Food & Beverage Operations                                    May2010www.cthresources.com                                 ...
Content                       I.    Description                       II.   Learning Outcomes                       III. S...
Description    Description    The aim of the Food & Beverage Operations module is to provide students with an understandin...
Content                       I.    Description                       II.   Learning Outcomes                       III. S...
Learning Outcomes    Summary of Learning Outcomes    On completion of this module, students will be able to:          Demo...
Content                       I.    Description                       II.   Learning Outcomes                       III. S...
Syllabus – Part 1 of 3    Syllabus                               ● Restaurant concepts & types of outlets; banqueting, fas...
Syllabus – Part 2 of 3    Syllabus                              ● Methods of food service, silver service, plate service, ...
Syllabus – Part 3 of 3    Syllabus        Providing excellent                              ● Employee attitude, personal a...
Content                       I.    Description                       II.   Learning Outcomes                       III. S...
Assessment    Assessment    This module will be assessed via a 2 ½ hour examination, set & marked by CTH.    The examinati...
Content                       I.    Description                       II.   Learning Outcomes                       III. S...
Chapters                       1.   Introduction to food & beverage                       2.   Food production            ...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Objectives                In this chapter you will learn to :-             ...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Introduction to the food & beverage sector                 1.    Introducti...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Introduction to the food & beverage sector                                 ...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Introduction to the food & beverage sector                 1.1 Food & bever...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Introduction to the food & beverage sector     The main challenges of the h...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Introduction to the food & beverage sector     1.2 Characteristics of the f...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Introduction to the food & beverage sector                                 ...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Introduction to the food & beverage sector     1.3 Trends in food & beverag...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Introduction to the food & beverage sector     1.4 Size & structure of the ...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Introduction to the food & beverage sector     1.5 Classification & organis...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Introduction to the food & beverage sector                                 ...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Introduction to the food & beverage sector                                 ...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Management options in food and beverage: main approaches                2. ...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Management options in food and beverage: main approaches     2.1 Self-opera...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Management options in food and beverage: main approaches               Figu...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Management options in food and beverage: main approaches     2.3 Management...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Management options in food and beverage: main approaches     2.4 Outsourcin...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations                 3....
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations                 Ma...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations     3.1 Food & bev...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations                   ...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations     3.2 Food & bev...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations     3.3 Independen...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations             An ind...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations     3.4 Ethnic res...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations     3.7 Chain rest...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations     3.8 Food and b...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations     3.10 Character...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage    Summary                                                       Introduction ...
Chapters                       1.   Introduction to food & beverage                       2.   Food production            ...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Objectives                In this chapter you will learn to :-                       ● Expl...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Kitchen introduction                 1.    Kitchen introduction                       1.1 C...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Kitchen introduction                                         Fig 2.1 Main objectives of the...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Kitchen introduction            Most kitchens will be managed by an Executive or Head Chef....
Chapter 2 – Food production    Kitchen introduction                 1.1 Communication                                     ...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Kitchen introduction                 1.2 Kitchen chef characteristics                 1.2.1...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Kitchen introduction                 1.2.3 Opportunities for a chef                        ...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Kitchen introduction                 1.3 Staffing and responsibilities                     ...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Kitchen introduction    1.4 Kitchen organization    “Partie system” is a method of kitchen ...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Kitchen introduction               Role                 Responsibilities               Sous...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Kitchen introduction    1.5 Partie system analysis     Advantages                          ...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Kitchen introduction                       Many kitchens now provide chefs with opportuniti...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Kitchen introduction                 1.6 The stewarding department                       St...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Kitchen introduction      Position                      Responsibilities      Chief Steward...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Kitchen design and planning considerations                 2.    Kitchen design and plannin...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Kitchen design and planning considerations                                                 ...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Production methods and organisation                3.     Production methods and organisati...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Production methods and organisation                                                        ...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Production methods and organisation                Ensuring all necessary equipment is read...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Production methods and organisation   3.1 Production methods   Food production is differing...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Production methods and organisation   3.1.1 Key considerations in food production          ...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Production methods and organisation                                     Figure 2.7 Food pro...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Production methods and organisation   3.2 The conventional food production method   The con...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Production methods and organisation   Food as given in the table below can be cooked in var...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Production methods and organisation   3.3 The sous-vide method of food production (vacuum c...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Production methods and organisation   3.4 Sous – vide - evaluation           Advantages    ...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Production methods and organisation   3.5 Cook-chill method of food production           Co...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Production methods and organisation   3.6 Cook freeze method of food production    The meth...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Production methods and organisation     3.7 The central distribution method of food product...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Production methods and organisation                             Advantages                 ...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Food classifications                4.     Food classifications                       There...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Food classifications     4.1 Cheese                                  Semi-hard             ...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Food classifications    4.3 Fruits                        Berries              Citrus      ...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Food classifications     4.5 Seafood                          Crustaceans      Mollusc     ...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Food cost and control                 5.    Food cost and control                       5.1...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Food cost and control                       To ensure food is prepared to ‘optimum conditio...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Food cost and control   5.1 Food cost   Food cost is the percentage of total restaurant sal...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Food cost and control   5.2      Benefits of food cost for an organisation                 ...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Food cost and control   5.3 How to achieve food cost targets?                              ...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Food poisoning                 6.    Food poisoning                       6.1 Main types of...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Food poisoning   6.1 Main types of food poisoning                Salmonella                ...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Food poisoning                       Figure 2.16: Impacts of food poisoning for a food & be...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Food poisoning                          Figure 2.17: Ways in which to minimize a food posit...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Food poisoning   6.2             Hazard analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)   The HACCP...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Food poisoning                                  Figure 2.18: The HACCP food control process...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Kitchen equipment                7.     Kitchen equipment                       Large comme...
Chapter 2 – Food production    Food poisoning   Considerations when purchasing equipment              Can we afford it?   ...
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Food and beverage_operations

  1. 1. Food & Beverage Operations May2010www.cthresources.com 1 Page 1 www.cthawards.com
  2. 2. Content I. Description II. Learning Outcomes III. Syllabus IV. Assessment V. Chapters 1 - 8www.cthresources.com Page 2 www.cthawards.com
  3. 3. Description Description The aim of the Food & Beverage Operations module is to provide students with an understanding of the operational & supervisory aspects of running a food & beverage operation for an international clientele in a range of establishments. To encourage an appreciation of the origins of such systems & to understand the various factors involved in meeting customer needs. Students will gain an understanding of food & beverage & its service in a variety of styles of restaurant & establishments & they will have sufficient knowledge to produce a broad plan for specified food & beverage operations.www.cthresources.com Page 3 www.cthawards.com
  4. 4. Content I. Description II. Learning Outcomes III. Syllabus IV. Assessment V. Chapters 1 - 8www.cthresources.com Page 4 www.cthawards.com
  5. 5. Learning Outcomes Summary of Learning Outcomes On completion of this module, students will be able to: Demonstrate knowledge of the key functional areas of the food & beverage operation Describe the kitchen operation including food production systems, methods of cookery, kitchen layout & commodities Demonstrate the different methods of purchasing & food storage Examine the appropriateness of the different methods of food & beverage service to manage customer expectations Develop & plan menus according to customer requirements Describe the different types & requirements of banqueting functionswww.cthresources.com Page 5 www.cthawards.com
  6. 6. Content I. Description II. Learning Outcomes III. Syllabus IV. Assessment V. Chapters 1 - 8www.cthresources.com Page 6 www.cthawards.com
  7. 7. Syllabus – Part 1 of 3 Syllabus ● Restaurant concepts & types of outlets; banqueting, fast food, hotel, Introduction to food & industrial, outside catering, institutional, in-flight, restaurant, public beverage operations house & transport catering ● Typical organization structures & job titles in kitchen, restaurant & banqueting departments ● Food production systems including traditional, centralised, cook-chill, Food production cook-freeze & sous vide operations ● The suitability of these systems to the operation. Methods of cookery. Kitchen layout & equipment. Commodities: food & non-food ● The policies & procedures for purchasing of food & non-food items for a hospitality operation Purchasing & storage of ● The use of standard purchasing specifications & other recognised goods standards/brand names when ordering both food & non-food items. ● The correct storage of commodities. The security aspects of storing high value items ● Procedures for the issuing of stock items, including all records kept, & checks on the use of commoditieswww.cthresources.com Page 7 www.cthawards.com
  8. 8. Syllabus – Part 2 of 3 Syllabus ● Methods of food service, silver service, plate service, buffet, counter Food service systems service, room service, self service, assisted service. Suitability & cost of service styles ● Meeting managing customer expectations. Staff skill levels. Preparation & layout of food & service operations Production & sale of ● Preparation & layout of beverage service, service of alcoholic & non- non-alcoholic & alcoholic beverages & hot beverages alcoholic beverages ● Beverage menu & wine list ● Menu structure & trends Menu planning ● Factors affecting the compilation of menus, menu development ● Catering for customer requirements & trends in modern diets.www.cthresources.com Page 8 www.cthawards.com
  9. 9. Syllabus – Part 3 of 3 Syllabus Providing excellent ● Employee attitude, personal appearance, hygiene practices customer service in food & beverage ● Attentiveness, body language, effective communication, team work, operations attention to detail ● Types of events, planning, organising & costing of an event. Menu & Banqueting & functions service styles ● Health, safety & hygiene considerations. Staffing the event. Evaluationwww.cthresources.com Page 9 www.cthawards.com
  10. 10. Content I. Description II. Learning Outcomes III. Syllabus IV. Assessment V. Chapters 1 - 8www.cthresources.com Page 10 www.cthawards.com
  11. 11. Assessment Assessment This module will be assessed via a 2 ½ hour examination, set & marked by CTH. The examination will cover the whole of the assessment criteria in this unit & will take the form of 10 x 2 mark questions & 5 x 4 mark questions in section A (40 marks). Section B will comprise of 5 x 20 mark questions of which candidates must select & answer three (60 marks). CTH is a London based awarding body & the syllabus content will in general reflect this. Any legislation & codes of practice will reflect the international nature of the industry & will not be country specific. International centres may find it advantageous to add local legislation or practice to their teaching but they should be aware that the CTH examination will not assess this local knowledge.www.cthresources.com Page 11 www.cthawards.com
  12. 12. Content I. Description II. Learning Outcomes III. Syllabus IV. Assessment V. Chapters 1 - 8www.cthresources.com Page 12 www.cthawards.com
  13. 13. Chapters 1. Introduction to food & beverage 2. Food production 3. Purchasing food & beverage 4. Food service delivery 5. Beverages 6. Menu planning 7. Service quality in food & beverage 8. Conference & banquetingwww.cthresources.com Page 13 www.cthawards.com
  14. 14. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Objectives In this chapter you will learn to :- ● Present the key characteristics, objectives & challenges of the sector ● Detail the diverse structure & scope of the sector ● Explain the complexity of the classifying the sector ● Describe & evaluate the characteristics & aims of a range of different types of food & beverage operationswww.cthresources.com Page 14 www.cthawards.com
  15. 15. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1. Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1.1 Food & beverage: main objectives & expectations 1.2 Characteristics of the food & beverage sector 1.3 Trends in food & beverage 1.4 Size & structure of the food & beverage industry 1.5 Classification & organisation of the sector: the challengewww.cthresources.com Page 15 www.cthawards.com
  16. 16. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector Fig 1.1 The food & beverage cycle Most food & beverage businesses operate within the cycle & the different stages of the cycle present both challenges & opportunities for operators . 1. Purchasing 8. Consuming 2. Receiving 7. Serving 3. Storing 6. Cooking 4. Issuing 5. Preparingwww.cthresources.com Page 16 www.cthawards.com
  17. 17. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1.1 Food & beverage: main objectives & expectations Most food & beverage operations aim to provide: - Quality food & beverages A clean, hygienic & safe environment Comfortable & well designed facilities Professional, attentive & friendly service Value for moneywww.cthresources.com Page 17 www.cthawards.com
  18. 18. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector The main challenges of the hospitality industry & the food sector are:- ● Intangibility – such as ambiance ● Simultaneous production & consumption - where mass production is difficult for it requires large amounts of customers & producers in one placer which would cause environmental, social, cultural & economic problems ● Heterogeneity – where service experience may vary due to different producers & consumers with different needs & requirements ● Consistency – is difficult to achieve due to the intangible element in food & beverage ● Perishability – where unused hospitality services cannot be stored, returned, claimed or resold Ownership – where the consumer only owns a hospitality product only for a certain period of time No guarantees – with little aftercare or service Imitation is easy – with no patents on service processes & easily copied by competitors Seasonality – where staffing & expenses are challenging to many restaurant operators External variables – that impact the running of the business such as political, economic, social, technological, legal & environmental changewww.cthresources.com Page 18 www.cthawards.com
  19. 19. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1.2 Characteristics of the food & beverage sector Following are the main characteristics:- ● A vital part of everyday life ● Major contributor to the national economy ● Highly fragmented & complex ● Creates employment ● Encourages entrepreneurship ● Promotes diversity through many different food concepts & cuisines ● Fuels innovation ● Local multiplier using many other peripheral services ● Consumer led ● Competitive ● An opportunity to enjoy the company of friends, family & colleagues ● Fulfils basic needs (see Fig 1.2)www.cthresources.com Page 19 www.cthawards.com
  20. 20. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector Fig 1.2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Food is a basic need for everyday life Self - actualization Self Esteem Love & belonging Safety needs Physiological needswww.cthresources.com Page 20 www.cthawards.com
  21. 21. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1.3 Trends in food & beverage Following are some key trends in the UK:- ● Guests become more sophisticated ● More emphasis on food safety & sanitation ● More casual/less formal & theme restaurants ● Increase in ethnic restaurants & ethnic food ● Growth in chains –all cuisines ● Increase in convenience food ● Increase in coffee chains – coffee culture ● Increased take out meals & home meal replacement ● Outsourcing outlets in hotels – co-branding ● More focus on healthier eating ● Increase in organic food consumption, food sustainability & provenancewww.cthresources.com Page 21 www.cthawards.com
  22. 22. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1.4 Size & structure of the food & beverage industry Fig 1.3 The United Kingdom Food Service Industry (2006)www.cthresources.com Page 22 www.cthawards.com
  23. 23. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1.5 Classification & organisation of the sector: the challenge The food & beverage sector is extremely diverse & fragmented that the size & scope of the industry creates a challenge when attempting to organise & classify it. It has many subsectors. Following are the classification approaches & options:- ● Commercial & non-commercial ● Size ● Ownership ● Star rating or quality ● Service method ● Food or beverage ● Concept or theme ● Revenue or turnover ● Location ● Meal time or meal period ● Customer type ● Cuisine ● Awards & schemeswww.cthresources.com Page 23 www.cthawards.com
  24. 24. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector Fig 1.4 Classification of food & beverage Food & Beverage outlets Non Commercial Commercial General Restricted Institutional Employee market market catering catering Travel In-house Hotels Schools catering catering Restaurants University Contract Clubs & snack bars catering caterer Institutional Fast food & The military & employee take away services catering Function & event Prisons cateringwww.cthresources.com Page 24 www.cthawards.com
  25. 25. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector Variety of food & beverage operations Ethnic restaurants Ethnic chains Educational Institutions Shopping malls, (Chinese, Japanese, (Wagamama, Bombay Transport (rail, air & (schools, colleges, airports, food counters French, Malaysian, Bicycle Yo Sushi, marine) universities) Caribbean) Nandos) Restaurants (bistros, Welfare catering brasseries, coffee shops, Supermarkets – food hospitals, healthcare, cafeterias, wine bars, Employee dining Outside catering retail ( food to go) prisons, military public houses, roadside restaurants) Themed restaurants Private clubs Street vendors Fine dining (Hard Rock Café, Planet Cafes & sandwich bars Hollywood) Fast food chains Accommodation (hotels, Leisure (museums, Conference centres Takeaway (kiosks, fish & (McDonalds, Subway motels, guest houses, theme parks, theatres, chips, snack bars) KFC, Wendy’s) hostels) cinemas)www.cthresources.com Page 25 www.cthawards.com
  26. 26. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Management options in food and beverage: main approaches 2. Management options in food & beverage: main approaches 2.1 Self – operated 2.2 Franchise agreement 2.3 Management contracting 2.4 Outsourcingwww.cthresources.com Page 26 www.cthawards.com
  27. 27. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Management options in food and beverage: main approaches 2.1 Self-operated The owner or organisation manages the operation themselves. It could be a small, large or a franchised situation 2.2 Franchise agreement Ninemeier (2000) explains: ‘ With a franchise, the franchisee (the owner of the facility) pays fees to the franchisor (or franchise company) in exchange for the right to use the name, building design, and business methods of the franchisor. Furthermore, the franchisee must agree to maintain the franchisor’s business & quality standards’.www.cthresources.com Page 27 www.cthawards.com
  28. 28. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Management options in food and beverage: main approaches Figure 1.5 Evaluation of Franchise agreement: Franchiser & Franchisee (Mc Donalds)www.cthresources.com Page 28 www.cthawards.com
  29. 29. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Management options in food and beverage: main approaches 2.3 Management contracting When an owner or operator of an establishment employs or contracts specialised hospitality or food & beverage service company to manage the whole or part of the operation. This could b don either in a hotel or in a non-commercial institution, for example a university Figure 1.6: Management contracting analysiswww.cthresources.com Page 29 www.cthawards.com
  30. 30. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Management options in food and beverage: main approaches 2.4 Outsourcing Increasingly, hotels are realising that hotel-run restaurants are in some cases unprofitable due to many residents opting to dine at known branded outlets. Therefore, a new & emerging trend is where the hotel forms a partnership with a restaurant/coffee chain/bar brand that would operate from a designated area within the hotel. Fig 1.7 Food & beverage outsourcing in hotels (Starbucks) http://www.litchfieldbeach.comwww.cthresources.com Page 30 www.cthawards.com
  31. 31. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3. Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.1 Food & beverage in accommodation 3.2 Food & beverage services in hotels 3.3 Independent restaurants (small/medium enterprise – SME) 3.4 Ethnic restaurants 3.5 Themed restaurants 3.6 Public houses or licensed premises 3.7 Chained restaurants & bars 3.8 Food & beverage in transportation 3.9 Non-commercial food & beverage 3.10 Characteristics of non-commercial operationswww.cthresources.com Page 31 www.cthawards.com
  32. 32. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations Main types of commercial & non-commercial food & beverage:- Commercial ● Food & beverage in accommodation ● Independents operations ● Themed restaurants ● Public houses ● Fast food chains ● Transport services Non-commercial ● Military ● Schools ● Universities ● Hospitals ● Employee cateringwww.cthresources.com Page 32 www.cthawards.com
  33. 33. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.1 Food & beverage in accommodation Can vary depending on location specific areas, size, ownership, location, goals, customer & quality. Coffee shop, Fine dining restaurant/s, Specialty restaurant, Bar, Coffee 5-star hotels lounge/pastry counter, Conference & banqueting, Outside catering, 24- hour full room service menu, Executive lounge food & beverage services, In room guest amenities, Mini bar, Nightclub, karaoke, cigar room, pool café, delicatessen, Employee dining Coffee shop, Specialty restaurant, Bar & lounge, Room service (limited 4-star hotels throughout the night), Guest amenities, Conference & banqueting, Mini bar, Employee dining Budget hotels Breakfast buffet, Bar, Vending machines, Employee dining Bed & breakfast Breakfast, Limited set menu available at set times on request Hostel Snack bar, Vending, Food prepared on request to take awaywww.cthresources.com Page 33 www.cthawards.com
  34. 34. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations Fig 1.8 The food & beverage structure within a 4-star hotel Food & Beverage Manager Assistant food & Executive Chef Beverage Manager Food and Beverage Sous Chef coordinator Conference and Restaurant Coffee shop Chief Steward Bar Manager Banqueting Manager Manager Manager Conference and Room service Restaurant Team Bar Team Banqueting and Mini Bar Kitchen team Team Manager Room Service teamwww.cthresources.com Page 34 www.cthawards.com
  35. 35. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.2 Food & beverage services in hotels Most hotels operate multiple food & beverage outlets. Outlets, products and services offered are subject to change from property to property. The outlets could be:- ● Coffee shop ● Restaurant ● Fine dining ● Bar ● Lounge ● Executive lounge ● Conferencing & banqueting ● Outside catering ● Room service ● Mini bar ● Guest amenities ● Employee diningwww.cthresources.com Page 35 www.cthawards.com
  36. 36. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.3 Independent restaurants An independent restaurant is an individual trading entity, and in most cases the unit is managed by the owner. The restaurants could be themed ethnic, have a variety of service methods such as self-service, cafeteria, take-away, sit down or drive-through. They rely heavily on passing trade and word of mouth advertising. Almost 70% are often dynamic & varied. As the team is much smaller, many of the positions overlap. Fig 1.13 Typical organisational chart of a small independent food & beverage organisation Restaurant Manager/ Owner Assistant food & Restaurant Beverage Supervisors Manager Kitchen Team Restaurant Team Bar Supervisor Kitchen Porters Cleanerswww.cthresources.com Page 36 www.cthawards.com
  37. 37. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations An independent restaurant is an individual trading entity, and in most cases the unit is managed by the owner. The restaurants could be themed ethnic, have a variety of service methods such as self-service, cafeteria, take-away, sit down or drive-through. They rely heavily on passing trade and word of mouth advertising. Almost 70% are often dynamic & varied. As the team is much smaller, many of the positions overlap. Fig 1.13 Typical organisational chart of a small independent food & beverage organisationwww.cthresources.com Page 37 www.cthawards.com
  38. 38. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.4 Ethnic restraints These type of restaurants can be part of a chain but also independent in nature. Manage by owners and operated around a central theme such as Chinese, Japanese and Middle Eastern. 3.5 Themed restaurants These type of restaurants are operations that have a central theme throughout such as music, entertainment or sport for example. For a example the Hard Rock Cafe. 3.6 Public houses or licensed premises Public houses (‘pubs’) offer comfortable, relaxing environments for groups or individuals can get together to enjoy beverages. Beverages are the main products but they offer great verity of foods due to declining beverage sales. They outsource their kitchen to chef entrepreneurs and the growth in gastro pubs.www.cthresources.com Page 38 www.cthawards.com
  39. 39. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.7 Chain restaurants and bars Key characteristics of chain restaurants ● Several units operating in different locations. ● Can be national, regional or global ● Operations normally duplicated and featured the same design, menus and operations in each unit. ● Good infrastructure and support networks – training and purchasing for example. ● Provide consistency and standardisation to customers. ● Centralised purchasing and distribution networks. ● Operations are normally themed around a central concept. ● Service systems can vary from take-away, drive thru, dine in, causal or fine dining. ● The operations can be owned by a parent company, a franchise or private owners.www.cthresources.com Page 39 www.cthawards.com
  40. 40. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.8 Food and beverage in transportation Range from cafeteria-style snacks on short routes to fine dining on cruise lines. Sea Normally transfer large quantities in short period of time. Range from purchased snack on budget airlines or gourmet set menus for first- class passengers. The food is mass produced and prepared off-site. The on-board Air catering is normally contracted out to a specialist cater. Beverage can be range from trolley to full. Range from fine dining to trolley service. Provide on-board kiosk where customers can purchase a basic selection of hot and cold food and beverages. Another Rail common method is an on-board trolley service, move from carriage to carriage. Fine dining is offered in first-class long journeys. 3.9 Non-commercial food and beverage Main focus is on providing nutritious food and beverages but the primary mission is not to sell food and beverages.www.cthresources.com Page 40 www.cthawards.com
  41. 41. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.10 Characteristics of non-commercial operations ● Non-commercial institutions hire commercial food service management(contract) companies from outside to manage food service in their institutions. ● Commercial food service management companies exist to make profit. ● They carry out fully the food and service responsibilities for the institutions under contract. ● The institution or workplace can free itself from the day-to-day concern of managing food service operations. ● They are professional food service companies. ● These operations are planned to keep the expenses/ costs low; they are budget-oriented. ● They are part of properties that exist for reasons other than the service of food and beverages, which is only supportive. ● Competition is limited as the service is provided in a private, closed environment. ● Normally large scale, delivered at particular times of day. ● Business levels are quite predictable making it easier for production and planning. ● Emphasis is not placed on nutrition.www.cthresources.com Page 41 www.cthawards.com
  42. 42. Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Summary Introduction to food and beverage Objectives, Challenges and characteristics Food and beverage classifications and types Management options Commercial Non commercial operations operations Hotel food and Military beverage Independent Schools operations Ethnic, themed and chain University operations Transport Employee cateringwww.cthresources.com Page 42 www.cthawards.com
  43. 43. Chapters 1. Introduction to food & beverage 2. Food production 3. Purchasing food & beverage 4. Food service delivery 5. Beverages 6. Menu planning 7. Service quality in food & beverage 8. Conference & banquetingwww.cthresources.com Page 43 www.cthawards.com
  44. 44. Chapter 2 – Food production Objectives In this chapter you will learn to :- ● Explain kitchen organization and the responsibilities of key personnel employed ● Describe and appraise the different food production methods ● Identify the main food groups and commodities ● Describe the main considerations in kitchen designs ● Discuss the importance of achieving food cost ● Explain the importance of food hygiene and controlwww.cthresources.com Page 44 www.cthawards.com
  45. 45. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1. Kitchen introduction 1.1 Communication 1.2 Kitchen chef characteristics 1.3 Staffing and responsibilities 1.4 Kitchen organization 1.5 Partie system analysis 1.6 The stewarding departmentwww.cthresources.com Page 45 www.cthawards.com
  46. 46. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction Fig 2.1 Main objectives of the kitchen department To provide safe meals for all consumers To prepare food To provide in the time quality meals expected, to for all avoid customer consumers waiting To meet or To prepare the exceed the food right quantity of needs of food organization’s Kitchen target market Objectives To create To utilize food menus that will stocks in the both attract and best way retain possible customers To achieve monthly To minimize financial food stock wastages targetswww.cthresources.com Page 46 www.cthawards.com
  47. 47. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction Most kitchens will be managed by an Executive or Head Chef. Their responsibilities can be, Fig 2.2 Executive Chef job descriptionwww.cthresources.com Page 47 www.cthawards.com
  48. 48. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.1 Communication Fig 2.3 Executive Chef communication Purchasing & Stores Competitors Department Bar Genaeral Customers Managers office External Suppliers Room service Housekeeping EXECUTIVE Accounts CHEF department Sales and Marketing Human Resources Stewarding Front office & Reception Conference & Banqueting Restaurantwww.cthresources.com Page 48 www.cthawards.com
  49. 49. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.2 Kitchen chef characteristics 1.2.1Qualities of a good chef Ability to work under pressure Ability to multi task Creative Consistent Good palate Ability to work in a team 1.2.2 Challenges for a chef Fast paced and hot work environment Many stakeholders Risk of food poisoning In most cases a high level of competition High perishability of stock items Frequently changeable external environment (i.e. food trends or scares) Unsociable workwww.cthresources.com Page 49 www.cthawards.com
  50. 50. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.2.3 Opportunities for a chef Be creative and showcase skills Satisfy customers Acquire and pass on skills Meet lots of interesting people Learn and sample a wide variety of different food Travel Obtain awards for culinary expertise 1.2.4 Chef presentation Appearance – trimmed hair, clean hair, hair tied back if long, neatly shaven, no earrings on males, studded earrings only for women Accessories – wristwatch, maximum two rings, body piercings or tattoos should not be visible, no visible necklaces Trousers – pin striped, clean, well pressed Shoes – slip resistant, in good repairwww.cthresources.com Page 50 www.cthawards.com
  51. 51. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.3 Staffing and responsibilities The organizational structure of a kitchen will depend on a number of factors including : - Size and kitchen space available Quantity of food output (demand) Number of food outlets to cater Sophistication and type of menu Equipment requirement Location where production is taking place (in kitchen or outsourced) Service methods (Buffets, plated)www.cthresources.com Page 51 www.cthawards.com
  52. 52. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.4 Kitchen organization “Partie system” is a method of kitchen organization which is formal, structured brigade and in most cases, only found in high quality kitchens and restaurants. Fig 2.4 The ‘Partie’ system Executive Chef Sous Chef Chef Tournant Chef de partie Chef de partie Chef de partie Chef de partie Chef de partie Grade Manager Saucier Poissonier Patiser Entremetier Demi Chef de Demi Chef de Demi Chef de Demi Chef de Demi Chef de Partie Grade Partie partie Partie Partie Poissonier Partie Patiser Manager Saucier Entremetier Commis Grade Commis Commis Commis Saucier Commis Patiser Manager Poissonier Entremetierwww.cthresources.com Page 52 www.cthawards.com
  53. 53. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction Role Responsibilities Sous Chef Assistant to the executive chef, deputies in his/her absence Chef Tournant Covers each section as and when required – has the skills and knowledge to cover all sections Chef Grade Manager Responsible for the preparation of all cold savoury foods Chef Saucier Responsible for all sauteed items Chef Poissonnier Preparation and cooking of all fish dishes Chef Patissier Preparation of desserts and pastries Chef Entremetier Preparation of all vegetables, soups and hot appetiserswww.cthresources.com Page 53 www.cthawards.com
  54. 54. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.5 Partie system analysis Advantages Disadvantages Chefs specialize in a particular section of a Although chefs specialize, they only focus on kitchen one section of the kitchen as opposed to learning a wide range of skills in more conventional kitchen systems. Each section has a support infrastructure to Staff can be ideal when particular section of the avoid any weaknesses kitchen are not busy Chef have a clear route f or progression Can be expensive for the organization due to the large numbers of staff required Customers receives quality meals Chefs becomes bored Kitchen managers are able to allocate responsibility and accountability to the various sections Kitchen managers are able to detect and monitor problems more easilywww.cthresources.com Page 54 www.cthawards.com
  55. 55. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction Many kitchens now provide chefs with opportunities to work and rotate in other sections of the kitchen. The benefits of this for the organization: - Chefs become multi skilled and therefore more flexible Job satisfaction is more greater due to acquiring a more divers skill set Labour cost are more streamlined due to better utilization of labourwww.cthresources.com Page 55 www.cthawards.com
  56. 56. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.6 The stewarding department Stewarding is a sub department of the kitchen and it’s staffing requirements for a large operation are detailed below: - Fig 2.5 Basic Stewarding organization chart in a large kitchen Chief Steward Assistant Chief Steward Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen Porter Porter Porter Porter Porterwww.cthresources.com Page 56 www.cthawards.com
  57. 57. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction Position Responsibilities Chief Steward and assistant • Report to Executive Chef and Food and Beverage Manager • Supervise team of porters • Schedule work of Porters • Create cleaning standards • manage and control equipment stores (in/out) •Responsible for the maintenance of hygiene within kitchen • Control of kitchen chemicals (COSHH) • Co-ordinate booking of any maintenance of kitchen cleaning contractors or casual staff • Responsible for inventory and maintenance of kitchen cleaning equipments Kitchen Porters • Carry out day-to-day cleaning of the kitchen • Operate the dishwasher machine • Clean kitchen equipment after use • Empty dustbins • Periodically sweep and mop floors • Clean kitchen work topswww.cthresources.com Page 57 www.cthawards.com
  58. 58. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen design and planning considerations 2. Kitchen design and planning considerations When planning a kitchen there are many factors to consider. Each design element must work together, to create smooth running kitchen operation, and include control, safety, business yield and employee satisfaction. Poor planning often lead to, Wasted capacity Poor stock rotation Employee accidents Low employee motivation Slow production and output Risk of food poisoningwww.cthresources.com Page 58 www.cthawards.com
  59. 59. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen design and planning considerations Figure 2.6 Kitchen design considerations Maximum Standards of Work flow of Production POS Systems Space available Output organisation employees efficiency Heating, Service Environmental Utilisation of Communication HACCP ventilation and methods of regulations space with services requirements air conditioning restaurants Legislation- Efficient Equ8ipment Supervision by Employees Menu types communication Gas & Electricity requirements managers working space between chefs ratios Health and Storage Drainage & safety of Production Control of stock Refuse disposal requirements plumbing employees & methods (bulk & section) customers Restaurant Allocation of preparation Ergonomics Task Lighting cleaning space areawww.cthresources.com Page 59 www.cthawards.com
  60. 60. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3. Production methods and organisation 3.1 Production methods 3.2 The conventional food production method 3.3 The sous-vide method of food production (vacuum cooking) 3.4 Sous-vide - evaluation 3.5 Cook-chill method of food production 3.6 Cook-freeze method of food production 3.7 The central distribution method of food productionwww.cthresources.com Page 60 www.cthawards.com
  61. 61. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation And efficient kitchen is where the chefs prepare and cook food in minimal time whilst maintaining a very high standard. This could be achieved through a methodical and economical method of working by, Ensuring all kitchen equipment is up to standard and ready to use. E.g.: A sharp Source: http//www.luxuryhomedesign.blogspot.com knife over a blunt one at all times. Using electrical equipment for appropriate and worth while purposes, for instances a potato peeler for 4 portions of potatoes which is likely to take more time in putting the machine to use than the time taken to peel potatoes it self is unworthy. Working systematically as possible The kitchen crew holding right postures in order to avoid fatigue and so forth. E.g. when standing for ;long periods of times standing correctly with weight evenly on both legs.www.cthresources.com Page 61 www.cthawards.com
  62. 62. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation Ensuring all necessary equipment is ready and usable at the start of each working session. Positioning all work tops, sinks, stores, and refrigerators within easy reach to eliminate unnecessary movements of chefs. Storing all ingredients as close to the practical work area, starting from most frequently used items close at hand. Preparing the mise en place thoroughly to ensure the follow-on of a smooth and efficient service. Following a clear and continuous work plan, opposed to a haphazard one. E.g. preparing those dishes first which demands more time to prepare. Source: Caterer & Hotelkeeperwww.cthresources.com Page 62 www.cthawards.com
  63. 63. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.1 Production methods Food production is differing methods of preparing, cooking and serving food to produce meals to the customer. Food Preparation Cooking Holding Regeneration Presentation Fresh Weigh/Measure Blanch Chill Regithermic Bain-marie Fresh cooked clear/open Warm Sous-vide Microwave Service flats Fresh Chop/cut Simmer Freeze Convection Plates Prepared Combine/mix Boil Tray Traditional Trays Canned Blend Steam Hot Vending Fresh Shape/coat Grill Cupboard Buffet Chilled Form Sauté Cold Trolley Vacuum Brown Cupboard Dishes Dehydrated Bake Smoked Roast Salted Broil Crystallised Fry Acidified Microwave Pasteurized Bottled UHT Foods in Process Outputwww.cthresources.com Page 63 www.cthawards.com
  64. 64. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.1.1 Key considerations in food production Food hygiene Quality raw materials Foods should be stored properly Appropriate preparation for each food item Minimised wastage Employees should comply with handling regulations Foods should be cooked to proper temperatures Methods differ in relation to: Actual location where food is produced Total time from preparation to service Staff numbers required Level of hygiene and control Quantity of food producedwww.cthresources.com Page 64 www.cthawards.com
  65. 65. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation Figure 2.7 Food production methods Conventional Cook- chill Cook-freeze Food Production Methods Centralised Sous-vide distributionwww.cthresources.com Page 65 www.cthawards.com
  66. 66. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.2 The conventional food production method The conventional method is used in most kitchen establishments and follows the process as shown in figure 2.8. Figure 2.8 Conventional food production process Refrigeration Preparation Ordered Goods in to Freezing (Mise en from Cooking Serving kitchen Dry Store place) customerwww.cthresources.com Page 66 www.cthawards.com
  67. 67. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation Food as given in the table below can be cooked in variety of methods during the food production process. Method Explanation Baking Cooked in dry heat, in the oven Blanching Dipping the food in to boiling water or oil for a short time Boiling Cooked in a boiling or rapidly simmering liquid Braising Browned in small amount of fat, then cooked slowly in a small amount of liquid Boiling Cooked by direct heat from above or below Fried Cooked in fat or oil Deep fried Cooked in enough fat to cover the food Grilled Cooked on a grill, over direct heat Poaching Cooked in a liquid , just below boiling point (simmering) Roasting Cooked uncovered, usually by in oven by dry heat Sautéing Browned or cooked in a small amount hot fat or oil Steaming Cooked in steam with or without pressure Stewing Simmering slowly in enough liquid to cover the food Adapted from cichy & wise (1999)www.cthresources.com Page 67 www.cthawards.com
  68. 68. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.3 The sous-vide method of food production (vacuum cooking) Figure2.9 Sous vide process Portioned in to plastic pouches and Food is Sealed arranged vacuum Customer pouches Re- Pouch is on plate Goods in Prepared Cooked packed orders placed in heated cut open and meals boiling served water Chilled and refrigeratedwww.cthresources.com Page 68 www.cthawards.com
  69. 69. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.4 Sous – vide - evaluation Advantages Disadvantages Pouches retain freshness Capital investment in equipment During re-heating juices are retained in and storage pouch and not lost Not as fresh as conventional Individual pouches are labeled for easy method stock rotation Not able to adjust to customer There is less risk of cross contamination requirements during storage due to sealed pouches Not all foods suitable for sous- and labeling vide method Less wastage as foods is used only when Negative stigma attached(Boil in ordered the bag!) Food can be produced and accurately portioned Chef does not need to be present for reheating and finishing stage Pouched can be frozen to extend life Inexpensive regenerationwww.cthresources.com Page 69 www.cthawards.com
  70. 70. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.5 Cook-chill method of food production Cook chill is a catering system based on normal preparation and cooking of food followed by rapid chilling and storage. In controlled low temperature conditions above freezing point, subsequently reheating prior to consumption. The chilled food is regenerated in finishing kitchens which require low capital investment and minimum staff. All most any food can be cook chilled provided that the correct methods are used. Foskett et al. ( 2004) Figure 2.11 The cook- chill process Goods in to Preparing and Portioning Packaging Blast chilling Re-heating Consumption kitchen store cookingwww.cthresources.com Page 70 www.cthawards.com
  71. 71. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.6 Cook freeze method of food production The method is similar to cook-chill apart from refrigeration temperatures . Figure 2.12 The cook- freeze process Preparing Blast Blast Goods in Re-heating Serving and cooking freezing thawingwww.cthresources.com Page 71 www.cthawards.com
  72. 72. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.7 The central distribution method of food production Centralised food production is when food is produced in bulk-off site. The method is frequently adopted by large chains who are looking to outsource all or part of their food production. source;:http//www.stangard-online.netwww.cthresources.com Page 72 www.cthawards.com
  73. 73. Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation Advantages Disadvantages CPU is specialised in food production Pass control to another company Due to bulk production costs, prices are Potential delays in delivery to operation cheaper for buyers High levels of hygiene during production Figure 2.11 The cook- freeze process Central CPU delivers Hotel or Operation production food to hotel Food is Food is restaurant stores food in Consumers unit (CPU) Blast chilling or other thawed and reheated and creates dish refrigeration order food produces hospitality en place served specification or freezers food off site operationwww.cthresources.com Page 73 www.cthawards.com
  74. 74. Chapter 2 – Food production Food classifications 4. Food classifications There are many different types and varieties of food. One way of organising ingredients is to categorise them into particular groups of families. Few of food are detailed below.www.cthresources.com Page 74 www.cthawards.com
  75. 75. Chapter 2 – Food production Food classifications 4.1 Cheese Semi-hard Soft Blue Gouda Camembert Dolcelatte Edam Brie Stilton Emmenthal Mozzarella Roquefort 4.2 Vegetables Root Leaf Brassicas Shoot Fruit Bulb Squash Pods Spinach Cauliflower Fennel Avocado Garlic Cucumber Corn Turnip Lettuce Brussels sprouts Asparagus Aubergine Onion Zucchini Bean sprouts Radish Chicory Broccoli Artichoke Peppers Shallot Pumpkin Peas Potato Beet Celery Tomato Marrow Okrawww.cthresources.com Page 75 www.cthawards.com
  76. 76. Chapter 2 – Food production Food classifications 4.3 Fruits Berries Citrus Tropical Other Blackberry Lime Guava Apples Raspberry Orange Mango Melon Blueberry Lemon Papaya Bananas 4.4 Fish Freshwater Seawater Trout Mullet Ecl Mackerel Carp Snapper Salmon Codwww.cthresources.com Page 76 www.cthawards.com
  77. 77. Chapter 2 – Food production Food classifications 4.5 Seafood Crustaceans Mollusc Lobster Octopus Shrimp Oyster Crab Mussel 4.6 Poultry and game Poultry Feathered game Furred game Chicken Woodcock Rabbit Capon Quail Hare Goose Partridge Turkeywww.cthresources.com Page 77 www.cthawards.com
  78. 78. Chapter 2 – Food production Food cost and control 5. Food cost and control 5.1 Food cost 5.2 Benefits of food cost for an organisation 5.3 How to achieve food cost targets?www.cthresources.com Page 78 www.cthawards.com
  79. 79. Chapter 2 – Food production Food cost and control To ensure food is prepared to ‘optimum condition’, the following factors must be implemented to ensure a quality product. Dish Purchase specifications Qualified chefs specifications (standard recipes) HACCP Functioning Batch implementation equipment cooking Good supervisionwww.cthresources.com Page 79 www.cthawards.com
  80. 80. Chapter 2 – Food production Food cost and control 5.1 Food cost Food cost is the percentage of total restaurant sales spent on the food product, It is normally around 28·30% as an industry guideline and can be considered as a performance measure for kitchen managers. Food cost can be calculated as: Total cost of food consumption / total food sales x100% When there are more than one outlet (such as in a large hotel), the internal requisitioning system assists in keeping track of food consumption for each outlet.www.cthresources.com Page 80 www.cthawards.com
  81. 81. Chapter 2 – Food production Food cost and control 5.2 Benefits of food cost for an organisation Fig 2.14 Benefits of food cost Target for the Executive Chef Measurement of An industry Food cost performance benchmark Overall assessments of food management cycle Some organisations with food operations provide incentives for Executive Chefs if food coast targets are achieved.www.cthresources.com Page 81 www.cthawards.com
  82. 82. Chapter 2 – Food production Food cost and control 5.3 How to achieve food cost targets? Fig 2.15 Key considerations for achievement of food cost target No meals leave the kitchen Qualified employees avoid Monitor food prices for Monitor refrigerator Demonstrate first in first out unless posted through POS errors fluctuations temperatures (FIFO) roattion system system All management meals Discourage employees Monthly and mid monthly Slow moving items utilised Lockable fridges through POS system picking food in kitchen food stock takes Remove poor selling items Good security procedures in Minimise food wastage, Only prepare what is Have and adhere to dish from menu monitor ‘Sales place utilise food fully needed specifications for each dish Mix’ Cook and serve foods Employees eat employee correctly – avoid customer Store goods correctly DO not let foods spoil! Incorrect costing and pricing food returns and complaintswww.cthresources.com Page 82 www.cthawards.com
  83. 83. Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning 6. Food poisoning 6.1 Main types of food poisoning 6.2 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)www.cthresources.com Page 83 www.cthawards.com
  84. 84. Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning 6.1 Main types of food poisoning Salmonella Staphylococcus Clostridium Listeriawww.cthresources.com Page 84 www.cthawards.com
  85. 85. Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning Figure 2.16: Impacts of food poisoning for a food & beverage operation Loss of business Employee turnover Illness to and loss of customer employme nt Food Poisoning Fines and impact Poor penalties ‘unclean’ from image authorities Possible Bad closure by publicity authoritieswww.cthresources.com Page 85 www.cthawards.com
  86. 86. Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning Figure 2.17: Ways in which to minimize a food positioning outbreak Implement Food hygiene Risk assessment Correct thawing Frequent hand HACCP training washing Pay particular Keep foods Clean equipment Always cover and Do not leave food attention when outside the between use label foods hanging around dealing with danger zone- in kitchen eggs, pork and between 40F poultry (4.4C) and 140 F (60C) Food should be Discard old food No pets or vermin Uncooked, raw Leftover food to cooked (pest control) meats should be thoroughly thoroughly always be stored cooked on lower shelves Wash vegetables After preparation Serve hot food Serve cold food Sick employees and food of food, keep hot cold should be sent thoroughly refrigerated until home cooking or serving Do not cross Keep buns covered Food should be Clean kitchen surface contaminate thoroughly destroyed frequently before cookingwww.cthresources.com Page 86 www.cthawards.com
  87. 87. Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning 6.2 Hazard analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) The HACCP system entails identifying potential risks during the food cycle and production stage and implementing controls to reduce those risks. This includes implementing regular checking systems and maintaining good records.www.cthresources.com Page 87 www.cthawards.com
  88. 88. Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning Figure 2.18: The HACCP food control process Analyse Hazards Identification of CCPs (Critical Control Points) CCP prevention measures Monitoring of CCP Prevention Measures CCP not met HACCP and CCP Logwww.cthresources.com Page 88 www.cthawards.com
  89. 89. Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen equipment 7. Kitchen equipment Large commercial kitchens have a wide selection of equipment to assist staff in their varying roles.www.cthresources.com Page 89 www.cthawards.com
  90. 90. Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning Considerations when purchasing equipment Can we afford it? Can we get spare parts? Who requires training? Will it be easy to use? Guarantees Warrantees Will it add value? What is the company support if it breaks down? Where is the best location for this equipment? What training is required? What is the procedure for cleaning? Instructions for use? How long will it last? Who else has purchased one- testimonials? What are the safety risks (risk assessments)? Has it been safety approved?www.cthresources.com Page 90 www.cthawards.com
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