Knowledge and Wisdom: the role of research libraries in supporting the European research agenda


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The paper will set the scene for challenges facing research libraries in Europe using the the United Kingdom (UK) experience as exemplar. Included will be a look at pan-European development to bring resource discovery to the network layer highlighting two developments: Europeana, Libraries and Research; and, as a case study, the introduction of the Primo search engine into UCL Library Services (University College London) in the UK. In addition, Open Access to research publications and its potential impact on the dissemination of scholarly research outputs will be examined including PEER's (Publishing and the Ecology of European Research) investigation of the effects of the large-scale, systematic depositing of authors’ final peer reviewed accepted manuscripts (so-called Green Open Access) with the aim of providing input for evidence-based policy-making in the area of Green Open Access. Also, two examples of Gold Open Access will be illustrated: Gold Open Access monograph publishing and the development of Gold ‘overlay journals’. This will be followed by a look at Research Data and the importance of data-driven science concentrating on three exemplars from the UK. The requirements for the storage and preservation of research data will be explored and the potential of tools offered by Ex Libris investigated to see what it required. Finally, the paper will map the findings of the paper in terms of network developments, Open Access to research publications, and the storage and re-use of research data against the findings of the opening section – the strategic needs of European research Universities. This paper will end by identifying how the technical developments outlined in the paper need to be aligned with the top-level strategic needs of European Universities in order for research libraries to support their home Universities.

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Knowledge and Wisdom: the role of research libraries in supporting the European research agenda

  1. 1. Knowledge and Wisdom: the role ofresearch libraries in supporting theEuropean research agendaDr Paul AyrisDirector of UCL Library Services and UCL Copyright Officer; President ofLIBER (Association of European Research Libraries)e-mail:; Twitter: ucylpayIGELU meeting 2012, Zurich
  2. 2. Contents1. EU Digital Agenda  European Research Infrastructures - Europeana Libraries2. Discovery and retrieval3. Open Access developments  PEER project  Finch Report  Gold Open Access monographs4. Data-driven science  ODE project5. Conclusions 2
  3. 3. Contents1. EU Digital Agenda2. Discovery and retrieval  New model for UK cataloguing?3. Open Access developments4. Data-driven science5. Conclusions 3
  4. 4. 1. Europe’s Digital Agenda Charting a course to maximise the social and economic potential of ICTSee 4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. Libraries: Great Library at Alexandria Said to contain 70% of all human knowledge 6See
  7. 7. Digital Agenda: Digital Libraries Initiative The EUs digital libraries initiative sets out to make all Europe’s cultural resources and scientific records – books, journals, films, maps, photographs, music, etc. – accessible to all, and preserve them  See The challenge for the digital age is to do even better than that – and make the result last longer 7
  8. 8. Priorities for Libraries Cultural heritage – creating electronic versions of the materials in Europes libraries, archives and museums, making them available online, for work, study or leisure, and preserving them for future generations Scientific information – making research findings more widely available online and keeping them available over time Developing Europeana – a single access point for consulting digital copies of the materials held by libraries, museums, galleries and archives 8
  9. 9. Research Infrastructures Original aims of LIBER’s Europeana Libraries project  Bring to Europeana the digital collections of some of Europe’s leading research libraries from 11 countries. The content is of the highest quality and is also significant in terms of scale – over 5,000,000 items  Be the first project to offer digital collections where the text will be fully searchable in Europeana, making it possible to search inside books and other materials  Establish systems and processes capable of ingesting and indexing significant quantities of digitised material, including text, images, moving images and sound clips 9
  10. 10. Research Infrastructures LIBER is also a partner in the EU-funded Europeana Newspapers project 17 European partners providing 18 million pages 10
  11. 11. Underpinning themes Innovation through co-operation Creation of a critical mass of content Availability of the content to researchers largely in Open Access ‘Research libraries’ engagement with RIs has been low… it now represents a big gap in the European strategy…’  See Lossau, N (2012) ‘An Overview of Research Infrastructures in Europe – and Recommendations to LIBER’ at http:// 11
  12. 12. Europeana Cloud Europeana itself is a cultural heritage portal, aimed at the European citizen, not primarily at a researcher audience New project - Europeana Cloud  To establish a cloud-based system for Europeana and its aggregators. Europeana Cloud will contain new content, new metadata, a new linked storage system, new tools and services for researchers and a new platform - Europeana Research Researchers require a digital space where they can undertake innovative exploration of digitised content 12
  13. 13. Benefits of EuropeanaCloud 2.4 million new metadata records and 5 million research– focused digital items of research-focussed content Develop a subscription model which is open to all European research libraries Develop a digital platform, named Europeana Research Provide tools and services for researchers that permit innovative research that exploits digitised content 13
  14. 14. Challenges for EuropeanaResearch Visibility of libraries in research workflow  Will researchers visit one platform, Europeana Research, to access all content? Europeana Research will initially concentrate on materials in the Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences  Is this sufficiently broad to capture researchers’ interests? What about Science, Technology and Medicine? Sustainability  A subscription model underpins the sustainability of the service Will libraries pay to have their content visible here? 14
  15. 15. Contents1. EU Digital Agenda2. Discovery and retrieval  New model for UK cataloguing?3. Open Access developments4. Data-driven science5. Conclusions 15
  16. 16. The ProblemOur key finding is that the currentarrangements for producing anddistributing bibliographic data for bothbooks and journals involve duplications ofefforts, gaps in the available data, andmissed opportunities. ...[T]here wouldbe considerable benefits if libraries, andother organisations in the supply chain,were to operate more at the network level. 16
  17. 17. Open and Linked Data The Open Knowledge Foundation identifies a number of advantages to libraries opening up their bibliographic data:  Shared cataloguing  New services Linked Data refers to a set of Best Practices for connecting structured data on the web  See 17
  18. 18. Open and Linked Data Library catalogue becomes re-positioned in terms of its relationship to the wider context of the web, and the social network of links that the web represents Benefits to a shared approach  Cost savings  Improved access 18
  19. 19. Recommendations Best solution is for a cloud-based implementation to stand in for both local and central management of systems  Local library management functions  Centrally shared metadata catalogue E.g. community zone, using the Ex Libris tools Metadata issues will need to be addressed  Duplication of records for same item needs to be replaced by concept of Master record 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. StrategicRecommendations RLUK databases need to be re-positioned in the wider context of the web  Expand coverage to include new media types, e.g. blogs, wikis, Open Access content, E-Books Shared cataloguing service reduces the footprint of local library management system and so will re-define how libraries work 21
  22. 22. StrategicRecommendations That funding is identified to investigate the requirements and feasibility of a shared UK cataloguing service To co-sponsor with the JISC a full cost-benefit analysis of providing an overall, above-campus shared cataloguing system solution 22
  23. 23. Contents1. EU Digital Agenda2. Discovery and retrieval3. Open Access developments  PEER project  Finch Report  Gold Open Access monographs4. Data-driven science5. Conclusions 23
  24. 24. Open Access – a perspectivefrom the Commission 17 July 2012 Neelie Kroes, European Commission Vice-President, talks to scientific experts about openness in science - and the great results that can be achieved with open access See 24
  25. 25. PEER project PEER project  See Investigated the potential effects of the large-scale, systematic depositing of authors’ final peer-reviewed manuscripts (so called Green Open Access or stage-two research output) on reader access, author visibility, and journal viability, as well as on the broader ecology of European research The project ran from 1 September 2008 – 31 May 2012 25
  26. 26. PEER – main findings Author self-archiving alone is unlikely to generate a critical mass of Green OA content  The author deposit rate in the PEER Project was exceptionally low The acceptance and utility of open access publishing has increased rapidly  Open access publishing is increasingly important for publishers, repositories and the research community 26
  27. 27. PEER – main findings Overall, PEER is associated with a significant, if relatively modest, increase in publisher downloads, in the confidence range 7.5% to 15.5%  Publisher downloads are growing at a faster rate the repository downloads The likely mechanism is that PEER offers high quality metadata, allows a wider range of search engine robots to index its content than the typical publisher, and thus helps to raise the digital visibility of scholarly content 27
  28. 28. See Report to Department of Business, Innovation and Skills UCL responses See http:// and price-responds.html 28
  29. 29. Finch Recommendations Gold Open Access is the future UK produces 6% of world’s global research output For an extra £38 million to UK HE, UK research outputs could be published as Gold OA research outputs Green OA would be for grey literature, theses 29
  30. 30. Finch Recommendations National licensing solutions could extend access to the National Health Service, SMEs (Small + Medium sized Enterprises)  £6 million - £12 million extra a year for equality of access across HE  £1 million - £2 million a year for access by the NHS 30
  31. 31. For an individualinstitutional policy, asthings stand, Green isthe only affordable andpractical optionJISC Report by JohnHoughton and AlmaSwan - Going for Gold?– see 31
  32. 32. Debate in the UK Debate in the UK is polarised between the benefits of Green or Gold 2 solutions not mutually exclusive Finch talks about a Gold OA future, not set in a timeframe  Also relies on the whole world going Gold OA Houghton and Swan look at transition issues and the position NOW  World will not go Gold OA overnight  For the short to medium term, Green route is more cost effective 32
  33. 33. UK Government funding 7 September 2012 33
  34. 34. LERU UniversitiesGoing for Gold Professor Kurt Deketelaere Secretary General of LERU One of the recommendations of the Finch Report is that experiments in Gold Open Access monograph publishing should continue Debate to date has been largely about Gold Open Access journals, not monographs Some LERU universities, with others, bidding for EU funding for pan-European Gold Open Access publishing infrastructure for monographs 34
  35. 35. Library Other plugin? services Catalogues plugin Public DOAB Orders Orders Catalogue plugin? plugin? APIs OAI-PMH Requests Paid-for OA Book Orders etc versions PDF plugin? Secure payment Metadata Fulfilment Order managementBookMaster Master Secure delivery XML Repository Finance Other e- Hard Kindle versions copy DP support BPCs Subs On Technical demand Publication Format transformer University Management Admin Suite Editorial OA Book PDF Orders plugin? Editorial boards Authors Institutional repository IGELU 2012 35
  36. 36. Contents1. EU Digital Agenda2. Discovery and retrieval  New model for UK cataloguing?3. Open Access developments4. Data-driven science5. Conclusions 36
  37. 37. 5. Research Data Data-drive science is replacing hypothesis-driven science as a methodology for scientific enquiry Riding the Wave (2010) sets the scene for data-driven science  See report.pdf 37
  38. 38. See Scienceas an openenterprisefrom theRoyal Society(UK).At 38
  39. 39. 39
  40. 40. UK developments EPSRC – Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council has taken the initiative in the UK  See .aspx Policy founded in seven core principles  No. 1: EPSRC-funded research data is a public good produced in the public interest and should be made freely and openly available with as few restrictions as possible in a timely and responsible manner 40
  41. 41. EPSRC expectations What do institutions need to do?1. All institutions will promote awareness of the EPSRC policy2. Published papers will explain how data can be accessed3. Each institution will have relevant policies and procedures, and researchers and students will comply with them4. Research data not in digital form must still be made available for sharing 41
  42. 42. EPSRC expectations5. Appropriate metadata describing the data will be available within 12 months of the data being generated6. If data is restricted, the metadata must explain why and indicate how access would be possible7. EPSRC-funded research data must be digitally curated for at least 10 years from the time it is public8. Effective digital curation will be provided throughout the whole lifecycle9. Organisations will pay for the infrastructure for data curation via existing funding streams 42
  43. 43. Roles and responsibilities of the Library One of the issues identified in the Royal Society Report is the role and responsibilities of libraries  ‘A particular dilemma for universities is to determine the role of their science libraries in a digital age’ Report analyses the traditional role of the Library in research processes  repository of data, information and knowledge  source of expertise in helping scholars access them 43
  44. 44. Libraries and data-driven science  The ‘processes and the skills that are required to fulfil the same function are fundamentally different. They should be those for a world in which science literature is online, all the data is online, where the two interoperate, and where scholars and researchers are supported to work efficiently in it’ LIBER (Association of European Research Libraries) has produced ten recommendations on what Libraries should do NOW about Data  Emanating from the E-Science Working Group  See libraries-to-get-started-with-research-data-management 44
  45. 45. ODE – Opportunities for Data Exchange ODE is looking at the potential of the data deluge  See rrent-projects/ode  This potential can only be realised by adding an interoperable data sharing, re-use and preservation layer to the emerging eco-system of e-Infrastructures. The importance of this layer, on top of emerging connectivity and computational layers, has not yet been addressed coherently at ERA or global level 45
  46. 46. Where do researchers store their data? PARSE Insight survey of 2009 asked academics (n=1202) where they stored their data 46
  47. 47. ODE conclusions ODE identified 7 areas of opportunity:  Availability  Findability  Interpretability  Re-usability  Citability  Curation  Preservation Each stakeholder group was mapped against the criteria 47
  48. 48. Opportunities Libraries/ Data CentresAvailability Lower barriers to researchers to make their data available Integrate datasets into retrieval servicesFindability Support for persistent identifiers Engage in developing common meta-description schemas & common citation practices Promote use of common standards and toolsInterpretability Support crosslinks between publications and datasets Provide and help researchers understand meta-descriptions of datasets Establish and maintain knowledge base about data and their context 48
  49. 49. Opportunities Libraries/ Data CentresRe-usability Curate and preserve datasets Archive software needed for analysis of data Be transparent about conditions under which data can be re- usedCitability Engage in developing uniform data citation standards Support and promote persistent identifiersCuration/ Transparency about curation of submitted dataPreservation Promote good data management practice Collaborate with data creators Instruct researcher in Best Practice e.g. data formats, preservation formats, documentation of experiment 49
  50. 50. Contents1. EU Digital Agenda2. Discovery and retrieval  New model for UK cataloguing?3. Open Access developments4. Data-driven science5. Conclusions 50
  51. 51. Conclusions? For vendors/suppliers1. Your services and software need to have the ‘Open Agenda’ at the heart of your offering2. Future is collaborative, and pan-European3. No single Library can offer services and software facilities to meet all its users’ needs. Vendors need to understand that pan-European Research Infrastructures are the way forward for European research libraries 51
  52. 52. Conclusions?4. The European researcher requires/wants a one-stop shop for resource discovery. Is this Primo and Primo Central? Is this the mission and vision that Ex Libris has?5. The EC is fully committed to Open Access and Open Data – we need to develop software and services to deliver on this Agenda6. Research Data. We need platforms and services which support research universities 52
  53. 53. Conclusions?7. Platforms which support digital curation for cultural heritage do not in themselves meet our needs8. Research Data and Data-driven science represent a revolution in the way science is performed in Europe, and globally9. For vendors to thrive, they have to make a credible offering in this space 53
  54. 54. Conclusions? For Libraries1. The agenda for Libraries has changed and Libraries need to change too2. European Libraries need to model how they can participate in European Research Infrastructures  This is the way that European Research is progressing3. The ‘Open’ Agenda is THE agenda for European research libraries in the next 10 years 54
  55. 55. Conclusions?4. Digital curation is a vital part of the future for European Research Libraries. We performed this role in a paper world and we are best placed to carry this forward in a digital world5. Data-driven science represents a revolution in the way that research is undertaken6. Unless Research Libraries embrace the requirements of research data, they will be marginalised in the University 55
  56. 56. Conclusions?7. Research Libraries should not under-estimate the level of change that is required8. In the late fifteenth century, the invention by Gutenberg in the West of moveable type printing transformed scholarship. In the twenty-first century, the prevalence of the Internet and the ‘Open’ agenda could do the same9. Librarians in Research Libraries need a new raft of skills to meet the demands of Data-driven Science 56
  57. 57. If you have been… Thanks for listening LIBER is happy to participate in a discussion 57