Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
K e y Q u e s ti o n s                                 4. What branch 1. How do we                                  of gov...
P r e s i d e n t L i n c o ln ’s       10% Plan la n             P          *   Proclamation of Amnesty and             ...
P r e s i d e n t L i n c o ln ’s              P la n 1864  “Lincoln Governments”  formed in LA, TN, AR   *   “loyal ass...
W a d e -D a v i s B i ll (1 8 6 4 )            Required 50% of the number             of 1860 voters to take an         ...
W a d e -D a v i s B i ll “Iron-Clad” Oath. 6 4 )            (1 8 “State Suicide” Theory [MA Senator  Charles Sumner] “...
Je ff D a v i s U n d e r A r r e s t
th   1 3        Am e n d m e n t Ratified in December, 1865. Neither slavery nor involuntary  servitude, except as punis...
F r e e d m e n ’s B u r e a u           (1 8 6 5 )                Bureau of Refugees,                 Freedmen, and     ...
F r e e d m e n ’s B u r e a uS e e n Th ro u g hS o u th e rnEyes   Plenty to    eat and  nothing to      do.
F r e e d m e n ’s B u r e a u           S ch ool
P re s i d e n t An d re w         Jo h n s o n               Jacksonian Democrat.                Anti-Aristocrat.      ...
P r e s i d e n t Jo h n s o n ’s P la n Offered amnesty upon simple oath)to all except                   (1 0 % +  Confe...
S la v e r y i s D e a d ?
G ro w i n g N o rth e rn        A la r m ! Many Southern state  constitutions fell short of  minimum requirements. John...
B la c k C o d e s Purpose:   *   Guarantee stable labor       supply now that blacks       were emancipated.   *   Resto...
C o n g re s s B re a k s w i th th e Congress barsP r e s i d e n t               Southern  Congressional delegates. Jo...
Jo h n s o n t h e M a r t y r /          S a m If my n is to be shed                 s o blood                  because I...
1 4 th A m e n d m e n t Ratified in July, 1868.   *    Provide a constitutional guarantee of the        rights and secur...
T h e B a la n c e o f P o w e r               i n C o n g re s s              State   White Citizens   Freedmen          ...
T h e 1 8 6 6 B i -E le c t i o n A referendum on Radical Reconstruction. Johnson made an ill-conceived propaganda  tour...
R a d i c a l P la n fo r         R e a d in thesterritories were Civil authorities m i sion  subject to military supervi...
R e c o n s tru c ti o n Ac ts o f               1 867 Military Reconstruction Act     *   Restart Reconstruction in the ...
R e c o n s tru c ti o n Ac ts o f                1 867 Command of the Army Act    *   The President must issue all      ...
P r e s i d e n t Jo h n s o n ’s          I m p eStantonm February, 1868. Johnson removed                  a c h in e n ...
Th e S e n a te Tri a l 11 week trial. Johnson acquitted  35 to 19 (one short of  required 2/3s vote).
S h a re c ro p p i n g
Te n a n c y & th e C ro p Li e n Furnishing Merchant S TenanttFarmer                       ys em         Landowner Loan ...
B la c k & W h i t e P o li t i c a l       P a rti c i p a ti o n
E s t a b li s h m e n t o f            H i s t o r i c a llyB la c k C o lle g e s i n t h e S o u t h
B la c k S e n a t e & H o u s e         D e le g a t e s
Cooe R ue   lrd lint So t   he uh?
B la c k s i n S o u t h e r n Core voters wereoblack i c s               P li t veterans. Blacks were politically unpre...
th     1 5        Am e n d m e n t Ratified in 1870. The right of citizens of the United States  to vote shall not be de...
T h e “I n v i s i b le E m p i r e o f           th e S o u th ”
T h e F a i lu r e o f F e d e r a l        E n fo r c e m 1870 & 1871 Enforcement Acts of   ent   [also known as the KKK...
Th e C i vi l R i g h ts Ac t o f              1 875 Crime for any individual to deny full &  equal use of public conveya...
T h e 1 8 6 8 R e p u b li c a n           Ti ck e t
Th e 1 8 6 8 D e m o c ra ti c           Ti ck e t
Wv t B lo Shir! aing he ody t          Republican “Southern               Strategy”
1 8 6 8 P re s i d e n ti a l       E le c t i o n
P r e s i d e n t U ly s s e s S .             G ra n t
G ra n t Ad m i n i s tra ti o n Grant presided c a nan era ls              S over d a of  unprecedented  growth and  cor...
Th e Tw e e dR in g    i n N YC William Marcy Tweed (notorious head of Tammany Hall’s political machine) [Thomas Nast  cr...
W Stl t Pepl’sMo y? ho oe he o e ne
AndThe Sa HeWnt aThir Tem     y y     as     d r
T h e E le c t i o n o f 1 8 7 2                  Rumors of corruption                   during Grant’s first            ...
1 8 7 2 P re s i d e n ti a l       E le c t i o n
P o p u la r V o t e fo rP re s i d e n t: 1 8 7 2
Th e P a n i c o f 1 8 7 3                           It raises “the money                            question.”          ...
L e g a l C h a lle n g e s       t o t h e 1 4 th & 1 5 th          Am e n d m e n ts The Slaughterhouse Cases (1873)  ...
L e g a l C h a lle n g e s         t o t h e 1 4 th & 1 5 th            Am e n d m e n ts Bradwell vs. Illinois (1873)  ...
L e g a l C h a lle n g e s        t o t h e 1 4 th & 1 5 th U. S. vs.A m e n d al. (1876)s           Reese, et. m e n t ...
L e g a l C h a lle n g e s       t o t h e 1 4 th & 1 5 th          Am e n d m e n ts U. S. vs. Cruickshank (1876)   LA...
L e g a l C h a lle n g e s        t o t h e 1 4 th & 1 5 th           Am e n d m e n ts Civil Rights Cases (1883)    Th...
N o rth e rn S u p p o rt W a n e s “Grantism” & corruption. Panic of 1873 [6-year  depression]. Concern over westward ...
1 8 7 6 P re s i d e n ti a l Ti c k e ts
“ eio lB aa e ” R g na lnc?
1 8 7 6 P re s i d e n ti a l       E le c t i o n
T h e P o li t i c a l C r i s i s o f              1 877 “Corrupt Bargain”  Part II?
H a y e s P r e v a i ls
Als t We o Chil o       a, he os f dhod…Sammy Tilden—Boo-Hoo! Ruthy Hayes’s got my   Presidency, and he won’t give it to me!
A P o li t i c a l C r i s i s : T h e“C o m p r o m i s e ” o f 1 8 7 7
Reconstruction
Reconstruction
Reconstruction
Reconstruction
Reconstruction
Reconstruction
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Reconstruction

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Reconstruction

  1. 1. Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
  2. 2. K e y Q u e s ti o n s 4. What branch 1. How do we of governmentbring the South should control back into the the process of Union? Reconstruction? 2. How do we 3. How do we rebuild the integrate and South after its protect newly- destruction emancipated during the war? black freedmen?
  3. 3. P r e s i d e n t L i n c o ln ’s  10% Plan la n P * Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8, 1863) * Replace majority rule with “loyal rule” in the South. * He didn’t consult Congress regarding Reconstruction. * Pardon to all but the highest ranking military and civilian Confederate officers. * When 10% of the voting population in the 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty and established a government, it would be recognized.
  4. 4. P r e s i d e n t L i n c o ln ’s P la n 1864  “Lincoln Governments” formed in LA, TN, AR * “loyal assemblies” * They were weak and dependent on the Northern army for their survival.
  5. 5. W a d e -D a v i s B i ll (1 8 6 4 )  Required 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (swearing they had never voluntarily aided the rebellion ).Senator  Required a state CongressmanBenjamin constitutional convention Henry Wade W. Davis (R-OH) before the election of state (R-MD) officials.  Enacted specific safeguards of freedmen’s liberties.
  6. 6. W a d e -D a v i s B i ll “Iron-Clad” Oath. 6 4 ) (1 8 “State Suicide” Theory [MA Senator Charles Sumner] “Conquered Provinces” Position [PA Congressman Thaddeus Stevens] President Pocket Wade-Davis Lincoln Veto Bill
  7. 7. Je ff D a v i s U n d e r A r r e s t
  8. 8. th 1 3 Am e n d m e n t Ratified in December, 1865. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
  9. 9. F r e e d m e n ’s B u r e a u (1 8 6 5 )  Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands.  Many former northern abolitionists risked their lives to help southern freedmen.  Called “carpetbaggers” by white southern Democrats.
  10. 10. F r e e d m e n ’s B u r e a uS e e n Th ro u g hS o u th e rnEyes Plenty to eat and nothing to do.
  11. 11. F r e e d m e n ’s B u r e a u S ch ool
  12. 12. P re s i d e n t An d re w Jo h n s o n  Jacksonian Democrat.  Anti-Aristocrat.  White Supremacist.  Agreed with Lincoln that states had never legally left the Union. Damn the negroes! I am fighting these traitorous aristocrats, their masters!
  13. 13. P r e s i d e n t Jo h n s o n ’s P la n Offered amnesty upon simple oath)to all except (1 0 % + Confederate civil and military officers and those with property over $20,000 (they could apply directly to Johnson) In new constitutions, they must accept minimum conditions repudiating slavery, secession and state debts. Named provisional governors in Confederate states and called them to oversee elections for constitutional conventions. 1. Disenfranchised certain leading Confederates. 2. Pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back EFFECTS? to political power to control state organizations. 3. Republicans were outraged that planter elite were back in power in the South!
  14. 14. S la v e r y i s D e a d ?
  15. 15. G ro w i n g N o rth e rn A la r m ! Many Southern state constitutions fell short of minimum requirements. Johnson granted 13,500 special pardons. Revival of southern defiance. BLACK CODES
  16. 16. B la c k C o d e s Purpose: * Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated. * Restore pre-emancipation system of race relations. Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers [tenant farmers].
  17. 17. C o n g re s s B re a k s w i th th e Congress barsP r e s i d e n t Southern Congressional delegates. Joint Committee on Reconstruction created. February, 1866  President vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau bill. March, 1866  Johnson vetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act. Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes  1st in U. S. history!!
  18. 18. Jo h n s o n t h e M a r t y r / S a m If my n is to be shed s o blood because I vindicate the Union and the preservation of this government in its original purity and character, let it be shed; let an altar to the Union be erected, and then, if it is necessary, take me and lay me upon it, and the blood that now warms and animates my existence shall be poured out as a fit libation to the Union. (February 1866)
  19. 19. 1 4 th A m e n d m e n t Ratified in July, 1868. * Provide a constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people. * Insure against neo-Confederate political power. * Enshrine the national debt while repudiating that of the Confederacy. Southern states would be punished for denying the right to vote to black citizens!
  20. 20. T h e B a la n c e o f P o w e r i n C o n g re s s State White Citizens Freedmen SC 291,000 411,000 MS 353,000 436,000 LA 357,000 350,000 GA 591,000 465,000 AL 596,000 437,000 VA 719,000 533,000 NC 631,000 331,000
  21. 21. T h e 1 8 6 6 B i -E le c t i o n A referendum on Radical Reconstruction. Johnson made an ill-conceived propaganda tour around the country to push his plan. Republicans won a 3-1 majority in both houses and gained control of every northern Johnson’s “Swing around state. the Circle”
  22. 22. R a d i c a l P la n fo r R e a d in thesterritories were Civil authorities m i sion subject to military supervision. Required new state constitutions, including black suffrage and ratification of the 13th and 14th Amendments. In March, 1867, Congress passed an act that authorized the military to enroll eligible black voters and begin the process of constitution making.
  23. 23. R e c o n s tru c ti o n Ac ts o f 1 867 Military Reconstruction Act * Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment. * Divide the 10 “unreconstructed states” into 5 military districts.
  24. 24. R e c o n s tru c ti o n Ac ts o f 1 867 Command of the Army Act * The President must issue all Reconstruction orders through the commander of the military. Tenure of Office Act * The President could not remove any officials [esp. Cabinet members] without the Senate’s consent, if the position originally required Senate approval.  Designed to protect radical members of Lincoln’s government.  A question of the constitutionality of this law. Edwin Stanton
  25. 25. P r e s i d e n t Jo h n s o n ’s I m p eStantonm February, 1868. Johnson removed a c h in e n t Johnson replaced generals in the field who were more sympathetic to Radical Reconstruction. The House impeached him on February 24 before even drawing up the charges by a vote of 126 – 47!
  26. 26. Th e S e n a te Tri a l 11 week trial. Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3s vote).
  27. 27. S h a re c ro p p i n g
  28. 28. Te n a n c y & th e C ro p Li e n Furnishing Merchant S TenanttFarmer ys em Landowner Loan tools and seed  Plants crop,  Rents land to tenant up to 60% interest harvests in in exchange for ¼ to tenant farmer to autumn. to ½ of tenant plant spring crop. farmer’s future  Turns over up to ½ crop. Farmer also secures of crop to land food, clothing, and owner as payment of other necessities on rent. credit from merchant until the  Tenant gives harvest. remainder of crop to merchant in Merchant holds payment of debt. “lien” {mortgage} on part of tenant’s future crops as repayment of debt.
  29. 29. B la c k & W h i t e P o li t i c a l P a rti c i p a ti o n
  30. 30. E s t a b li s h m e n t o f H i s t o r i c a llyB la c k C o lle g e s i n t h e S o u t h
  31. 31. B la c k S e n a t e & H o u s e D e le g a t e s
  32. 32. Cooe R ue lrd lint So t he uh?
  33. 33. B la c k s i n S o u t h e r n Core voters wereoblack i c s P li t veterans. Blacks were politically unprepared. Blacks could register and vote in states since 1867.  The 15th Amendment guaranteed federal voting.
  34. 34. th 1 5 Am e n d m e n t Ratified in 1870. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote!
  35. 35. T h e “I n v i s i b le E m p i r e o f th e S o u th ”
  36. 36. T h e F a i lu r e o f F e d e r a l E n fo r c e m 1870 & 1871 Enforcement Acts of ent [also known as the KKK Act].  “The Lost Cause.”  The rise of the “Bourbons.”  Redeemers (prewar Democrats and Union Whigs).
  37. 37. Th e C i vi l R i g h ts Ac t o f 1 875 Crime for any individual to deny full & equal use of public conveyances and public places. Prohibited discrimination in jury selection. Shortcoming  lacked a strong enforcement mechanism. No new civil rights act was attempted for 90 years!
  38. 38. T h e 1 8 6 8 R e p u b li c a n Ti ck e t
  39. 39. Th e 1 8 6 8 D e m o c ra ti c Ti ck e t
  40. 40. Wv t B lo Shir! aing he ody t Republican “Southern Strategy”
  41. 41. 1 8 6 8 P re s i d e n ti a l E le c t i o n
  42. 42. P r e s i d e n t U ly s s e s S . G ra n t
  43. 43. G ra n t Ad m i n i s tra ti o n Grant presided c a nan era ls S over d a of unprecedented growth and corruption. * Credit Mobilier Scandal. * Whiskey Ring. * The “Indian Ring.”
  44. 44. Th e Tw e e dR in g i n N YC William Marcy Tweed (notorious head of Tammany Hall’s political machine) [Thomas Nast  crusading cartoonist/reporter]
  45. 45. W Stl t Pepl’sMo y? ho oe he o e ne
  46. 46. AndThe Sa HeWnt aThir Tem y y as d r
  47. 47. T h e E le c t i o n o f 1 8 7 2  Rumors of corruption during Grant’s first term discredit Republicans.  Horace Greeley runs as a Democrat/Liberal Republican candidate.  Greeley attacked as a fool and a crank.  Greeley died on November 29, 1872!
  48. 48. 1 8 7 2 P re s i d e n ti a l E le c t i o n
  49. 49. P o p u la r V o t e fo rP re s i d e n t: 1 8 7 2
  50. 50. Th e P a n i c o f 1 8 7 3  It raises “the money question.” * debtors seek inflationary monetary policy by continuing circulation of greenbacks. * creditors, intellectuals support hard money.  1875  Specie Redemption Act. 1876  Greenback Party formed & makes gains in congressional races  The “Crime of ’73’!
  51. 51. L e g a l C h a lle n g e s t o t h e 1 4 th & 1 5 th Am e n d m e n ts The Slaughterhouse Cases (1873)  The court offered a narrow definition of the 14th Amendment.  It distinguished between national and state citizenship.  It gave the states primary authority over citizens’ rights.  Therefore, the courts weakened civil rights enforcement!
  52. 52. L e g a l C h a lle n g e s t o t h e 1 4 th & 1 5 th Am e n d m e n ts Bradwell vs. Illinois (1873)  Myra Bradwell, a female attorney, had been denied the right to practice law in Illinois.  She argued that in the 14th Amendment, it said that the state had unconstitutionally abridged her “privileges and immunities” as a citizen.  The Supreme Court rejected her claim, alluding to women’s traditional role in the home.  Therefore, she should NOT be practicing law!
  53. 53. L e g a l C h a lle n g e s t o t h e 1 4 th & 1 5 th U. S. vs.A m e n d al. (1876)s Reese, et. m e n t  The Court restricted congressional power to enforce the KKK Act.  The court ruled that the STATE alone could confer voting rights on individuals.  The 15th Amendment did NOT guarantee a citizen’s right to vote, but just listed certain impermissible grounds to deny suffrage.  Therefore, a path lay open for Southern states to disenfranchise blacks for supposedly non-racial reasons [like lack of education, lack of property, etc.]
  54. 54. L e g a l C h a lle n g e s t o t h e 1 4 th & 1 5 th Am e n d m e n ts U. S. vs. Cruickshank (1876)  LA white supremacists accused of attacking a meeting of Blacks & were convicted under the 1870 Enforcement Acts.  The Court held that the 14th Amendment extended the federal power to protect civil rights ONLY in cases involving discrimination by STATES.  Therefore, discrimination by individuals or groups were NOT covered.
  55. 55. L e g a l C h a lle n g e s t o t h e 1 4 th & 1 5 th Am e n d m e n ts Civil Rights Cases (1883)  The Court declared the 1875 Civil Rights Act unconstitutional.  The Court held that the 14th Amendment gave Congress the power to outlaw discriminations by the states, but NOT by private individuals.  Black people must no longer “be the special favorites of the laws.”  Therefore, this marked the end of federal attempts to protect African American rights until well into the 20c!
  56. 56. N o rth e rn S u p p o rt W a n e s “Grantism” & corruption. Panic of 1873 [6-year depression]. Concern over westward expansion and Indian wars. Key monetary issues: * should the government retire $432m worth of “greenbacks” issued during the Civil War. * should war bonds be paid back in specie or greenbacks.
  57. 57. 1 8 7 6 P re s i d e n ti a l Ti c k e ts
  58. 58. “ eio lB aa e ” R g na lnc?
  59. 59. 1 8 7 6 P re s i d e n ti a l E le c t i o n
  60. 60. T h e P o li t i c a l C r i s i s o f 1 877 “Corrupt Bargain” Part II?
  61. 61. H a y e s P r e v a i ls
  62. 62. Als t We o Chil o a, he os f dhod…Sammy Tilden—Boo-Hoo! Ruthy Hayes’s got my Presidency, and he won’t give it to me!
  63. 63. A P o li t i c a l C r i s i s : T h e“C o m p r o m i s e ” o f 1 8 7 7

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