used, the date ,amount of stock, and where the stock went is recorded on the card.www.cthresources.com Page 125 www.cthawards.com
  • 126. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Issuing 5.8 Reports Slow item report This report monitors stock items that are not being requested by departments. If stock has been ordered it should be consumed. This information is passed to departments to be used in menu planning. Expiry item report This report informs departments of stocks that is soon to expire. Items past their sell by dates cannot be used, therefore it is important to manage stocks and ensure consumption or sage takes place before expiration. Failure to do so will result in financial loss.www.cthresources.com Page 126 www.cthawards.com
  • 127. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Control 6. Issuing 6.1 Inventory 6.1.1 Stock –take inventory Stock need to be counted on a monthly basis ,and usually carried out on the last day of the month by personnel from the Stores and Accounting department 6.1.2 Why stock-take? ● To have an accurate up to date count of each stock item ● To check the stock corresponds with consumption ● To identify any discrepancies in stock quantities ● To balance actual stock against in and out transfers.www.cthresources.com Page 127 www.cthawards.com
  • 128. Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Summary Purchasing Structure Purchasing Receiving Storing Issuing Control Goals and Responsibilitie Equipment Temperatures Rational Stock takes Objectives s Capital Delivery Personnel Perishability Requisitions purchases checks Health and Health and Specifications Stock rotations safety safety Selecting Reports suppliers Financial control The purchasingwww.cthresources.com Page 128 steps www.cthawards.com
  • 129. Chapters 1. Introduction to food & beverage 2. Food production 3. Purchasing food & beverage 4. Food service delivery 5. Beverages 6. Menu planning 7. Service quality in food & beverage 8. Conference & banquetingwww.cthresources.com Page 129 www.cthawards.com
  • 130. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Objectives In this chapter you will learn to :- ● Justify the importance of service to food and beverage organizations ● Explain the methods adopted by food and beverage organizations to consistently meet customers’ needs and wants ● Discuss the key and their responsibilities in food and beverage service ● Compare and contrast the different food and beverage service methodswww.cthresources.com Page 130 www.cthawards.com
  • 131. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service 1. Introduction to service 1.1 The service gap 1.2 Strategies to achieving good service 1.3 Service personnel 1.4 Presentation and personal hygiene 1.5 Service staff: presentation tips 1.6 Structures 1.7 Traditional service organizationwww.cthresources.com Page 131 www.cthawards.com
  • 132. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service Customers have varying needs and expectations which the provider has to attempt to meet. Giving a high stand of service creates many advantages for the customer, the individual staff members and the organization as a whole. The advantages are:- The customers The organization The employees A good experience Less discount Employee retention Satisfaction Happy customers Less turnover Customer loyalty Good reputation Recognition Positive word of mouth Positive image Praise and gratitude Brand growth Opportunities to develop Awards Positive moral Good reviews Good work environment and atmosphere Develop market share Unique selling points (USP) Achieve financial targets Cost reduction Overall growthwww.cthresources.com Page 132 www.cthawards.com
  • 133. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service 1.1 The service gap Customer satisfaction can be achieved through consistently meeting the customer’s specific needs, wants and expectations. Fig 4.1 The service gap Service gap Customer expectation Service delivery Satisfaction achieved Gap Customer expectation Service delivery Dissatisfactionwww.cthresources.com Page 133 www.cthawards.com
  • 134. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service 1.2 Strategies to achieving good services Fig 4.2 Factors necessary to achieve good service Standards Good Regular supervisio audits n Incentives Internal & rewards Strategies system Good Training employees Meeting customer needs and wantswww.cthresources.com Page 134 www.cthawards.com
  • 135. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service 1.3 Service personnel Employees play major part in the service experience. The level of service that customer receive will ultimately depend on servers technical skills, personality, experience and the team within which they work. Qualities of a good food and beverage server are: - Good product knowledge Punctuality Excellent presentation Friendly and outgoing personality Positive attitude to customers Ability to work in a team Good memory Customer-oriented Honesty Professional conduct Sales-oriented Well organizedwww.cthresources.com Page 135 www.cthawards.com
  • 136. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service 1.4 Presentation and personal hygiene One of the most important factor of food and hygiene service is the overall good presentation and high standards of hygiene of the service staff.www.cthresources.com Page 136 www.cthawards.com
  • 137. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service 1.5 Service staff: presentation tips Positive image must be projected to the customer at all times and in doing so be aware with: Be clean and use deodorants (not strong smelling ones) Aftershaves and perfumes should not be overpowering Hands must be clean at all times with well trimmed nails Men should be clean shaven or with a well trimmed moustache or beard Woman should only wear light make up. If nail varnish is worn it should be clear Large earrings should not be worn Uniform should be clean, starched and well pressed at all times Breath should be fresh smelling Hair should be clean and well groomed. Long hair should be tied back and neat Shoes should be comfortable, safe and well polished Any cuts and burns should be covered with a waterproof dressing Any colds or other possible infections should be reported to the supervisor promptly Hands should be washed with hot water and antibacterial soap immediately after visiting the toilet, smoking, dealing with refuse or eating Staff should avoid touching their face and hair while on duty Jewellery should be kept to a minimumwww.cthresources.com Page 137 www.cthawards.com
  • 138. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service 1.6 Structure The structure and organization of service personnel vary in each organization. Factors that effect the organizational structure include: - Labour budget Size of operation Quality of operation Service methods used Type of cuisine offered Type of customers Menu type Technology available Availability of skilled labourwww.cthresources.com Page 138 www.cthawards.com
  • 139. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service 1.7 Traditional service organization A traditional, formal service structure within a restaurant is dependent on discipline and tradition, with all employees having particular role and responsibilities. Its top-down approach achieves high standards and customer satisfaction. Individuals are trained from the bottom-up learning the skills of their supervisor before progressing. It is normally found in a fine dining type of food and beverage operation, and is illustrated below.www.cthresources.com Page 139 www.cthawards.com
  • 140. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service Fig 4.3 Traditional fine dining restaurant structure Restaurant Manager Headwaiter (Assistant Restaurant Manager) Station Headwaiter Station Headwaiter Sommelier (Section supervisor) Chef de Rang Chef de Rang (Station Waiter) (Station Waiter) Demi Chef de Rang Demi Chef de Rang (Assistant to station (Assistant to station Waiter) Waiter) Commis de Rang (Trainee) Commis de Rang (Trainee)www.cthresources.com Page 140 www.cthawards.com
  • 141. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service Fig 4.3 Organization chart for a typical small casual restaurant Restaurant Manager Assistant Restaurant Manager Supervisors / Captains Waiter/ess Host/ess Cashier Bar Sommelier Bus Personswww.cthresources.com Page 141 www.cthawards.com
  • 142. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service The following is a typical job description for a restaurant manager.www.cthresources.com Page 142 www.cthawards.com
  • 143. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service The key responsibilities for each of the different types of service staff are detailed in the following table. Position Responsibilities Restaurant or • Checking mise en place and preparation. Catering Supervisor • Checking lay out of service area or restaurant. • Checking reservations and bookings. • Assigning table sections to service staff before shift. •Welcoming and looking after customer during their visit. • Assisting the team where necessary during service. • Communicating with kitchen and other support departments. • Checking customer satisfaction during service. • Maintaining a safe, comfortable and pleasant atmosphere for customers and employees. •Dealing with any problems or emergencies promptly and efficiently. • Performing any duty paperwork such as POS reports, log book. •Guiding and motivating employees. •Maintaining service standards. •Maximizing sales.www.cthresources.com Page 143 www.cthawards.com
  • 144. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service Position Responsibilities Host/ess • Answering the telephone and dealing with enquiries. • Taking reservations. • Welcoming and escorting customers to tables on arrival. • Managing arrivals and staggering service. • Providing general information. • On arrival collecting and safeguarding customers’ belongings such as jackets, hats and umbrellas. • Checking satisfaction throughout the meal. • Informing customers of any forthcoming promotions. • Collecting customer feedback. • Cashiering as required. • Assisting service personnel if required. • Returning customers’ belongings on departure. • Thanking customers and bidding farewell. • Collecting and updating customer information records.www.cthresources.com Page 144 www.cthawards.com
  • 145. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service Position Responsibilities Waite/ess • General cleaning of service area. • Completing mise en place. • Taking customers’ orders. • Informing customers about food and beverage products. • Up-selling. • Collecting and serving food and beverages. • Removing empty covers and maintaining customer tables. • Checking satisfaction throughout meal. • Using point of sales to order food and beverage. • Communicating with bar, kitchen and stewarding. • Working in a team. • Reporting any faults. • Reporting any customer concerns. Sommelier (wine • Creating wine lists. waiter) • Recommending wine and beverages. • Serving wine and beverages. • Maintenance of wine stocks.www.cthresources.com Page 145 www.cthawards.com
  • 146. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service Position Responsibilities Bus Person • Mise en place duties. • Run orders to the kitchen. • Taking food from kitchen to service area. • Taking service ware from service area to dish-wash. • Refilling service areas during service with clean crockery, cuties and mise en place. • Taking laundry to the linen room. • Cleaning the still room.www.cthresources.com Page 146 www.cthawards.com
  • 147. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions 2. Service methods and description 2.1 Different service types 2.2 Evaluation of different service methods 2.3 A guide for staffing ratios for different service methods 2.4 Evaluation of different service methodswww.cthresources.com Page 147 www.cthawards.com
  • 148. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions Service methods vary from operation to operation. The type of food and beverage method adopted on several factors which included the:- ● Size of operation ● Objectives of the operation ● Quality of the operation ● Nature of the menu ● Quantity of customers ● Budget of the operation ● Budget of the customers ● Customer needs ● Availability of resourceswww.cthresources.com Page 148 www.cthawards.com
  • 149. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions They also differ in relation to the required:- ● Quantity of personnel ● Skill level of personnel ● Level of interaction with the customer ● Level of dependency on either the service or food production ● Level of involvement by the customerwww.cthresources.com Page 149 www.cthawards.com
  • 150. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions 2.1 Different service types Table service The customer is served at a laid table. This is found in many types of restaurants, cafes and in banqueting, including plated service and silver serving. Self-service The customer is required to help them selves from a buffet or counter. It can be found in cafeterias and canteens. Assisted The customer is served part of the meal at the table and is required to obtain service part through self-service from some form of a display or buffet. Its found in "carvery" type operations and is often used for meals such as breakfast in hotels. It may also be used for functions. Single point The customer orders, pays and receives the food and beverages. (at a counter, service at a bar in licensed premises, in a fast food operation or at a vending machine) Specialized The food and drink is taken to where the customer is. This includes tray service in service hospitals and aircraft, trolley service, home delivery, lounge and room service.www.cthresources.com Page 150 www.cthawards.com
  • 151. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions 2.2 Evaluation of different service methods Method Description Opportunities Challenges Plate service Food is prepared, placed on • Presentation • Need high quantity and individual plates and delivered to • Quality highly skilled chefs the customers. • Portion control • Customers sometimes Uses : Hotel & Independent have to wait for food Restaurants delivery Buffet service Food is prepared in advance. Large • Can serve large quantities of • Queuing quantities of food then placed in people •‘All you can eat’ image containers and served from a table • Customers have choice • Food presentation can be in the restaurant. Customers either • Customers are part of the affected help themselves or are assisted by process •Food can run out either chefs or service staff. • Fewer staff required • Food quality can be affected Uses : Conference & Banqueting • Service staff require less due to temperature and skills mixing of service cutlery • Few customer complaints • Foreign bodies in food due to their decision-makingwww.cthresources.com Page 151 www.cthawards.com
  • 152. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions Family / Food is prepared & placed in • Less demands on kitchen • Food temperature can English service bowls/dishes. Server then transports • Visual for customers change to restaurant & it is placed in the • Customers are in control • Food distribution can be centre of tables. Customers then help of quantity and selection inconsistent themselves by serving the food from • Does not demand high the bowls onto their empty plates. skilled service staff Uses : Chinese & Middle Eastern • Highly convenient for cultures customers Silver / Food is prepared/cooked, placed on • Highly personalized • Require very highly skilled Russian hot silver platters/containers. Server service service staff service collects platter using a waiter’s cloth • Reduces pressure on • High labour cost & goes to restaurant. Server transfers kitchen •Kitchen loses control in food using a large spoon and fork on relation to plate to the customers plate from the silver presentation platter. • For customers service can Uses : Some fine dining, conference & be slow, interruptive & banqueting. sometimes dangerous • Old fashionedwww.cthresources.com Page 152 www.cthawards.com
  • 153. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions Gueridon or Food is prepped but not cooked. • Highly personalized • High labour cost flambe service Server puts food on a portable service • Not suitable with trolley & transfer into front of • Visual and aromatic large numbers. house area. The trolley is placed • Waiter becomes the next to the customer’s table and chef and artist the waiter prepares/cooks the • Entertainment for the food in front of the customer. customer Then puts the food onto a plate & • Customer feels more it is placed in front of the involved in the process customer. Uses : Fine dining restaurantwww.cthresources.com Page 153 www.cthawards.com
  • 154. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions 2.3 A guideline for staffing ratios for different service method Service method Ratio Guerdion 1 waiter : 10 guests Silver service 1 waiter : 20 guests Plated service 1 waiter : 30 guests Family service 1 waiter : 40 guests Buffet service 1 waiter : 50+ guestswww.cthresources.com Page 154 www.cthawards.com
  • 155. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions 2.4 Evaluation of different service methods Method Description Opportunities Challenges Tray service Food is prepared & placed on • Convenient for • Food temperature plates/containers and put on customer as has can change during trays. All eating utensils & complete meal transport accompaniments are also placed on tray. Food is transported for customers. Uses : Room service/ airline catering Cafeteria Guests move along a counter & • Customers do the • Customers have to service make their selection. Some work queue foods are plated, some prepared • Promotes other to order. Collect food on tray & food and pay at cashier. beverage items Uses : Sea catering and work cafeteriaswww.cthresources.com Page 155 www.cthawards.com
  • 156. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions Drive-thru Used most in fast food chains • Highly convenient for • Food quality can (McDonalds). While in the car customers as do not have to deteriorate customer order through a tannoy leave their car system. The food is then prepared & • Customers occupies no customer collects it and pays for table space leaving more food a few minutes later from a room for other customers window. Customer then drives off with food. Vending Customers input money/card to • Available 24 hours • Machine can malfunction vending machine. Customer make • High control as pre- • Impersonal request & collect food from payment is required before • Limited choice dispatched area. Depending on type purchase • Electricity of machine customer either • Management data available • Ongoing maintenance consume immediately or need to on consumption • Vandalism heat up in microwave. preferences Uses : Employee cafeteria, budget • No staff required hotels, non-commercial catering • Low cost establishments • Less wastagewww.cthresources.com Page 156 www.cthawards.com
  • 157. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions 2.4 Evaluation of different service method Cocktail Hot & cold food snacks are placed on large • Can cater to large • Difficult for employees to platter. Waiters collect them and offer numbers move around between customers. Used mostly when customers are customers at times standing & no seating is available. Uses : Conference and banquet events, pre- dinner events. Home delivery Food is ordered through telephone to food • Extends business • Transport can be service organization. Operators takes the • Frees-up seat unpredictable and delays in order & passes it to kitchen. On completion, capacity delivery due to traffic kitchen packs food & it’s delivered to • Food temperature and customer at destination on transport. presentation can deteriorate Uses : Fast food chain & ethnic restaurants during transport • Can deter people from visiting the food & beverage facility directlywww.cthresources.com Page 157 www.cthawards.com
  • 158. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions Take away Customer visit or telephones food & • Extends business • Litter beverages operation and selects food over • Frees up seat capacity an order counter. Food is prepared and • Brand extension through packed, customer pays for food in a take- packaging away container/bag. • Sometimes cheaper for Uses : Fast food chain & ethnic restaurants. customerswww.cthresources.com Page 158 www.cthawards.com
  • 159. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter 3. The service encounter 1. 2. 3. Pre service Service Post servicewww.cthresources.com Page 159 www.cthawards.com
  • 160. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter 3.1 Preparation for service (pre-service) Mise en place Is the preparation in readiness for the start of service. There are different types and quantities of mise en place required for different types of food service operation. Examples of mise en place for a formal restaurant are:- ● Polishing cutlery and crockery ● Polishing glasses ● Setting table covers ● Preparing the sideboard or station ● Preparing and cutting butters ● Preparing accompaniments ● Preparing ice buckets and stands ● Filling water jugs ● Lining trays ● General cleaning of furniture ● Vacuumingwww.cthresources.com Page 160 www.cthawards.com
  • 161. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter Cleaning Cleaning and hygiene within the food service area is of utmost importance for customers and employees. To achieve a good standard of cleaning clear standards and schedules need to be implemented and monitored. Following will give an example of a daily, weekly & monthly cleaning tasks:- Daily Weekly Monthly Polish ice buckets Clean sideboard throughout Move sideboards Clean service trays Clean windows and polish shelves Move sofas and vacuum Clean buffets Clean menus De-scale coffee urns Vacuum after each Polish fixtures service Brush chairs down Wipe chair and tables Polish lamps and lightswww.cthresources.com Page 161 www.cthawards.com
  • 162. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter A standard needs to be created to maintain quality and achieve consistency, together with a weekly cleaning roster, so staff are fully aware of their responsibilities. A example is : Standard How to clean a table Steps Methods Health & safety tips Remove all objects Place objects in a safe place on small table away from where people can trip Dust the table Dust with clean, slightly damp cloth followed Do not use a chemical by a dry cloth. Dust natural finished wood cleaner, glass cleaner, brass surfaces with only a dry cloth unless otherwise polish or cleaner, or furniture instructed. If you use a chemical or polish, wipe polish unless told to do so. the surface with a soft, clean cloth afterwards. Apply about one cap of polish per small table. Clean all over tops, legs and underneath. Put all objects back onto small table Check positioningwww.cthresources.com Page 162 www.cthawards.com
  • 163. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter The following table gives an example weekly cleaning roster:- Cleaning roster Mon Tue Wed Thursday Fri Sat Sun Clean sideboard throughout Peter Clean windows and sills Julia Wipe menus Fred Polish tixtures John Wipe chair and table legs Roelf Polish lamps and lights Suzy De-scale coffee urns Amirawww.cthresources.com Page 163 www.cthawards.com
  • 164. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter Accompaniments Examples of accompaniments follow:- Accomplishment Dish or menu item Oil and vinegar, vinaigrette, thousand island, Italian Fresh salad dressing, balsamic vinegar or mayonnaise Croutons Soups and some salads Parmesan cheese Minestrone soup and pasta dishes Lemon wedges Fish dishes Tabasco sauce Oysters Tartar sauce Fried fish Apple sauce Roast pork, duck or goose Mint sauce or jelly Roast lamb English mustard Roast beefwww.cthresources.com Page 164 www.cthawards.com
  • 165. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter Accompaniments continued … Cranberry sauce Roast turkey Horseradish sauce Roast beef Worcestershire sauce Irish stew Tomato ketchup Grills Chutney Curries Soy sauce Chinese and some Asian disheswww.cthresources.com Page 165 www.cthawards.com
  • 166. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter Table set-ups or covers If the food service operation is not a buffet or cafeteria-style of restaurant, staff will in most cases set-up the tables with a all the equipment required for customers to consume their meal before service. The supervisor or manager will check the setting to ensure that they are correct, well placed, clean and complete. A la carte place setting Napkin Fish knife Fish fork Side plate Side knife Water glass Wine glasswww.cthresources.com Page 166 www.cthawards.com
  • 167. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter Table set-ups or covers continued… With an d la crate setting different cutlery are placed depending on what the customer has ordered. For example, A soup 1. Remove the fish knife and fork. 2. place a steak knife and soup spoon on the right-hand side of the cover. 3. Place a joint fork on the left-hand side of the cover, Table d’hote place setting Side plate Joint knife Fish knife Soup spoon Joint fork Fish fork Sweet fork Sweet spoon Side knife Napkin Water glass Wine glasswww.cthresources.com Page 167 www.cthawards.com
  • 168. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter Reservation When taking a restaurant reservation: ● Greet the caller, for example, ‘Good evening, Raffles Seafood Restaurant, Peter speaking, how I may help you?’ ● Take the name of the customer ● Confirm the date of reservation ● Confirm the time of arrival ● Confirm the number of people in the party ● Ask if there are any special requests ● Take a contact telephone numberwww.cthresources.com Page 168 www.cthawards.com
  • 169. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter Serving briefing Examples of information : ● Previous day’s errors and good points ● Inspect of uniforms and presentation ● allocation of section for the shift ( who is responsible for which tables or sections) ● Any guest reservations and specific needs ● Sales targets to meet for that particular service ● Dishes to promote or up-sell-sales goals ● Any information passed down from managementwww.cthresources.com Page 169 www.cthawards.com
  • 170. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter Essential items for food service personnel Front of house food service personnel should be equipped with the following personal items: ● Waiter’s friend or wine opener ● Pen lighter ● Small notebook ● Service clothwww.cthresources.com Page 170 www.cthawards.com
  • 171. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service 4. Service 4.1 Standard of performance 4.2 Food and beverage service basics 4.3 Effective communication 4.4 Selling 4.5 Electronic points of sales (POS)www.cthresources.com Page 171 www.cthawards.com
  • 172. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service To ensure consistency in the delivery of service, establishments set-up procedures for servers to follow. These steps are normally referred to as the order of service and detail the tasks to be followed from the time the customer arrives to his or her departure.www.cthresources.com Page 172 www.cthawards.com
  • 173. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service 4.1 Standard of performance Example for standard of performance: Steps How 1. Prepare to approach Gather waiter’s order pad and pen customers Check if any dishes are not available Familiarize yourself with any dishes of the day or specials Collect menus, ensuring they are clean Check the name of the host before approaching 2. Approach table Approaching the host say ‘Excuse me Mr. Smith may I now take you order? 3. Take orders Take orders by starting with women, then men, then the host last Collect menus one by one Repeat orders back to customers for confirmation 4. Finish Thank customer and inform them of time for first course to arrive Check if they need anything else Wish them a good eveningwww.cthresources.com Page 173 www.cthawards.com
  • 174. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service 4.2 Food and beverage service basics ● Be punctual ● Always smile ● Know the products that you are serving ● Try to accommodate the customer’s needs at all times ● Check if you’re not sure! ● Do not oversell to customers ● Try to use a tray when carrying food and beverages ● use the customer’s name at every opportunity ● Anticipate customer’s needs and wants ● Carryout your duties in an efficient manner ● Work harmoniously with your co-workers ● Report any customer complaints or concerns to your supervisor promptly ● Report any maintenance defects promptly ● Ask if you find you need help during your work shift ● Be flexible in your approach to work ● Communicate any delays to your customers ● Respect your supervisor and your co-workerswww.cthresources.com Page 174 www.cthawards.com
  • 175. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service 4.3 effective communication 1. Tone of voice – try to raise and fall your voice as this is more pleasant than a dull constant monotone. 2. Volume – try not to speak too loudly as this is most annoying to customers. Speaking too quietly can also make it difficult for customers to hear you properly. Try to match your voice volume to the person with whom you are speaking. 3. Speed – try not to speak fast or too slow. 4. Clarity – try not to mumble your words.www.cthresources.com Page 175 www.cthawards.com
  • 176. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service 4.4 Selling Is a critical part of any food service employee’s job. Effective selling techniques require confidence, ability and knowledge. Suggested selling techniques : ● Recommend aperitifs or drinks before the meal ● Provide the wine list ● Promote branded drinks where possible ● Recommend double measures if appropriate ● Recommend dishes that are popular ● Describe hoe the food looks on the plate ● Recommend appetizers where possible ● Recommend items ● Provide recommendations on what dishes go together well ● Recommend side dishes with main courses ● Present menu items on platters where possible such as steak or seafood ● Show dessert menu instead of just asking customers want a dessert ● Have a trolley to tempt peoplewww.cthresources.com Page 176 www.cthawards.com
  • 177. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service 4.5 Electronic points of sales (POS) Many large food and beverage operations now feature some kind of POS system. A large proportion of the food service employee’s job is operating these terminals.www.cthresources.com Page 177 www.cthawards.com
  • 178. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Post-service 5. Post servicewww.cthresources.com Page 178 www.cthawards.com
  • 179. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Post-service Following the end of service the food and beverage employees carryout a variety of duties including: Servers General cleaning Organizing of dirty laundry Restocking stations for next shift Creating requisitions for new stock Cashiering Updating customer history records Supervisors Distributing tips or gratuities Printing reports and reconciling sales receipts Completing hand over log in log book Post-service debriefing Post-service debriefing includes: ● Praise for what worked well ● Discussing areas to be improved ● Reading out completed customer questionnaires ●Shift sales totals performancewww.cthresources.com Page 179 www.cthawards.com
  • 180. Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Summary Food Service Service Introduction The Service methods personnel importance of service Importance of Different personal Pre-service Service Post- service approaches presentation Organisational Mise-en- place Order of service Duties Staffing ration structure Cleaning Service basics Briefings Point of salewww.cthresources.com Page 180 www.cthawards.com
  • 181. Chapters 1. Introduction to food & beverage 2. Food production 3. Purchasing food & beverage 4. Food service delivery 5. Beverages 6. Menu planning 7. Service quality in food & beverage 8. Conference & banquetingwww.cthresources.com Page 181 www.cthawards.com
  • 182. Chapter 5 – Beverages Objectives In this chapter you will learn to :- ● Explain the critical factors and considerations when designing and organising a bar ● Discuss key bar personnel their responsibilities and organisation ● Identify the different types of beverages used in a bar, their uses, methods of production and service ● Understand the importance of control within bar and discuss a range of methods that can be implemented to maintain controlwww.cthresources.com Page 182 www.cthawards.com
  • 183. Chapter 5 – Beverages Introduction and overview 1. Introduction and overview 1.1Types of bar operations 1.2 Hotel bars 1.3 Bar personnel 1.4 The importance of saleswww.cthresources.com Page 183 www.cthawards.com
  • 184. Chapter 5 – Beverages Introduction and overview 1.1 Types of bar operations ● Hotel bars ● Independently run bars ● Public house ● Bar chains ● Nightclub operations ● Wine bars ● Employee bars in the work placewww.cthresources.com Page 184 www.cthawards.com
  • 185. Chapter 5 – Beverages Introduction and overview 1.2 Hotel bars Independent bar theme • A bar concept within a hotel. Open residents and non-residents • The bar supports a restaurant or dining facility where customers can have Support/Adjacent bar aperitifs and appetisers prior to using the restaurant and digestifs after • This bar would be situated ‘back of house’ and is not visible to customers. The Service/Dispense bar bar acts as a central dispense and serve beverages to service personnel who place order from different outlets. Conference and Banquet • This bar is located within the conference and banquet area and is in most bar cases only in operation when event are taking place. Mini bar • Mini bars are small self-service bars located in customer’s bedroom.www.cthresources.com Page 185 www.cthawards.com
  • 186. Chapter 5 – Beverages Introduction and overview 1.3 Bar personnel Staffing within a bar depends on many factors ; ● Quality standards ● Size of operation ● Turnover of operation ● Theme or concept ● Customer type ● Times of operationwww.cthresources.com Page 186 www.cthawards.com
  • 187. Chapter 5 – Beverages Introduction and overview Fig5.1: A typical bar operation Head Barperson or Bar Manager Assistant Bar Manager Supervisors Bartender Floor Staffwww.cthresources.com Page 187 www.cthawards.com
  • 188. Chapter 5 – Beverages Introduction and overview The bar is managed by a senior staff member to oversee its running, and the position provides many challenges to include: General ● Meeting goals and targets ● Achieving 100% customer satisfaction ● Attracting and retaining a skilled team ● Minimising wastage ● Maximising sales ● Maitaining standards Specific ● A competitive environment ● Adhering to the licensing laws ● Being constantly innovative ● Running promotions ● Minimising theft by employees ● Strict cash control monitoring ● Inventory management ● Dealing with intoxicated guestswww.cthresources.com Page 188 www.cthawards.com
  • 189. Chapter 5 – Beverages Introduction and overview Most hotels and bars organise their staffing into; ● Bartenders ● Floor staff Their job roles and responsibilities: Bartenders Floor staff Setting-up bar area for service (mise Setting-up floor area service (mise en place) en place) Serving customers who visit the bar Greeting customers who enter the or sit at the bar bar Preparing and dispensing drinks to Taking drinks and food to tale floor staff customers Controlling the beverages Serving drinks and food to table customers Keeping front and back bar areas Clearing and resetting tables clean and well presentedwww.cthresources.com Page 189 www.cthawards.com
  • 190. Chapter 5 – Beverages Introduction and overview Personal and professional characteristics of good bar staff Personal Professional Friendly Good knowledge of production and service of wines, spirits and cocktails Conversationist Awareness of licensing laws relating to the service of alcoholic beverage service Well organised Ability to sell Creative Understanding of the correct methods to store and control beverages Efficient-ability to multi-task To deal with difficult or intoxicated customers Good memory of customers and their Knowledge of point of sale particular preferenceswww.cthresources.com Page 190 www.cthawards.com
  • 191. Chapter 5 – Beverages Introduction and overview 1.4 The importance of sales Employee sales and sale activities are an integral part of any bar operations. Sales can be achieved through many different ways that include ● Employing sales-oriented individuals ● Training employees on how to sell and up-sell ● Encouraging suppliers to provide product knowledge training ● Creating sales incentives for employees ● Providing quality products that customer want ● Displaying eye-catching table ‘tent cards’ and promotional literature ● Discount techniques – ‘Happy Hour’ ● Product promotions ● Entertainment – live music, sports and quizzes ● Relationship marketing ● ‘Get to know your customer’www.cthresources.com Page 191 www.cthawards.com
  • 192. Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar design and equipment 2. Bar design and equipment 2.1 Questions and considerations in bar design 2.2 Bar equipment, glassware and consumableswww.cthresources.com Page 192 www.cthawards.com
  • 193. Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar design and equipment The layout of a bar depends on the type of operation. Each type of operation presents its own limitations and challenges. For example, the poolside bar at a resort hotel will have a special refrigeration and sanitation concerns. An airport bar has to emphasis speed and accessibility in its layout. The layout of a restaurant bar will need to accommodate the storage requirements of wines and champagnes Kotschevar and Tanke (1996)www.cthresources.com Page 193 www.cthawards.com
  • 194. Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar design and equipment 2.1 Questions and considerations in bar design Theme •What will be the underpinning theme of the bar? Music, sports or cocktail bar? Allocation of space •How much space you will be required and allocated for customers, employee service and storage? Atmosphere •Do we want to create a quite, loud, relaxing or intimate atmosphere? Type of customer •Who will be the target consumers, business, students, conference delegates, resident or non-residents? What will the business mix be? Operating times •Will it be open for lunch, dinner or all day? Budget •How much do we have to spend on design? Table and seating •Will we use stools, tables, booths or couches and what proportion of each? How is this linked to atmosphere, goals arrangements and revenues? Traffic flow •To ensure that employees can serve efficiently, customers can access products and services easily, minimise customer queuing. Employees •What skills will they need, what products are we serving, how many employees? Furnishing •What quality, colour and material Equipment •What equipment will we need to achieve our goals (TVs, pinball machine. Speakers, bar equipment) Entertainment •How will entertain our customers, live music, DJ, jukebox, dance floor, flaring bartenders? Menus •What products will be available? Financial targets •How much do we want to achieve? and projectionswww.cthresources.com Page 194 www.cthawards.com
  • 195. Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar design and equipment Other factors to consider in bar design are ergonomics and sales, including: ● Sufficient space for customers to move and to get to the bar ● Comfortable furniture ● Good lighting to display products ● Equipment easily accessible for staff ● Sufficient amounts of equipment for staff to carry out other duties ● Server needs to be able to see customers ● Clear price listswww.cthresources.com Page 195 www.cthawards.com
  • 196. Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar design and equipment 2.2 Bar equipment, glassware and consumables Most bars are divided and oraganised into two main areas, the ‘front bar’ and the ‘back bar’. The front bar is the area that is not visible to the customer and is the main service point for the barman.. The back bar is visible to the customer and is the main area for product displays and merchandising. Bars require different types of equipment for the employees to carry out their job functions efficiently. This can be typically categorized into four main areas ● Fixed equipment ● Portable equipment ● Glassware ● Consumableswww.cthresources.com Page 196 www.cthawards.com
  • 197. Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar design and equipment Examples of fixed equipment Refrigerators Ice machine Glass washing machine Sink and running water Coffee machine Bar lighting Point of sales terminal Draught beer system Post mix machine Shelving mirrors Blackboards and signage Examples of portable equipment Drinks liquidiser Cocktail shaker Chopping board Ice buckets Wine coolers A skip Cutting knives Strainers Ice tongs Dustbins Broken glass box Juice press Juice containers Cigar cutter Coffee machine Water pitches Spirit measures Optics Wine baskets Selection of glassware Service trays Waiter’s friend Drip trays Cigar lighterwww.cthresources.com Page 197 www.cthawards.com
  • 198. Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar design and equipment Glassware Glassware can range in quality, colour, size and shape depending on the operation. In addition, to being used for the service of beverages the glassware can also add to the design and decoration of the bar. Important tips for employees when using glasses include: ● Pick up glasses from the base and place holding the stem ● Never touch the rim of a full glass ● Only carry a safe amount of glasses at any one time ● Try to use trays where possible in front of house areas ● Ensure you see the right type of glass for the beverage being served ● Ensure the glass is clean on the exterior and inside, without any marks or stains ● Ensure the glass is in good condition and cannot cause any harmwww.cthresources.com Page 198 www.cthawards.com
  • 199. Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar design and equipment Examples of consumables Paper napkins Table matches Cocktail sticks Coasters Swizz stick Drink umbrellas Cleaning materials straws There are also a variety of food items that would be stocked in a bar as accompaniments to different beverages, as listed below. Olives Lemons Oranges Tabasco sauce Cherries Limes Angostura bitters Worcestershire sauce Sugar Cream Sugar cubes Salt Coconut Cucumberwww.cthresources.com Page 199 www.cthawards.com
  • 200. Chapter 5 – Beverages Beverage service 3. Beverage service 3.1 Pre-service duties – open bar 3.2 Post-service – close of barwww.cthresources.com Page 200 www.cthawards.com
  • 201. Chapter 5 – Beverages Beverage service 3.1Pre-services duties – open bar ● Collect requisition and beverages from stores ● Collect float and guest list ● On arriving at the bar turn on equipment, lights, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)and music ● Clean and prepare tables with tent cards, bud vase and ashtrays ● Check tables and chairs are in correct position ● Stock sideboards ● Collect fresh linen from linen room ● Fill bar refrigerators (use first in, first out method) ● Prepare garnishes (cut lemons, oranges) ● Polish any glassware and re-stock on shelves ● Prepare complimentary items (nuts/olives) ● Polish any silverware ● Check daily food specials ● Check handover log bookwww.cthresources.com Page 201 www.cthawards.com
  • 202. Chapter 5 – Beverages Beverage service 3.2 Post service – close of bar ● Cash-up and balance takings ● Clean bar area ● Complete beverage requisition ● Complete log book ● Lock refrigerators and secure bar ● Remove all garbage ● Deposit ditty laundry ● Turn off equipmentwww.cthresources.com Page 202 www.cthawards.com
  • 203. Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage, service and production 4. Types of beverage, service and production 4.1 Types of soft drink 4.2 Coffee preparation methods 4.3 Beers 4.4 Spirits 4.5 Liqueurs 4.6 Cocktails 4.7 Wines 4.8 Service of Winewww.cthresources.com Page 203 www.cthawards.com
  • 204. Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage, service and production Figure 5.5: Classification of beverages Soft drinks Wines Beers Beverage s Cocktails Spirits Liqueurswww.cthresources.com Page 204 www.cthawards.com
  • 205. Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage, service and production 4.1 Types of soft drinks Examples service Mineral water Still (eg Evian) Serve chilled, with slice of lemon , tall glass, ice only Sparkling (eg Perrier) on request Mixers or sodas Coke, diet coke, tonic, soda, ginger ale, bitter lemon, Can be served on their own or as a mixer with tango, sprite, tonic another drink, ie gin and tonic Juices Orange, tomato, cranberry, apple, mango, tomato and Can be produced in-house or brought-in, serve vegetable chilled, with or without ice Syrups and cordials Grenadine, lime and orange cordial Normally served diluted or as a dash in other beverages. For example, lager and lime Teas English breakfast, Earl Grey, Ceylon, Darjeeling, Lap sang Served hot and can be accompanied with any of the Souchong, Iced, Oolong, Green, Fruit and Herbal following – hot water, cold milk, sugar, sweetener or lemon sliceswww.cthresources.com Page 205 www.cthawards.com
  • 206. Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage, service and production 4.2 Coffee preparation methods Coffee type Explanation Filter Traditional method of making coffee. Often served with hot or cold milk or cream cafetiere Popular method of making and saving fresh coffee in individual or multi-portion jugs. Often served with hot or cold milk or cream Espresso Traditional short storing black coffee Americano Espresso with added hot water to create regular black coffee Cappuccino Espresso coffee topped with steamed frothed milk, often finished with sprinkling of chocolate Café latte Shot of espresso plus hot milk, with or without foam Ice coffee Chilled regular coffee, sometimes served with milk or simply single espresso topped up with iced cold milk Turkish/Egyptian Intense form of coffee made in special jugs with finely ground coffee Decaffeinated Coffee with caffeine removed Instant coffee Coffee made from processed powder (often freeze dried) Source: lillicrap & Cousins (2006)www.cthresources.com Page 206 www.cthawards.com
  • 207. Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage, service and production 4.3 Beers Most bars stock a good selection of local and international beers, which are served in a selection of ways to include kegs (draught), cans or bottles. A ‘draught beer dispensing system’ can be seen in many bars. Figure 5.6: Draught beer system Source: www.kegworks.comwww.cthresources.com Page 207 www.cthawards.com
  • 208. Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage, service and production Opportunities and challenges of stocking draught beer: Opportunities Challenges Serves large quantities of people Development of cellar system Doesn’t requires as much strong as other Spillage and spoilage methods No bottles or left over storage containers Difficult to accurately account consumption Environmentally friendly Requires regular sanitation and maintenance Fresh Not all brands distribute their beer as draught Customers feel that they are getting value for Investment in training and monitoring money Good taste Heavy Pilferage can be easy (hard to trace) Short shelf lifewww.cthresources.com Page 208 www.cthawards.com
  • 209. Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage, service and production Beer classification Example Characteristics Service lagers Carlsberg, Fosters, Heineken, San Made from cold fermented yeast, Serve chilled 4-7ºC,39-45ºF Miguel, Asahi, Tsingtao carbonated, normally light or pale in colour, drier in taste than ales Ales English bitters, pales Top fermented yeasts, stronger than 8-12ºC, 45-54ºF lagers Dark beers or stout Guinness Bitter in taste, made from barley, malt 5-8ºC and hops Non/low alcoholic Barbican, Bud light 4.7 ABV or less Chilled 7ºC, 39-45ºFwww.cthresources.com Page 209 www.cthawards.com
  • 210. Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage, service and production 4.4 Spirits Most spirits feature product variations that differ in taste, alcoholic volume, area of production, packaging and quality. Origin Characteristics Service Vodka Eastern Europe Clear, distilled from fermented grain, potatoes, Very chilled (Store in freezer before molasses, beets, 35-60% ABV service), serve neat or mixed Rum Caribbean Distilled and produced from fermented sugar Serve chilled, neat or mixed (molasses) and water. Can be white, golden or dark in coloure, 37-43% ABV Gin England Clear grain spirit produced from juniper berries Serve chilled, neat or mixed Tequila Mexico Made from agave plant. Coloure ranges from clear Serve on its own with lemon and salt or to pale, 38-40ABVProduced from barley, water and in cocktails yeast whisky Whisky (Ireland) Neat or mixed with a mineral or still Whisky (Scotland) waterwww.cthresources.com Page 210 www.cthawards.com
  • 211. Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage, service and production 4.5 Liqueurs The range of liqueurs available on the market is extensive. These compounded spirits vary in coloure, origin and flavour. Production methods can include the use of fruits, spices and spirits. They are colorful in appearance and contribute towards the atmosphere to the back bar. They are versatile in their uses and can be served on their own, in cocktails and as accompaniments in specialty coffees. They have long shelf liveswww.cthresources.com Page 211 www.cthawards.com
  • 212. Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage, service and production The following table provides information on some common liquers: Liqueur Colour Flavour/Spirit base Country of origin Advocaat yellow Egg/sugar/brandy Holland Anisette clear Aniseed/neutral spirit France, Spain, Italy, Holland Amaretto Golden Almonds Italy Archers Clear Peaches/Schnapps UK Arrack Clear Herbs/Sap of palm trees Java, India, Sri Lanka, Jamaica Bailey’s Irish coffee Honey/chocolate/cream/w Ireland Cream hisky Benedictine Yellow/green Herbs/brandy France Calvados Amber Francappel/brandy France Chartreuse Green (45% ABV) Herbs/ palnts/brandy France Yellow (55% ABV) Cherry brandy Deep red Cherry/brandy Denmarkwww.cthresources.com Page 212 www.cthawards.com
  • 213. Chapter 5 –Beverages Types of beverage, service and production Liqueur Coloure Flavour/Spirit base Country of origin Cointreau Clear Orange/brandy France Crème de cacao Dark brown Chocolate/vanilla/rum France Drambuie Golden Heather/honey/herbs/whisky Scotland Galliano Golden Herbs/berries/flowers/roots Italy Grand marnier Amber Orange/brandy France kirsch Clear Cherry/neutral spirit Alsace Kahlua Pale chocolate Coffee/rum Mexico Malibu Clear Coconut/white rum Caribbean Sambuca Clear Liquorice/neutral spirit Italy Southern comfort Golden Peaches/oranges/whiskey United states Tia Maria brown Coffee/rum Jamaica Lillicrap & Cousins (2006)www.cthresources.com Page 213 www.cthawards.com
  • 214. Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage, service and production 4.6 Cocktails The availability in cocktail in bars varies from full cocktail to none. The reason for this is that to promote cocktails, establishments need to invest in training an extensive range of beverages, special equipment, glassware, accompaniments and time. There are hundreds of cocktail receipts and for most establishment to serve all of these would be unrealistic. It is for this reason that most hotels tend to train their bar staff to have knowledge in the preparation of the ‘main cocktails’ that are normally requested. In situations where other more obscure cocktails are requested the bartender can ask customer for information and attempt to create the cocktail. Restaurant such as TGI Fridays have a full and extensive cocktail list and use this as one of their unique selling points to differentiate themselves from their competitors and attract customers. Cocktails can be classified into the ways they are made which include: ● Shaken ● Stirred ● Blended ● Build ● Mixed ● layeredwww.cthresources.com Page 214 www.cthawards.com
  • 215. Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage, service and production 4.7 Wines Wines are classifieds as: ● Red wine ● White wine ● Sparkling wine ● Dessert wine ● Fortified wine The main wine producing regions are: ● Europe – Italy, France, Germany and Spain ● Australia ● South Africa ● South America ● North Americawww.cthresources.com Page 215 www.cthawards.com
  • 216. Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage, service and production Different grape varieties used in wine production White grapes Red grapes Chardonnay Ripe melon, fresh, pineapple, Cabernet Sauvignon Blackcurrants tropical fruits, nutty Chenin Blanc Apples Nebbiolo Roses, Prunes, black cherry, sloes Gewurztraminer Rose petals, grapefruit, tropical Merlot Plum, damson, blackcurrants fruits Muscat Grapes/ rasins Pinot Noir Strawberries, cherries, plums Riesling Apricots, peaches, lime, Syrah/Shiraz Raspberries, blackcurrants, peaches, stony blackberries Sauvignon blanc Gooseberries, tropical fruits zinfandel Blackberries, bramble, spice Lillicrap & Cousins (2006)www.cthresources.com Page 216 www.cthawards.com
  • 217. Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage, service and production Wine terminology Ageing Storing wines in wooded (typically oak) or stainless steel barrels before bottling Aroma The fragrance of a young wine, usually fruity or flowery Bouquet The complex smell of mature wine Body The feel and weight of a wine in the mouth Dry Not sweet Vintage The year a wine’s grapes were harvested and wine making begun Aperitif wine Wine and spirits, added, and sometimes flavored with herbs and spices Bordeaux Wine from the Bordeaux region of France Burgundy Wine from the Burgundy region of France Claret A generic name for a Red Bordeaux wine Dessert wine Sweet wines suitable for drinking with or after dessert Sparkling Wine Wine containing carbon dioxide, which produce bubbles when the wine is pouredwww.cthresources.com Page 217 www.cthawards.com
  • 218. Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage, service and production 4.8 Service of wine Some hotels of a high standard would employ a Sommelier to assist the selection and stocking of wines. A wine sommelier; ● Creates wine lists with the manager ● Meets with wine suppliers ● Organises wine training ● Maintains wine stocks ● Takes customers wine orders ● Recommends wines (wine with foods) ● Serves wines ● Manages the wine cellar ● Develops wine promotionswww.cthresources.com Page 218 www.cthawards.com
  • 219. Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage, service and production 4.8.1 Wine serving procedure Steps White wine Red wine1 1. Collect wine from refrigerator Collect wine from rack or cellar 2. Check label that it is the correct wine Check label that is the correct wine 3. Place in ice bucket and half fill with ice and water Place in wicker basket and collect side plate and waiter’s cloth 4. Place on stand and take next to host’s table Place on stand next to host’s table 5. Using a waiter’s cloth present the bottle (label facing) for the Using a waiter’s cloth present the bottle (label facing) for the host to check host to check 6. Place bottle back in ice bucket and using a ‘waiter’s friend’ Place bottle back in ice bucket and using a ‘waiter’s friend’ remove outer foil remove outer foil 7. Using waiter’s cloth remove any debris or mould from on top Using waiter’s cloth remove any debris or mould from on top of cork of cork 8. Using waiters friend slowly remove cork and place on table in Using waiters friend slowly remove cork and place on table in front of host front of host 9. Using cloth wipe around the inside of the bottle neck Using cloth wipe around the inside of the bottle neck 10. Offer the host a small taste Offer the host a small taste 11. If satisfactory, serve other guests before topping up the host’s If satisfactory, serve other guests before topping up the host’s glass glass 12 Replace back in ice bucket and top-up glasses when required Replace back in ice bucket and top-up glasses when requiredwww.cthresources.com Page 219 www.cthawards.com
  • 220. Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage, service and production Wine serving temperatures Degrees Fahrenheit (ºF) Degrees Centigrade (ºC) White and rose 44-45 7-13 Sparkling wines 45 7 Red wines 60-65 16-19www.cthresources.com Page 220 www.cthawards.com
  • 221. Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage, service and production Food servers can assist customers by providing recommendations of wines and how they match best with particular menu items. Food Wine type Cheese Cabernet Sauvignon, Zinfandel, Pinot Noir Caviar Champagne Soup A light styled white or red Roast Chicken Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc Duck Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot Fish Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Blanc Prime rib (steak) Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot Shellfish Chardonnay, Riesling, Gewurtztraminer Adapted from Kotschevar and Tanke (1996)www.cthresources.com Page 221 www.cthawards.com
  • 222. Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar control 5. Bar Control 5.1 The importance of bar control 5.2 Control tools 5.3 Cost considerations in bar managementwww.cthresources.com Page 222 www.cthawards.com
  • 223. Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar control 5.1 The importance of bar control ● Many beverages are perishable ● Many beverages are expensive ● Beverages are attractive to employees ● Bars tend to receive lots of ‘cash’ payments ● Bar work is not normally highly paid so cash cam prove to be a temptation to employees ● Bar work can attract seasonal and unskilled individuals ● Bar stock is difficult to control due to the many variations and combinations of beverages ● Over consumption by customers can lead to problemswww.cthresources.com Page 223 www.cthawards.com
  • 224. Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar control 5.2 Control tools ● Carryout thorough character and reference checks on new employees ● Install Close Circuit Television Camera (CCTV) and check tapes regularly, not just when problems occur ● Set up regular mystery guest visits ● Install a POS to assist with billing and control ● Carry out daily stock-takes with random beverages ● Create standards of performance for all drinks ● Empty bottles to be exchanged for full bottles ● No friends or family of employees in bar except without prior approval from manager ● Only supervisor permitted to carry out voids ● Do not allow junior staff to use “No Sale” key ● All mistake beverages or dropped bottles to be recorded and kept for inspection ● No cash on duty policy for employees ● No employee bags to be brought into bar areawww.cthresources.com Page 224 www.cthawards.com
  • 225. Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar control 5.2 Control tools continued... ● Tips jar to be lockable ● Managers to change cash drawers regularly throughout the shift ● No drinks to leave the bar without written or electronic order ● No employees to bring empty bottles into bar ● No consumption of alcohol on duty by employees ● Employee cashing-up should not carry out X reading ● All customers consuming to have running bill ● Any entertainment to be pre-approved by manager ● Any ‘out of date’ stock to be kept for managers approval ● Supervise and manage ‘under’ and ‘over’ pouring practiceswww.cthresources.com Page 225 www.cthawards.com
  • 226. Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar control 5.3 Cost considerations in bar management Increase profits Decrease profits Buy in bulk to receive better discounts Buy small and receive few discounts Negotiate deals with supplier to receive product discounts Accept all pries from suppliers and fail to bargaining Implementing strict controls on receiving and checking Lapse controls on receiving beverage items. On receipt beverages should be checked for price, quality, brand, expiry and damage. If these are not checked high cost will occur Select the most appropriate storage method to result in longer shelf life For example, if champagne is stored too cold it will affect the quality Implement ‘first In first out ‘ stock rotation system Old stock must be used and issued first to make sure customers receive the most fresh items and to avoid items expiring Be aware of product and seasonal price fluctuations in the market and adjust price Selling prices of beverages are set against product costs. Therefore, if cost prices increase accordingly and adjustments to selling prices are not made a loss in profit will occur Be aware of ‘slow moving items’ and ‘expiry items’ and implement selling strategies to Beverage items that will expire and have expired cannot be sold avoid high wastage costs. Ensure requisitioning is accurate and consistent-to and forms stores and departments Faulty and bad requisitioning practices will create irregularities in beverage stocks To ensure end of month stock-takes are completed and ‘mid-month’ wherever possible If no stock takes (or inventories) are made hotels or organisations cannot determine if beverage stock has go missingwww.cthresources.com Page 226 www.cthawards.com
  • 227. Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar control Increase profits Decrease profits To ensure that all beverages sold in outlets are billed Beverages that are issued to the customers and no bill has been made can mean: 1. That the customer has paid but the money has not gone in the till (has gone in the server’s pocket!) 2. That the beverage has been served to the customer and no money has been received at all, therefore, 100% loss To ensure that beverages are costed appropriately to reflect product cost and outlet’s If wrong or incorrect selling are calculated, the right profit will not be achieved sales goals To ensure the correct brands are sold on purchase For example, different types of beer are different prices. If a guest wanted a Tsingtao and a Heineken was served by mistake and the customer was charged for Tsingtao a loss would be made To ensure ‘weights and measures’ and portions are correct and followed at all times All beverages are costed out per portion, therefore, if a larger measure is given ,money will be lost To ensure that any wastage is recorded and accounted for Broken bottles or faulty beverages must be accounted for and included in the stock- take reconciliation To implement controls to ensure that theft is kept to a minimum Checks on employee bags, security camera, random, bar checks, random till checks, etc.. To set sales incentives to move more beverage stock If no efforts made to increase stock turnover at all times expiry will occurwww.cthresources.com Page 227 www.cthawards.com
  • 228. Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar control Spillage report form If beverages are spilled, a Spillage Report Form should be completed, explaining what happened. The bar shift manager should sign the form to show that he is aware of the spillage. An example of a spillage report form follows.www.cthresources.com Page 228 www.cthawards.com
  • 229. Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar control Standard recipe Standard recipes are used when mixing drinks to maintain consistency and quality, for example, a standard recipe for a gin and tonic: Ingredient Quantity Method House gin 1 Jigger •Pour gin into a clean hi-ball glass over ice Tonic 1 Small bottle •Add tonic and mix with swizzle stick Lime Small Slices •Place swizzle stick inside drink and add slice of lime Swizzle stick 1 •Serve on tray with a coaster Ice cube 3 pieces •Wish the customer an enjoyable drinkwww.cthresources.com Page 229 www.cthawards.com
  • 230. Chapter 5 – Beverages Summary Introduction Bar design and Preparation for Staffing Beverages Bar control organisation service Considerations Soft drinks Equipment and Beer glassware Spirits Liqueurs Cocktails Winswww.cthresources.com Page 230 www.cthawards.com
  • 231. Chapters 1. Introduction to food & beverage 2. Food production 3. Purchasing food & beverage 4. Food service delivery 5. Beverages 6. Menu planning 7. Service quality in food & beverage 8. Conference & banquetingwww.cthresources.com Page 231 www.cthawards.com
  • 232. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Objectives In this chapter you will learn to :- ● Explain the importance of the menu within an operation ● List, explain and critique the different types of menus found in operations ● Discuss the factors to be considered when creating menus ● Describe a range of tools for evaluating menuswww.cthresources.com Page 3 www.cthawards.com
  • 233. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning The importance of the menu The menu is central to a food and beverage operation. It is the ‘first impression’ of your establishment It communicates everything about your type of operation It dictates your staffing, organisation, production and service methods It drives your image , theme, concept, quality and overall mission It is the main ‘sales tool’ for your product It differentiates you from your competition It can make or break you! www.chaletnarnia.comwww.cthresources.com Page 233 www.cthawards.com
  • 234. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu styles 2. Menu styles 2.1 Courses 2.2 Table d’hôte menu 2.3 À la carte (ALC) menus 2.4 Cyclical menuswww.cthresources.com Page 234 www.cthawards.com
  • 235. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu styles 2.1 Courses Menus normally consists of three different sections. Some customers will have all three courses, some will have just one depending on their time, budget or situation. Characteristics Examples Appetisers The first course Soups, salads, smaller variations of the main course The taster dishes Smaller portion Can be hot or cold Normally savoury Main courses or entrée Follows the appetiser (not always) Grills, meats, platters, fish, vegetarian, large salads Larger portion size Savoury Can be hot or cold Must be expensive menu items Desserts Normally final course Ice creams, cakes, gateaux, fruit, cheese Can be small or large in size Sweet or savoury Can be served hot or colswww.cthresources.com Page 235 www.cthawards.com
  • 236. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu styles Other menus will offer more sections such as: Side orders Snacks or light meals Children’s meal Signature meals The variety of sections offered will depend on: The type of menu The type of theme or food The main menu formats found in commercial and non-commercial operations are: Table d’ hôte (TDH) À la carte (ALC) Cyclical menuswww.cthresources.com Page 236 www.cthawards.com
  • 237. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu styles 2.2 Table d’ hôte menu A table d’ hôte is a set menu‘ which normally: ● Consists of three or more courses ● 1, 2 or 3 choices per course ● Are in most cases a set, all inclusive price TDH menus are mostly available: ● At lunchtimes ● For themed lunches and dinners (Valentines, Easter, Christmas) ● In Conference and Banqueting (choices will be limited depending on quantity of people) TDH menus are deal for catering to large numbers of people. They are sometimes used in restaurant operations during lunch and dinner service. These menus would be normally run instead of the operations full à la carte menu.www.cthresources.com Page 237 www.cthawards.com
  • 238. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu styles Table d’ hôte (TDH) menus: Opportunities for ● Less costs overall, labour, purchasing, preparation, training and utilities operation ● Can run TDH menus during slow demand periods. ● Requires less chefs to be on duty as there is less food to prepare ● Can trial out new dishes before putting on full ALC menu ● Requires less skilled chefs as only a few dishes to concentrate on ● Requires less service staff due to simplicity ● Can incorporate slow moving or soon to expire food ● In some situations senior chef can implement TDH menus when there is a shortage of kitchen staff or skill ● Can used skilled chefs to perform other functions Challenges for operation ● Difficult to compete with ALC choice being provided by other establishments Opportunities for ● Food is served much faster as food is en place customer ● Easier and faster to select as there is less choice ● Appears good value as several courses for one set price Challenges for ● Choice is limited customerwww.cthresources.com Page 238 www.cthawards.com
  • 239. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu styles 2.3 À la carte (ALC) menus À la carte (ALC) menus are found mostly in commercial food and beverage operations. These menus are characterised by: ● A large selection of options ● All menu items are individually priced ● Dishes are in most cases cooked to order ● Customers can consume several dishes depending on their situationwww.cthresources.com Page 239 www.cthawards.com
  • 240. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu styles ALC menus - challenges and opportunities Opportunities for ● Attracts customers due to wide choice of dishes operation ● Able to showcase and promote culinary expertise ● Opportunities to increase sales Challenges for ● Large quantity of dishes requires lots of purchasing, storage, preparation and controlling operation ● High perishability – difficult to sell during slow demand periods ● Requires higher quantities of kitchen and service staff ● Demands higher skilled chefs due to more complexity ● More training for chefs and service personnel ● More things to manage therefore more opportunities for error ● More choice can results in longer wait times and reduction ins eat turnover ● Higher costs, space, utilities, labour, wastage ● Greater customer expectations Opportunities for ● Lots of choice customer ● Select according to own particular dietary needs ● Higher quality Challenges for ● Too much choice , difficult to select customer ● Order to delivery times can be longer ● Running costs passed onto customer and, therefore , can be more expensivewww.cthresources.com Page 240 www.cthawards.com
  • 241. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu styles 2.4 Cyclical menus Most commonly found in non-commercial food operations such as schools, hospitals and military establishments. The menus are pre-planned to meet the needs of the target consumers and are rotated weekly, fortnightly or monthly. Challenges and opportunities of a cyclical menu: Opportunities for operation ● Less changes in the menu allows for easier planning ● Able to ensure menus are well balanced across the week ● Able to buy in bulk and achieve cheaper prices with supplier ● Employees become skilled and specialised in the production of particular dishes allowing for greater competency and efficiency ● Less training for employees ● Less errors ● Food can be prepared in advance and chilled ● Less skilled employees required Challenges for operation ● Employees get bored due to lack of scope Opportunities for customer ● Customers get to look forward to particular menus on certain days Challenges for customer ● Customers can get boredwww.cthresources.com Page 241 www.cthawards.com
  • 242. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3 Menu considerations 3.1 The consumers 3.2 Trends 3.3 Food needs 3.4 Operational and business considerations in menu planning 3.5 Legislation in menu planning 3.6 Menu cover 3.7 Flexibility 3.8 Terminology 3.9 Layout and design 3.10 Food 3.11 Colour balance 3.12 Textures 3.13 Wording 3.14 Nutritional balance 3.15 Ingredient balance 3.16 Supplierswww.cthresources.com Page 242 www.cthawards.com
  • 243. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations Figure 6.3: Considerations in menu planning Priority Concern of Menu Planner Guests/ consumers Operation Food Likes & dislikes of Costs Consistency target market Socio-economic Availability of Portion size factors ingredients Ethnic factors Equipment needs Textures Skill requirements of Demographic factors Colour balance chefs Religious Size of restaurant Nutritional balance considerations (covers) Concept of value Aesthetic balance Service method – Plated, buffet for example Food trends Provenance Storage facilities Environmental available Suppliers concerns Health & Safety - legislation Competition Environmental legislation Design and flow of kitchen Menu cover & designwww.cthresources.com Page 243 www.cthawards.com
  • 244. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.1 The consumers Attracting and retaining customers is important. The underpinning goal is to provide a menu that your consumers will want, and in order to do so market research should be undertaken with your target group. Consumers expect: ● To see a good variety of dishes on the menu ● To receive what is described on the menu ● To see descriptions accompany the main dish headings ● For the menu item to be available as advertised ● To be made aware of any specific ingredients that may cause an allergic reaction, such as nuts Food and beverage operators have an obligation to: ● Provide good quality ingredients ● Be truthful in what they advertise on their menus ● Inform customers promptly when items are not availablewww.cthresources.com Page 244 www.cthawards.com
  • 245. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.2 Trends Vegetarianism Around 6% of the UK population is vegetarian. Organic food Consumers increasingly demand food that is healthy, organic and produced without any artificial addictives. Exotic Consumers increasingly enjoy more exotic food from areas such as Japan, China, Thailand and India. Healthier options Increasing obesity level are leading consumers to be more health conscious.www.cthresources.com Page 245 www.cthawards.com
  • 246. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.3 Food needs Although there are basic needs and wants there are also customers with more specific requirements. Halal Caters for members of the Muslim faith; in the food production process the animal or poultry has to be slaughtered in a ritual way known as Zibah. Kosher Kosher food is food that meets Jewish dietary laws, or the laws of Kashrut. Similar to Halal, it has strict rules in the preparation and production stages, where food is supervised by a rabbi. Members of the Jewish faith would not consume items such as pork or seafood and would not mix diary and fruits. Vegetarian Vegetarians would not eat meat, poultry and fish. They eat primarily vegetables, pulses and fruits. Vegan Vegans do not eat meat, eggs, diary products and all other animal-derived ingredients. They eat beans, grains, legumes, vegetables and fruits.www.cthresources.com Page 246 www.cthawards.com
  • 247. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.4 Operational and business considerations in menu planning Costs Each establishment has a target food cost to be achieved. The food cost drives the pricing margins. The cost, preparation and production of the food items selected have to fit in with target costs to ensure margins are maintained. Cost considerations when planning and creating menus: ● The establishment’s target food cost ● The cost of ingredients ● Food seasonality ● The quantity of food used for each dish (portion) ● Food wastage during production ● Food production methods adoptedwww.cthresources.com Page 247 www.cthawards.com
  • 248. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations Availability of ingredients: When compiling menus the chef need to take in to consideration the availability of ingredients in seasonality and suppliers. If a dish is composed with a particular type of vegetable it should be checked that it is available all year round. Food prices fluctuate in and out of seasons so it is imperative that food is used that is in season, however as already stated seasonality is becoming a thing of the past with many foods being imported but at higher costs which impact the chefs budget. Equipment needs: Some food such as fresh pasta and pizzas require special equipment if made in-house, however this can add value to the menu. Many establishments recognise that with equipment come space, depreciation, maintenance, training , cleaning and control.www.cthresources.com Page 248 www.cthawards.com
  • 249. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations Skill requirements of chefs: Chefs should be capable of serving the menu. If a sophisticated menu is written it is all well and good, but if the chefs do not have the skills to serve them complaints will be made. Furthermore the employees will feel de-motivated and become dissatisfied when complaints arise. Hence it is best to identify the right type of menu that can be provided. Similarly, if a higher level of menu is required investment in new personnel or training should take place. Size of food production and food service facilities: If the restaurant has a large seating capacity it is important to consider how the kitchen will operate when full. If the menu is complex a full restaurant will require large amounts of staff and space to meet these needs. If the menu is too complex it will slow up the service time when busy. Similarly, if the kitchen is small the space available for food preparation may be limited and so having dishes that require lots of preparation space may cause accidents and problems. In this case, the preparation should be carried out off-site and finished on site where possible. Storage is another consideration in relation to space, if food storage is limited menu items should be restricted to reduce storage requirements.www.cthresources.com Page 249 www.cthawards.com
  • 250. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations Service method: Buffet, family, silver service, plated and gueridon restaurant service methods will affect the type of food you serve. Competition: It is important to carry out regular competitor evaluations. Consumers will select one competitor over another for different reasons, such as quality, presentation, price, variety, ingredients used, promotions, portion and service. It is, therefore, imperative that your menu is different and better than your competition. If you differentiate your product you will increase your chances of attracting consumers. Be sure to also carry out this analysis quarterly as competitors’ menus can change frequently. Also, remember that they are probably visiting your establishment as well, evaluating your menu and repositioning theirs!www.cthresources.com Page 250 www.cthawards.com
  • 251. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.5 Legislation in menu planning The Trade Descriptions Act 1968 is an Act of Parliament of the UK which prevents manufacturers, retailers or service industry providers from misleading consumers as to what they are spending their money on. Other words, commonly used care needs to be taken with: ● Fresh salad ● Garden vegetables ● Homemade desserts Another important law is: ● The Sale of Goods Act 1979 ● The Food Standards Agencywww.cthresources.com Page 251 www.cthawards.com
  • 252. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.6 Menu cover Menu cover needs to: ● be attractive ● be eye catching ● set the scene ● communicate the theme ● be cleanable ● be replaceablewww.cthresources.com Page 252 www.cthawards.com
  • 253. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.7 Flexibility Menus need to be flexible and adaptive. Internal and external forces can affect the dishes that you offer. Change agent Impact/ Action Ingredient prices change due to political and economic Menu prices need to be amended factors Food scares such as bird flu and mad cow disease Consumers will not purchase Remove from menu Replace Items wanted due to social changes – red meat, fat Consumers will not purchase Remove from menu Replace Items wanted due to social changes – organic, healthier Create dishes options, exotic food Add to menu Advertise Internal; restructuring – change in budget, staffing, Menu changes leadership, theme Supplier problems Ingredients not available or too expensive, remove form menuwww.cthresources.com Page 253 www.cthawards.com
  • 254. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.8 Terminology It is important to remember that your menu is an important communication tool. Therefore, wherever possible, complex terminology should be avoided. If customers do not understand the menu it may deter them from entering the restaurant/ In cases where more obscure terminology is used it is important to ensure that the service staff can explain meaning to customers.www.cthresources.com Page 254 www.cthawards.com
  • 255. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.9 Layout and design Once decided on what dishes will be available the menu needs o be laid out correctly. Nowadays, there is a trend for electronic menus. Questions that need to be asked when laying out a menu: ● Are all descriptions accurate? ● Are my sections clear with the right ● Are my dishes easy to read? food in each section ● Is the font the correct size? ● Could I use different colours, bold or ● Have I fully utilised all the paper space underline particular dishes to make well? them stand out? ● Does the design fit ion with my target ● Have we communicated the brand well? ● If a menu item is not popular will it be market? easy to remove? ● If prices change, can we amend the prices ● Is the menu easy to clean? ● Where will we store the menus easily? ● Do we have the address, e-mail and ● Do we have taxes and service charge ● Is the spelling and grammar correct? reservations number on the menu? information communicated well? ● Have we considered guests with particular ● Have we highlighted any potential ● Do we need to consider getting menus disabilities, blind, visual impairment? allergies( eg:nuts)? translated into another language?www.cthresources.com Page 255 www.cthawards.com
  • 256. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.10 Food Consistency: To enable consistency of dishes, standard recipes need to be created for each menu item. The standard consists of: ● Ingredients ● Weightings ● Preparation and cooking methods ● Serving temperatures ● Cooking times ● Equipment ● Health and safety ● Costings ● Photographs of final presentationwww.cthresources.com Page 256 www.cthawards.com
  • 257. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations Portion size: Portion sizes are built into the standard recipe. The portion size is decided through consideration of the type of cuisine, time of day, the customer type, menu type and target food margin. Portion sizes are managed through using food production equipment such as ladles, mixers, cooking trays, crockery and glassware. In addition, sometimes items are portioned in units such as ten onion rings or five prawns.www.cthresources.com Page 257 www.cthawards.com
  • 258. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.11 Colour balance It is important to consider the colour combination of each dish. Customers should be able to ‘eat with their eyes’! If the colours on the plate are well balanced then it will be more appealing to the customers. It is also important when creating a table d’hôte menu that colours are balanced between each course.www.cthresources.com Page 258 www.cthawards.com
  • 259. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.12 Textures Not only is colour a consideration in dishes but there is also a requirement for a range of textures. Textures that are used include smooth, hard, coarse and crunchy and can be created through using different cooking methods ingredients, cutting and preparation techniques. An example which features a variety An example which does not feature a of features: variety of features: •a salad of grilled, sliced chicken •A main course of, •raw chopped carrot • braised beef •crispy romaine lettuce, • mashed potatoes •bound with a creamy mayonnaise • creamed carrotswww.cthresources.com Page 259 www.cthawards.com
  • 260. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.13 Wording The menu is a sales tool, it is therefore important to make your dishes sound exciting. Furthermore, as the dish often cannot be seen before consumption it is key to fully explain and communicate the main features of the dish creating a visual picture in the mind of the potential consumer. Examples of words to encourage purchases: ● Tasty ● Traditional ● Homemade ● Chilled ● Fresh ● Crunchy ● Authentic ● Creamy ● Juicywww.cthresources.com Page 260 www.cthawards.com
  • 261. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.14 Nutritional balance When compiling menus it is important to ensure that dishes are produced as nutritiously as possible, with a balance throughout the menu of protein, carbohydrates and vitamins. The different nutrients provide for the varying functions of the body and so it is important to offer a variety to meet the needs of different consumers and diets. Trend: Some chained restaurants now inform customers of the calorific information for each dish.www.cthresources.com Page 261 www.cthawards.com
  • 262. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.15 Ingredient balance The overall menu and dishes should use a good variety of different ingredients to include: ● Vegetables ● Fruits ● Red meats ● White meats ● Fish ● Pulses ● Herbs ● Spiceswww.cthresources.com Page 262 www.cthawards.com
  • 263. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.16 Suppliers Your menu is as good as the quality of the ingredients used Are there suppliers that can deliver the menu items required? Are the suppliers able to consistently meet food specifications? Am I using the best supplier to provide food in relation to quality, consistency of delivery and price? Is there a back-up supplier should there be any problems?www.cthresources.com Page 263 www.cthawards.com
  • 264. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options 4. Menu options 4.1 Coffee shop 4.2 Bar or lounge 4.3 Executive lounge 4.4 Fine dining 4.5 Leisure and recreational areas 4.6 Employee dining 4.7 Conference and Banqueting 4.8 Room service departmentwww.cthresources.com Page 264 www.cthawards.com
  • 265. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options 4.1 Coffee shop Menu Breakfast ● Normally consists of hot (English or American) or cold (Continental) ● In large hotels: in most cases breakfast served in buffet style ● In addition an à la carte menu available for the guests who do not require the whole buffet Brunch ● Sometimes offered at weekends between 11 am to 2 pm ● Combination of breakfast and lunch food items ● Can be available as buffet or à la carte Lunch ● Depending on the operation ● Can be served in a variety of ways to include buffet, table d’hôte or a à la carte Children ● Provided separately in most cases ● Dishes smaller in portion, cheaper ● Consists of meals such as mini burgers, pasta, salads and sandwiches ● In some cases: menus can double up as drawing or colouring menus to occupy children throughout the mealwww.cthresources.com Page 265 www.cthawards.com
  • 266. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options 4.1 Coffee shop Menu Dessert ● Can be either separate or part of the main menu ● Can also be promoted on buffets, ‘dessert trolleys’ and blackboards Afternoon ● Normally available between 2 – 4 pm tea ● Menu offers sweets, scones, freshly cut sandwiches and a selection of hot teas Special or ● Created for special promotions or calendar events (Valentines, Mother’s day) themed ● In most cases: set menus Beverages ● Drinks can be feature on the main à la carte menu as a separate menuwww.cthresources.com Page 266 www.cthawards.com
  • 267. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options 4.2 Bar or lounge Menu Drinks An extensive drinks menu featuring beers, wines, spirits, liqueurs, cocktails and soft beverages. Depending on type of operation these can be advertised on separate menus if the bar has a particular focus. Bar snacks Most bars provide food, normally consisting of light snacks eaten to accompany the drinks being served. These can come in the form of finger food, platters to share, sandwiches and salads.www.cthresources.com Page 267 www.cthawards.com
  • 268. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options 4.3 Executive lounge An executive lounge is an area within a luxury a hotel designated only for customers who stay in executive rooms. Menu Food Executives can enjoy an a la carte breakfast menu, snacks and sandwiches throughout the day and complimentary hot canapés in the evening. Beverage Complimentary soft drink throughout the day and complimentary beverages at a specified time in the evening.www.cthresources.com Page 268 www.cthawards.com
  • 269. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options 4.4 Fine dining Menu A` la carte The menu provides a wide selection of dishes featuring the restaurant’s particular concept Wine list A menu offering an extensive range of wines. Cigar Some hotels feature a humidor with a selection of fine cigars Specialty A menu that offers coffee served with liqueurs coffeewww.cthresources.com Page 269 www.cthawards.com
  • 270. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options 4.5 Leisure and recreational areas Hotels that provide leisure and recreational facilities may feature a menu to include fresh and vegetable juices, waters and energy drinks.www.cthresources.com Page 270 www.cthawards.com
  • 271. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options 4.6 Employee dining Most hotels provide some type of catering for its employees. When creating menus for employees the following should be considered. ● Demographic of workforce(age, gender) ● Job roles(clerical or manual) ● HR budget for employee meals ● Numbers of employees on duty ● Hours of operation of each department ● Feeding night staffwww.cthresources.com Page 271 www.cthawards.com
  • 272. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options 4.7 Conference and Banqueting When catering for large numbers most departments is quite different from other departments with regard to its menu planning. When catering for large numbers most departments feature a pre planned set of menus that vary to accommodate different budgets. The advantages are ● Food can be bought in bulk and therefore cheaper prices achieved ● Frequently food in this department will be cook-chilled and not all food items are suitable for chilling ● It allows for specification ● It facilitates forecasting ● Menus can easily be sent out to customers by e-mail or mailwww.cthresources.com Page 272 www.cthawards.com
  • 273. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options 4.8 Room service department Menus A` la carte menu The main menu will be advertised either in the in-room directory of services or nowadays on the television. Breakfast door menu These menus are placed in customers’ rooms and are completed the night before by the guest. On completion the customers hang them on their bedroom door knob and they are then collected by a room service employee. Mini bar The mini bar menu is a priced list of all items on sale in the in-room mini bar.www.cthresources.com Page 273 www.cthawards.com
  • 274. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu evaluation and performance 5. Menu evaluation and performance 5.1 Management informationwww.cthresources.com Page 274 www.cthawards.com
  • 275. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu evaluation and performance After menus have been created and implemented it is important to monitor them in relation to customer satisfaction and their financial contribution. Customer satisfaction can be monitored through: Speaking to customers directly Questionnaires Mystery guest visits Observing customer plates – ‘garbage survey’ Sales per dish analysis Speaking to employeeswww.cthresources.com Page 275 www.cthawards.com
  • 276. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu evaluation and performance 5.1 Management information Menus can also be monitored by examining records from point of sales report. The information is provided by: Sales per dish Profit per dish and can be listed by performance indicators as given in the following table. Performance Definition Action Stars High profit Keep on menu High sales Dogs Low profit Remove from menu Low sales Workhorses Low profit Amend ingredients, portion or selling price to achieve sales High sales Puzzles High profit Position on menu for more visibility, larger or more colourful font Low saleswww.cthresources.com Page 276 www.cthawards.com
  • 277. Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Summary The importance of the menu Menu Menu style Menu consideration Menu options evaluation Table d’hote Consumers Coffee shop A la carte The operation Bar and lounge Executive Cyclical Food lounge Briefings Fine Dining Leisure Employee Conference and banqueting Room Servicewww.cthresources.com Page 277 www.cthawards.com
  • 278. Chapters 1. Introduction to food & beverage 2. Food production 3. Purchasing food & beverage 4. Food service delivery 5. Beverages 6. Menu planning 7. Service quality in food & beverage 8. Conference & banquetingwww.cthresources.com Page 278 www.cthawards.com
  • 279. Chapter 7 – Service quality in food and beverage Objectives In this chapter you will learn to :- ● Explain the importance of quality to a food and beverage operation ● Discuss a range of methods operators can use to improve quality ● Evaluate a range of approaches to measure and maintain qualitywww.cthresources.com Page 279 www.cthawards.com
  • 280. Chapter 7 – Service quality in food and beverage Introduction to quality 1. Introduction to quality 1.1 What is quality 1.2 Importance of quality 1.3 Importance of customer satisfactionwww.cthresources.com Page 280 www.cthawards.com
  • 281. Chapter 7 – Service quality in food and beverage Introduction to quality 1.1 What is quality? It is difficult to accurately define quality, but in general quality perceptions is based on things such as our experiences, our expectations and our particular needs at that time. ‘To consistently meet or exceed consumer expectations by providing products and services at prices that creates value for customers and profit for the company’. Woods & King (2002) ‘The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy a stated or implied need’ British standards 4778 (1987) ‘Freedom from defects’ Kotler & Brown (2003) ‘Delighting the customer by fully meeting their needs and expectations’. These may include performance, appearance, availability, delivery, reliability, maintainability, cost effectiveness and price.www.cthresources.com Page 281 www.cthawards.com
  • 282. Chapter 7 – Service quality in food and beverage Introduction to quality 1.2 Importance of quality High quality Low quality Happy customers Unhappy customers Retain customers Lose customers Meet budget Under budget No discounts Discounts Employee gratuities and recognition No gratuities and recognition Attract customers Hard to attract customers Positive image Poor image Growth Decline Retain employees Lose employees Market share Decrease market share Owners satisfied Unsatisfied owners Good public relations Bad public relations Profit Loss Competitive Not competitive Open Close Wuest as cited kadampully et al. (2001) notes ‘poor service leaves a guest unimpressed, discouraged and unsatisfied’www.cthresources.com Page 282 www.cthawards.com
  • 283. Chapter 7 – Service quality in food and beverage Introduction to quality 1.2.1 Quality challenges and issues in hospitality operations Fast production to sale cycle- hard to check quality People factor- hard to standardise Highly perishable product- pressure to sell Complexity- multiple moments of truth Variety of stakeholders, with differing expectations People deliver service and people think differently Perception of quality are highly subjective Future cost of dissatisfied customers Bad news travels faster than good ones 100% staff/customer retention is unrealistic probably 80/85% is possibly achievablewww.cthresources.com Page 283 www.cthawards.com
  • 284. Chapter 7 – Service quality in food and beverage Introduction to quality 1.3 Importance of customer satisfaction The cost of gaining a new customer is around six times the cost to retain an existing one. A dissatisfied guest will tell ten other people about the complaint. 91% of customers who have an unresolved complaint will not return. 65% to 85% switchers are dissatisfied guests. Only 4% of dissatisfied guests will complain. Rowe (1998)www.cthresources.com Page 284 www.cthawards.com
  • 285. Chapter 7 – Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools 2. Quality tools 2.1 Effective leadership 2.2 Effective market segmentation 2.3 Expectations 2.4 2.4 Standards of performance or ‘ standard operating procedures” 2.5 Effective human resource management 2.6 Training 2.7 Quality sourcing 2.8 Quality schemes 2.9 Service recovery and complaint handlingwww.cthresources.com Page 285 www.cthawards.com
  • 286. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools Figure 7.2: Integrated service quality management 1. Determine customer service specification in terms of: Level of service Availability of service standards Reliability of the service Flexibility of the service 2. Check the operation is physically capable of supporting the service specification at given volume of business 3. Check that the service systems and the staff are able to deliver to the customer the totality of the service specification (Including maintaining the desired service relationship) 4. Monitor operational aspects 5. Monitor customer satisfaction 6. Feed back to original service specification and alter as appropriatewww.cthresources.com Page 286 www.cthawards.com
  • 287. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools There are many actions that food and beverage operators can take to improve their service quality. Figure 7.3: Standards for effective service quality Quality sourcing Effective Effective human leadership and resource supervision management Quality tools Quality Standards of feedback and performance monitoring (SOP’s) systems Effective market segmentation, Quality meeting their schemes needs, wants and expectationswww.cthresources.com Page 287 www.cthawards.com
  • 288. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools 2.1 Effective leadership To successfully achieve quality within an organisation it needs to be made clear and driven by the person at the top. It is their responsibility to ensure that quality is fabricated in to the entire organisation system. This is achieved through researching the target market needs, introducing systems of service quality control with an ongoing, strong, quality checking system to monitor and evaluate. ‘A company must have leaders at the top who are totally committed quality service’ Woods & King (2002) Wuest as cited in kandampully et al. (2001) ‘management plays a vital role in the delivery of quality service’www.cthresources.com Page 288 www.cthawards.com
  • 289. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools 2.2 Effective market segmentation Its an important part of quality to consistently satisfy customer needs, wants and expectations . To establish and maintain needs and wants the following steps are required. Research the target markets needs and wants Create the standard to meet needs and wants Implement the standard Supervise and maintain the standard Evaluate and adjust the standard.www.cthresources.com Page 289 www.cthawards.com
  • 290. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools Figure 7.4 The market mixes link to quality The Marketing Mix Customer needs and Product wants Price Cost to satisfy Place Convenience to buy Promotion Communication Source: http://grey-matter.orgwww.cthresources.com Page 290 www.cthawards.com
  • 291. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools 2.3 Expectations Linked into needs and wants are expectations. This ensure that you also meet what your customers expect to receive from their visits. Expectations vary in relation to the type of the customer and situation. Figure 7.5 gap analysis model – customers’ expectations Customer expectation Service delivery Expectations exceeded Customer expectation Service delivery Expectations exceeded Service performance gap Customer expectation Service delivery Expectations exceededwww.cthresources.com Page 291 www.cthawards.com
  • 292. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage 2. Quality tools 2.4 Standards of performance or ‘ standard operating procedures’ ( SOPs) ‘Standards of Performance help with consistency because they detail exactly what must be done and how it should be done’ Ninemieir ( 2000) Advantages of performance standards for an operation include: Consistency of service Guides the employee in their work Supervisory tool for employees Supervisory tool for evaluating employee performance Assists in allocating cost per task accuratelywww.cthresources.com Page 292 www.cthawards.com
  • 293. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools Figure 7.6 the standard process Standard Implement training standard Trial Monitor standard standard Customer Expectations Create Measure standard standard Adjust standardwww.cthresources.com Page 293 www.cthawards.com
  • 294. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools Examples of standards in a food and beverage operation are: How to clean cutlery How to take a pre-dinner reservation How to take a table booking over the phone How to complete a charge using a ‘point of sale’ machine How to open wine How to welcome a customer How to deal with complaints Figure 7.6 the standard processwww.cthresources.com Page 294 www.cthawards.com
  • 295. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools The following step-by-step guide can help you to deal with customer complaints. Step Standard: how to deal with a complaint 1 Listen with concern and empathy. 2 Isolate the guest if possible, so that other customers wont overhear. 3 Stay calm. Avoid responding with hostility or defensiveness. Never argue with the guest. 4 Beware of the guests self esteem, take complaint seriously, use guests name frequently, show a personal interest in the problem. 5 Give the problem complete attention, and don’t insult the guest. 6 Take notes, write down the key facts. 7 Provide the guest with options, don’t promise the impossible and exceed you authority. 8 Set an time frame for the completion of the corrective actions. 9 Monitor the progress of the corrective action. 10 Follow up on the complaint even if its dealt with by someone else ‘Service standards are only as good as the restaurant performance. Although service policies may establish guidelines and performance standards, personnel may not perform adequately’. Wuest cited in kandampully et al. (2001)www.cthresources.com Page 295 www.cthawards.com
  • 296. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools 2.5 Effective human resource management ‘Wuest as cited in Kandampully et al. (2001) ‘ Service providers must involve all of their staff in each department in an in an effort to provide quality service’ There is a clear relationship between quality human resource management and the organisation achieving quality goals. Key goals and objectives Recruit the right people Keep employees happy Retain themwww.cthresources.com Page 296 www.cthawards.com
  • 297. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools HR Rationale How Recruit the right people Less complaints Job descriptions and job specifications Less defects Match the best candidate with job Less training specification and description Less risk Complete reference checks Greater customer satisfaction Paper and pencil tests Qualified interviewers Employee trials Succession planning Regular training Regular performance evaluation and Keep your employees happy Increased job satisfaction appraisal; Less absence Recognise and reward achievement Improved team work Better service to customer Provide regular social events Sufficient number of tools to their jobs effectively Retain them Stronger team Proper work environment Familiarity with customers’ names Fair and effective leadership Awareness of customers individual Practice empowerment needs and wants ‘More than 65% of customers who will not return do so because of the way they were treated, not because of the product’ Rowe (1998)www.cthresources.com Page 297 www.cthawards.com
  • 298. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools 2.6 Training Benefits to employees • Prepares employees to do their job effectively • Improves self confidence • Improves motivation and morale • Prepares for promotion • Reduces tension and stress • Provides an opportunity to succeed • Provides high quality service • Provides high quality products Benefits to the guest • Makes the experience more pleasant and enjoyable • Increases productivity • Reduce costs Benefits to the operation • Builds a strong team • Reduces problems and defects • Creates a better image • Increases referrals • Attracts potential employeeswww.cthresources.com Page 298 Kavanaaugh & Ninemier (2001) www.cthawards.com
  • 299. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools 2.7 Quality sourcing It is important that all products sourced, meet the needs of the organisation’s objectives. Products should fit the needs of the target market Should fit the organisation’s financial requirements Meet the desired purchase criteria on arrival Should be better than the competitors Examples of sourced products in a food and beverage operation Perishable- food and beverages Non-perishable- linen Equipment- crockery Furniture- tables, Fixtures and fittings- lights Tools to achieve this include: Purchase specifications Ongoing customer research to determine satisfactionwww.cthresources.com Page 299 www.cthawards.com
  • 300. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools 2.7.1 Sourcing considerations and limitations Budget available Availability of suppliers Seasonality Storage space availablewww.cthresources.com Page 300 www.cthawards.com
  • 301. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools 2.8 Quality schemes A quality scheme is scheme that is purchased from an external organisation to improve the standard of products and services. The schemes can be challenging but once successful offer many opportunities. Figure 7.7 Examples of quality schemeswww.cthresources.com Page 301 www.cthawards.com
  • 302. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools Opportunities Challenges Higher standards Can be expensive! Customer retention Difficult for small businesses to afford Reduced complaints Can be difficult to achieve Increase in profits Happier employees Aids ‘ self marketing’ A competitive advantage A benchmark Independent assessment of qualitywww.cthresources.com Page 302 www.cthawards.com
  • 303. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools Most quality schemes are multi-dimensional focusing on different elements that works towards achieving quality. Schemes vary in cost and depth depending on the size of the operation, their objectives and current situation. The process normally consists of: Application to the quality organisation Visit and assessment Goal setting Regular assessment Award Ongoing reassessmentwww.cthresources.com Page 303 www.cthawards.com
  • 304. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools Figure 7.8: Key areas of ‘hospitality assured’ quality scheme The Customer Customer Research Business Planning Operational Planning Promise Customer Satisfaction Training and Improvement Development Service Delivery Standards of Resources Service Recovery Performance Source: HCIMAwww.cthresources.com Page 304 www.cthawards.com
  • 305. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools 2.9 Service recovery and complaint handling One of the goals of any organisation is to minimise the number of complaints it receives. How ever when complaints do occur: Deal with it appropriately Ensure the customer leaves happy Ensure as on organisation to learn and prevent it from re-occurring. Steps for dealing with complaints Taking the complaint seriously Taking the customer to quieter area Listen careful whilst being sympathetic Get all the facts Make notes Appologise sincerely Provide options Use customer name throughout Assess level of complaint Get customers opinion on how it should be solved Thank Follow up Inform manager on complaint Follow up with letterwww.cthresources.com Page 305 www.cthawards.com
  • 306. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement 3. Quality monitoring and measurement 3.1 Internal customer questionnaires 3.2 face-to-face feedback 3.3 Focus groups 3.4 Observation 3.5 Critical logs 3.6 Management of information 3.7 External methods 3.8 Secondary datawww.cthresources.com Page 306 www.cthawards.com
  • 307. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement When an organisation has implemented quality tools to achieve quality products and services it is vital to measure the organisation’s success. Leaders committed to quality must make sure that tools are in place to measure their staff’s efforts at providing great service to guests. Monitoring can be carried out in many ways, whilst one way which it is done is either through research conducted internally or externally. Internally Externally Customer questionnaires Mystery guests Face-to-face feedback External surveys Focus groups Secondary data Observation Critical log books Management informationwww.cthresources.com Page 307 www.cthawards.com
  • 308. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement 3.1 Internal customer questionnaires Customer questionnaires are one of the most frequent research methods adopted by food and beverage operations. 3.1.1 The customer questionnaire process Create questionnaires Distribute questionnaires Collect questionnaires Process data Analyse data Communicate data to departmentswww.cthresources.com Page 308 www.cthawards.com
  • 309. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement Tool How it works Advantages Disadvantages Customer Forms are placed on tables Easy and Low response rate questionnaire or or in bill folds for customers affordable to Unhappy feedback form to fill out. create. customers have Required to provide Many normally left the feedback on areas such as customers premises by the service, atmosphere, food would prefer to time the data is and beverage write than collected speak out. Customers don’t Can follow up in have time to some cases complete Easy to organise Bad feedback and evaluate does not reach feedback. managementwww.cthresources.com Page 309 www.cthawards.com
  • 310. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement Questions that should be addressed when preparing a questionnaire: What do we want to find out? Who are we targeting to fill out these? How will we reach them? What questions should we ask? How many questions should we ask? Do we want to collect any other information? For example name, address or should it be anonymous? Do we want them to rate service and products or give real opinion? Where will we distribute or place them? How do we achieve a high response rate? How many do we want each day? Whats our target? Who will manage it? How will we communicate the findings to our manager?www.cthresources.com Page 310 www.cthawards.com
  • 311. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement 3.2 Face- to-face feedback Face-to-face feedback is normally carried out by the waiter or the manager in a rather informal manner. The method is quick and cost effective. It is important to frequently check customer satisfaction throughout the meal as if they are dissatisfied. Whatever feedback is received must be passed on to the relevant manager. 3.3 Focus groups A focus group is s set of people invited to a session by the restaurant or hotel, to gather opinions and suggestions. It normally includes individuals that can provide the best, reliable information for the desired topic. It usually is hosted by the general Manager or an employee of the Sales/marketing department, and the meeting is likely to be recorded.www.cthresources.com Page 311 www.cthawards.com
  • 312. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement Aim Focus group members To research To determine satisfaction levels of Existing restaurant customers Opinions on likes and dislikes in relation to the: customers •Menu •Service •Design How the restaurant can improve? •What is their perception or opinion on the Non-customers/competitor restaurant? To increase business of Non-customers customers/potential customers •What type of food they like? through identifying their opinions, dining •What is important to them when eating out? habits and specific needs •Where do they currently dine out and why? •What are their favourite dishes on the current menu? Customers •What new would they like to see o the menu To gather opinions on customers to use in •Are the prices reasonable? creating a new menu •Are the portion sizes suitable? •Do they go to other places for dishes that we don’t offer?www.cthresources.com Page 312 www.cthawards.com
  • 313. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement 3.4 Observation Within the organisation there is a wealth of information that can be used to improve quality whilst observation is an effective way of doing so. Examples Potential reason Effects Employees chatting Overstaffed, or poor Waste scheduling of resources High labour cost Bad impression for diners Employees rushing around understaffed Customer complaints Discounts Slow service Employee stress Queuing at a buffet Poor controlling of Customers become dissatisfied customer traffic Customers arriving go elsewhere Empty restaurant during peak Poor marketing Loss of revenue time Poor product and service Poor image Better competition Hard to attract customerswww.cthresources.com Page 313 www.cthawards.com
  • 314. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement 3.5 Critical logs Departmental log books provide information activities which take part within the organisation. These log books are found in departments and are a tool for supervisors and managers to exchange information between shifts. The logs consists of items such as complaints and issues, maintenance defects etc. 3.6 Management of information Information is in most case logged by computers or past records and can be used effectively to provide a better service to customers. The following is an example of a restaurant receipt (figure 7.9) from a regular, local customer Mr. Bridges.www.cthresources.com Page 314 www.cthawards.com
  • 315. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement Jimbaran restaurant at The Splendid Hotel Dubai Table: 24 Date: 22.01.08 Time: 18.47 Server: Rashid No of Covers: 2 Quantity Item Charge 1 Soup 20Dhs 1 Caesar salad 20Dhs 1 Seafood platter 100Dhs 1 Cheesecake 30Dhs 2 Coffees 30Dhs 1 Sincere wine 80Dhs 280Dhs Payment Method American Express Number 87664456696xxxxxx Customer Name John H. Bridgeswww.cthresources.com Page 315 www.cthawards.com
  • 316. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement 3.7 External methods Mystery guests or mystery shoppers are employed by companies to visit their premises to conduct an evaluation of their products or services. These visits are normally contracted out and are carried out but an external professional company 3.7.1 Mystery guests Meeting with owner or operator to discuss the requirements Mystery guest company creates measurement tool Mystery guest makes reservation like a normal customer Mystery guest carries out visit and audits services and products Completes a formal report and delivers findingswww.cthresources.com Page 316 www.cthawards.com
  • 317. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement Advantages Disadvantages Unbiased Can be costly Conducted by experienced individuals Accurate Can be used as an development tool Employees are unaware of the mystery shopper Many large chains use survey results to compare performance between units.www.cthresources.com Page 317 www.cthawards.com
  • 318. Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement 3.7.2 External surveys Professional companies can also be contracted to carry out surveys with members of the public: Specific needs and wants Likes and dislikes Eating and dining preferences Dining habits Preferred restaurants Reasons for eating out 3.8 Secondary data Food beverage operations can also monitor consumer trends to help them cater to needs by viewing the following resources Academic books and journals Industry magazines Industry websites Industry reportswww.cthresources.com Page 318 www.cthawards.com
  • 319. Chapter 7 – Introduction to food & beverage Summary The importance of quality Quality tools Measurement Leadership Internal External Meeting needs, wants and Questionnaires Mystery guests expectations Standards of Face to face External surveys performance feedback Quality human Focus groups resources Quality sourcing Observation Quality schemes Critical logs Service recovery Management and complaint information handlingwww.cthresources.com Page 319 www.cthawards.com
  • 320. Chapters 1. Introduction to food & beverage 2. Food production 3. Purchasing food & beverage 4. Food service delivery 5. Beverages 6. Menu planning 7. Service quality in food & beverage 8. Conference & banquetingwww.cthresources.com Page 320 www.cthawards.com
  • 321. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Objectives In this chapter you will learn to :- ● Describe how the conference and banqueting department is structures ● Explain the stages in the customer inquiry process ● Identify and appraise the tools departmental managers use to maintain standards, minimize expenses and maximize saleswww.cthresources.com Page 321 www.cthawards.com
  • 322. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) 1. Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) 1.1 Benefits 1.2 Challenges 1.3 Personnel 1.4 Conference and banqueting saleswww.cthresources.com Page 322 www.cthawards.com
  • 323. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) ● Very diverse with many different events types ● Can be small or large in customer numbers ● Pre-planned ● Can be profitable ● Competitive due to many establishments having large available spaces ● Often seasonal ● Can be delivered in a variety of locations ● Empty space is expensive Conference Banqueting Formal Relaxed Seminar Religious festivals Meetings Annual work parties Exhibitions Family celebrations Presentations and lectures Themed dinner and lunches Workshops Weddingswww.cthresources.com Page 323 www.cthawards.com
  • 324. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) Fig 8.1 Event types Forum Convention Seminar Symposium Retreat Event types Congress Trade show Exhibition Panel Interviewwww.cthresources.com Page 324 www.cthawards.com
  • 325. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) Suitable venues to host events include : ● Conference centres ● Exhibition halls ● Hotels ● Large restaurants and bars ● Community centres ● Office cafeterias ● Ballrooms ● Church has ● Sports hallswww.cthresources.com Page 325 www.cthawards.com
  • 326. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) 1.1 Benefits ● Can better utilize space and assets ● Can capitalize on annual events ● Can show case facilities ● Can receive additional revenue streams ● Potential for leads and follow on business ● Can attract local business ● Can provide better service as all brooked in advance ● Can achieve saving through bulk purchasingwww.cthresources.com Page 326 www.cthawards.com
  • 327. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) 1.2 Challenges ● Empty space is cost ● Pressure to fill space daily ● Competitive ● Large quantities of inventory and equipment ● Additional storage requirements ● Difficult to manage expectations because of large quantities ● Large quantities of casual labourwww.cthresources.com Page 327 www.cthawards.com
  • 328. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) 1.3 Personnel Position Responsibilites Conference and Banqueting(C&B) manager Overall management of department Fully accountable for profitability of department Promoting department Recruitment of employees Attending meetings Dealing with complaints Planning and forecasting Administration C&B chef Meeting customers Discussing menu options Creating menus Preparing the food Seving the food C&B Assistant manager & supervisor Overseeing and manageing events Training employees Booking casual staff Managing stock Managing customers expectations Delivering standardswww.cthresources.com Page 328 www.cthawards.com
  • 329. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) C&B sales manager Creaing sales & marketing plan for department Implimenting plan Competitor analysis Managing employees Motivating employees Yeild amangement Training C&B sales executive Visiting clients and compenies Making presentations Showarounds Following up leads Event co-ordinator Taking reservations Creating contacts Maintain the booking dairy Banquet event sheets to departments Billing & deposits Waiters Setting-up functions Mise en place Serving customers Dealing with customer enquiries Porters Moving furniture Setting-up furniture and equipment Assisting waiters Breaking down roomswww.cthresources.com Cleaning Page 329 www.cthawards.com
  • 330. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) 1.4 Conference and Banqueting sales Fig 8.2 Who are the customers? In-house customers Internation Local al businesses companies C&B Internal Department company Charities events and functions Local Event residents plannerswww.cthresources.com Page 330 www.cthawards.com
  • 331. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) 1.4 Conference and Banqueting sales continued ... Due to the competitive nature of the sector, various techniques have to be employed to fill Conference and Banqueting space. Some approaches include : ● Employing a sales team ● Creating a database of customers ● Contacting potential customers ● Creating brochures detailing facilities available ● Employing an experienced C&B team ● Featuring C&B facilities on hotel or establishment’s webpage ● Advertising facilities in local media ● Sending information and visiting local businesses ● Promoting facilities internally in lifts and bedrooms ● Creating own events internallywww.cthresources.com Page 331 www.cthawards.com
  • 332. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2. The event process 2.1 Enquiry 2.2 The brochure or CD-Rom 2.3 The appointment and customer visit 2.4 The quotation and contract stage 2.5 Food, beverage and service 2.6 The event 2.7 Room set-up 2.8 Equipment 2.9 Follow-up and evaluationwww.cthresources.com Page 332 www.cthawards.com
  • 333. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process Fig 8.3 The conference and banqueting process 1. Enquiry 5. Follow up 2. Visit 4. Event 3. Quotationwww.cthresources.com Page 333 www.cthawards.com
  • 334. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2.1 Enquiry When customers contact the hotel to make an enquiry: ● Thank person for calling ● Take down personnel information, name, company, contact number and e-mail ● Establish what type of event is required ● Establish what date and time is required ● Check diary and determine availability Trend : Most banqueting diaries are now computerized and are able to provide information to include: ● Up-to-date availability of each room ● Specifications of each room ● Capacities for each room ● Past history of company or customer, room preferences and event type ● Room coasts based on supply, demand and day ● Future availability and usage per room, day and month ● Usage per company, event type and room typewww.cthresources.com Page 334 www.cthawards.com
  • 335. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2.2 The brochure or CD-Rom To promote the conference and banqueting facilities the sales office send out information packs (collateral) to acquaint customers with service available. This includes: ● The service team’s roles and responsibilities ● Testimonials from customers ● Photographs of events ● Blue point of room dimensions ● Examples of room set-up ● People capacity per room ● Equipment available ● Menus ● Packages available ● Contact details ● Business card of C&B sales personwww.cthresources.com Page 335 www.cthawards.com
  • 336. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2.3 The appointment and customer visit If the enquiry is for a large event or a new customer/company the sales assistant will attempt to secure an appointment and encourage the customer to visit the hotel to showcase the event facilities. The first impression of the customer must be positive. The sales executive should be prepared for the appointment in the following ways: ● Have a quiet place to discuss the customer’s needs and requirements ● Key staff available to discuss particular needs (E.g. a chef should be on hand to offer advice and suggestions with menu planning for the event. ● It is important to have rooms set-up for display. If a customer is coming to discuss a meeting then a meeting room should showcase for the customer what can be expected. You should never try to show an empty room to a customer as this may lose you the sale ● Have a presentation packs prepared, containing menus, seating layouts, photographs and room details ● Accommodation for the attendees should be prepared & rooms should be available to display. ● Relevant paperwork on hand such as, a customer checklist ● It’s important to introduce the person to the employee who will manage their event.www.cthresources.com Page 336 www.cthawards.com
  • 337. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2.3 The appointment and customer visit continued ... During the appointment general information is obtained or confirmed from the customer. ● Contact details : (telephone, e-mail, fax, address, direct line) ● Date and arrival time ● Customer information : numbers and demographics (gender, age, nationality, profession) ● Customer with any special needs or requirements ● Event type : seminar, anniversary party ● Room set-up style : (classroom, workshop, round tables) ● Food requirements : (menus, meal times, special diets) ● Beverage requirement : (during the event, cash bar in the evening) ● Equipment requirements ● Budget per person ● Billing information ● Bedroom requirements ● Car parking requirementswww.cthresources.com Page 337 www.cthawards.com
  • 338. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2.3 The appointment and customer visit continued... Specific needs will be also expected for different events. (E.g. wedding) ● Flowers ● Speeches ● Master of ceremonies ● Dance floor ● Disk jockey (DJ) ● Seating planswww.cthresources.com Page 338 www.cthawards.com
  • 339. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2.4 The quotation and contract stage The customer is sent a proposal detailing all the function’s requirements with pricing. The customer would either make changes or sign the paperwork and return it to the hotel. This signature creates a confirmed booking and contract between the customer and the establishment. The customer pays a deposit to secure the booking depending on the contract. The banqueting event order After the contract has been confirmed C&B sales creates a ‘ Banquet event order’. This is an international document to communicate the event’s details to the relevant department.www.cthresources.com Page 339 www.cthawards.com
  • 340. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2.5 Food, beverage and service Food In C&B menus are normally table d’hote due to frequency of large numbers. Producing food for banqueting events has many advantages. It is shown below: Restaurants Events (C&B) Large menu Small menu Uncertainty about which menu item will be selected No uncertainty - all menu items fixed Uncertainty about definite numbers that will visit restaurant No uncertainty - numbers confirmed No uncertainty - customers arrive as Uncertainty about what time customers will come organized Food wastage after service No food wastagewww.cthresources.com Page 340 www.cthawards.com
  • 341. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2.5 Food, beverage and service continued ... Beverage Beverage requirements varies according to the type of the event. (E.g. conference – tea, coffee & mineral water). Bars may be available during the evening for delegates to relax and network, and are available in different formats. They can be in a fixed bar or set up in another room to ease queuing. A cash bar - where each guest pays at the time the drink is served. A hosted bar – drinks are charged on a consumption basis. Companies frequently use this method & the bill is sent directly to the company after the event. The event organizer signs a bill at the end of the event to confirm consumption. If it’s a wedding sometimes the host pays a part of the bar bill in advance. During a banquet events a table service can be provided whereby customers are offered a variety wines, sprits, beers and soft drinks served at the table.www.cthresources.com Page 341 www.cthawards.com
  • 342. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2.5 Food, beverage and service continued ... Service A variety of service methods include: ● Plated service ● Silver service ● Buffet service ● Family service ● Large events will be run using a more formal system where employees follow instructions by the head waiter or Maitre d’.www.cthresources.com Page 342 www.cthawards.com
  • 343. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2.6 The event Hotel executives meet weekly discuss forthcoming events on a week by week basis. Each department is issued with an event sheet to: ● Communicate information ● Follow-up on any particular event needs ● Address any questions ● Resolve any last minute prolemswww.cthresources.com Page 343 www.cthawards.com
  • 344. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process Fig 8.7 The event process 1. Set up event 8. 2. Breakdown Welcome event guests 3. Run 7. through Signature event and billing details for the day 6. Check 4. Brief satisfaction staff 5. Deliver eventwww.cthresources.com Page 344 www.cthawards.com
  • 345. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process Step Action The team will set up the event in advance of the customer and their guests arriving. (preparing furniture, laying tables, 1. Set-up event setting-up coffee stations, registration tables, bars and equipment. 2. Welcome guests Sales assistant/staff member managing the event greets the customer on arrival. 3. Run through events The C&B employee should check whether theres any last minute changes. 4. Brief staff All service staff are briefed on details to include: The company and type of event Chronology of event For the organizer, host and any VIPs to be identified Any special requests Allocation of tables Menu information Standards The event commences are planned. Service staff follow banquet event order and any instruction from event supervisor. 5. Deliver event Duties include: Serving food and beverage Dealing with customer requests Monitoring equipment Clearing tables It is checked throughout the event and at the end. Any fedback from the customer is noted and communicated to service 6. Check satisfaction and other staff involved. 7. Billing Organizer or host signs the bill to agree all consumption and charges. Bill is settled depending on the contract . 8. Breakdown event Employees breakdown the event to include : Collapsing furniture Clearing tables Polishing cutlery Cleaning Re-setting for next days event or sales promotionwww.cthresources.com Page 345 www.cthawards.com
  • 346. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2.7 Room set-ups U-Shape Classroom Banquet Hollow square Lecture or Theater (chairs only) Horse shoewww.cthresources.com Page 346 www.cthawards.com
  • 347. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2.7 Room set-ups continued ... Herringbone Workshop Circlewww.cthresources.com Page 347 www.cthawards.com
  • 348. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2.8 Equipment Rental advantages ● No strong space required ● No cleaning and maintenance required ● No depreciation ● Less management overall ● Less risk of theft ● No training required ● Modern equipment provided Trend. C&B is the renting not only of equipment but also crockery. Cutlery, glassware and linen. The same advantages apply.www.cthresources.com Page 348 www.cthawards.com
  • 349. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2.9 Follow-up and evaluation A key part of C&B is to monitor customer evaluation after the event has taken place. Any feedback received should be communicated to the departments involved and used for future planning.www.cthresources.com Page 349 www.cthawards.com
  • 350. Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Summary Conferencing and Banqueting The event Objectives process and structure Benefits and Enquiry challenges Quotation Personnel and contract Event Sales Follow-upwww.cthresources.com Page 350 www.cthawards.com