The analysis of the text

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The analysis of the text

  1. 1. Translation Methodology Methods, Levels and Techniques By Libardo Ospino Professional Translator September 2003
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>1 THE ANALYSIS OF THE TEXT </li></ul><ul><li>2 DIS COURSE ANALYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>3 THE INTENTION OF THE TEXT </li></ul><ul><li>4 THE INTENTION OF THE TRANSLATOR </li></ul><ul><li>5 THE QUALITY OF THE WRITING </li></ul><ul><li>6 TRANSLATION METHODS AND LEVELS </li></ul><ul><li>7 TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Analysis Of The Text <ul><li>Reading the text </li></ul><ul><li>- Is the starting point </li></ul><ul><li> We read the text to: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understand what it is about. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyse it from a translator’s point of view not from linguist’s, literary, teacher nor student </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To determine it’s intention </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To determine the way it’s written to select a suitable translation method </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Kinds Of Reading When Analysing The Text <ul><li>General reading is required </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We read the words both </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Out of the context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To get the gist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To get the essence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To get the substance </li></ul></ul></ul>( literal meaning ) ( Interpretation )
  5. 5. The Last Reading <ul><li>This last reading is done for the purpose of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noting the cultural aspects of the SL text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We have to underline all: Neologism , Methophors , cultural words and institutional terms peculiar to the SL , proper names , technical terms and the untranslatable words </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Analysis Of The Text <ul><li>Macro analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Micro analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Reading the text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The intention of the text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The intention of the translator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The last reading </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Text styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The readership </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The quality of the writing </li></ul>
  7. 7. DISCOURSE ANALYSIS IN TRANSLATION <ul><li>MACRO ANALYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>MICRO ANALYSIS </li></ul>
  8. 8. Macroanalysis <ul><li>This analysis answers these questions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For whom? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How ? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Microanalysis <ul><li>This analisys is based on the process of segmentation to take notes on the translation problems we find in the text. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We split the text in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lexical translation units </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sintagmatic translation units </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is used to avoid both gain and loss of information </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Microanalysis <ul><li>LEXICAL TRANSLATION UNITS </li></ul><ul><li>VERBS </li></ul><ul><li>ADVERBS </li></ul><ul><li>NOUN S </li></ul><ul><li>PRONOUNS </li></ul><ul><li>PROPER NOUNS </li></ul>
  11. 11. Microanalysis <ul><li>SINTAGMATIC TRANSLATION UNITS </li></ul><ul><li>DETERMINANTS </li></ul><ul><li>PREPOSITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>ARTICLES </li></ul><ul><li>POSSESSIVE WORDS </li></ul>
  12. 12. Examples <ul><li>Roberto studies English everyday </li></ul><ul><li>The city is beautiful </li></ul><ul><li>The books are on the top of the book shelf </li></ul><ul><li>I have a nice watch </li></ul><ul><li>They are good students </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Intention Of The Text <ul><li>We read to search for the intention of the text </li></ul><ul><li>The intention of the text goes hand in hand with the understanding of the text </li></ul><ul><li>The title may be remote from the content as well as the intention </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Intention Of The Text <ul><li>It’s necessary to pay special attention to the type of language and even the grammatical structure (passive voice – impersonal verbs) </li></ul><ul><li>The intention of the text represents the SL writer’s attitude of the text or subject matter </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Intention Of The Translator <ul><li>Usually, the translator’s intention is identical with that of the author of the SL text </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Quality Of The Writing <ul><li>The quality of the writing has to be judged in relation to the author’s intention and the requirements of the subject matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The word must be in the right place with the minimum of redundancy </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Process Of The Translation <ul><li>The relation of translating to translation theory </li></ul><ul><li>The approach </li></ul><ul><li>The levels: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The textual level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The referential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The cohesive level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The level of naturalness </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Levels of approaches to a translation process <ul><li>1 Translating sentences by sentence </li></ul><ul><li>2 Translating paragraphs by paragraphs </li></ul><ul><li>3 Translating chapter by chapter </li></ul><ul><li>4 Read the text as whole and translate it like wise </li></ul>
  19. 19. Approaches to translation and the texts The first approach Sentence by sentence Paragraph by paragraph Literary texts
  20. 20. Approaches to translation and the text The second approach Reading The whole text Translate chapter By chapter For Technical Or Institutional texts
  21. 21. DANGERS OF THE APPROACHES <ul><li>The fisrt approach </li></ul><ul><li>It may leave you with too much revision to do in the early part </li></ul><ul><li>It is time-wasting </li></ul><ul><li>The second approach </li></ul><ul><li>It is usually preferable </li></ul><ul><li>It can be mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>It may may inhibit the translator`s free play of intution </li></ul>
  22. 22. APPROACHES ALTERNATIVES <ul><li>The fisrt approach is advisable for a relatively easy text </li></ul><ul><li>The second approach is advisable for harder texts </li></ul>
  23. 23. THE TRANSLATION OF THE LEVELS The textual Level The referential Level The cohesive level The level of naturlness The Textual Level The grammar And The lexical units are translated In the situation Or context of The sentence The referential level Sentences of any text Technical,Literary or Institutional must be Read in the situation Or context of the text The cohesive level It follows both The structure And the moods of The text The level of Naturalness Makes sense Reads naturally It is written in Ordinary language That meet the Kind of situation
  24. 24. Translation Methods And levels <ul><li>Translation methods obey to the main problem of translation it self </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To translate literally or freely </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This argument has been going on since at least the first century B.C up to the beginning the nineteenth century </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many writers are in favor of free translation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Translation Levels <ul><li>WORD BY WORD </li></ul><ul><li>LITERAL TRANSLATION </li></ul><ul><li>EQUIVALENT TRANSLATION </li></ul>
  26. 26. Translation Methods or types <ul><li>The methods or types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faithful translation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic translation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communicative translation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idiomatic translation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free translation </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Writer’s Slogan Who Want The Truth To Be Read And Understood <ul><li>We as translators are intended to translate </li></ul><ul><li>The spirit not the letter </li></ul><ul><li>The sense not the words </li></ul><ul><li>The message rather than the form </li></ul><ul><li>The matter not the manner </li></ul>
  28. 28. Word for word translation level characteristics <ul><li>This is often demonstrated interlinear translation </li></ul><ul><li>The SL words order is preserved </li></ul><ul><li>The words are translated literally </li></ul><ul><li>The words are translated by their most common meaning </li></ul><ul><li>The words are translated out of context </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural words are translated literally </li></ul>
  29. 29. Usage of the word for word translation level <ul><li>The use of this method is either to: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the mechanism of the SL </li></ul><ul><li>Construe a difficult as a pre-translation process </li></ul>
  30. 30. Examples of the word for translation level <ul><li>I love fried fish for lunch </li></ul><ul><li>Yo amo frito pescado para almuerzo </li></ul><ul><li>I need to get there as soon as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Yo necesito a conseguir allá como pronto como posible </li></ul>
  31. 31. Literal Translation Usage (presentation process) Lexical words Grammatical Constructions Are converted to their nearest TL equivalents Are translated singly out of context It indicates the problems to be solved
  32. 32. Examples of the literal translation level <ul><li>I love fried fish for lunch </li></ul><ul><li>Yo amo pescado frito para almuerzo </li></ul><ul><li>I need to get there as soon as posible </li></ul><ul><li>Yo necesito conseguir allá pronto posible </li></ul>
  33. 33. Faithful Translation <ul><li>Attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures </li></ul><ul><li>It transfers cultural words </li></ul><ul><li>It preserves the degree of grammatical and lexical abnormality </li></ul>
  34. 34. Semantic Translation <ul><li>It is faithful </li></ul><ul><li>It takes more account the aesthetic value of SL text </li></ul><ul><li>The beautiful and natural sound of the SL text concerning it is meaning </li></ul><ul><li>A semantic translation is written at the author`s linguistic level </li></ul><ul><li>It may translate less important cultural words, not cultural equivalents, intact transference </li></ul><ul><li>It is used for expressive texts </li></ul>
  35. 35. Communicative Translation <ul><li>It attemps to render the exact contextual meaning of the original </li></ul><ul><li>Both the content and the language comprehensible to the readership </li></ul>
  36. 36. More about Semantic and Communicative Translation <ul><li>They must be seen as wholes </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic translation is personal and individual </li></ul><ul><li>It tends to over translate </li></ul><ul><li>It has to explain </li></ul><ul><li>It follows the thought processes of the author </li></ul><ul><li>It aims at concision in order to reproduce the pragmatic impact </li></ul>
  37. 37. More about Semantic and Communicative Translation <ul><li>Communicative translation is social </li></ul><ul><li>It concentrates on the message </li></ul><ul><li>It tends to undertranslate </li></ul><ul><li>It is normally inferior to its original </li></ul><ul><li>There is both cognitive and pragmatic loss </li></ul><ul><li>A semantic translation has to interpret </li></ul>
  38. 38. Adaptation <ul><li>This is the freest form of translation </li></ul><ul><li>Is not faithful </li></ul><ul><li>It is used meanly for </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plays (comedies) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poetry </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jokes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The themes, characters and plots are preserved </li></ul><ul><li>The SL culture is converted to be the TL culture text </li></ul><ul><li>The text is rewritten and adapted to the target culture </li></ul>
  39. 39. Free Translation <ul><li>It reproduces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The matter with out the manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The content with out the form of the original </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It paraphrases the original (It makes the TL text larger than the original) </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Idiomatic Translation <ul><li>It reproduces the message of the original </li></ul><ul><li>It prefers colloquialisms and idioms </li></ul>
  41. 41. Translation Techniques <ul><li>They are also called algunas técnicas de restitución </li></ul><ul><li>They are used with the purpose of helping the translator to translate away from literal translation. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Translations Techniques <ul><li>Ampliación or Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Reducción or Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Modulación or Modulation </li></ul><ul><li>Transposition </li></ul>
  43. 43. Translation Techniques Definition <ul><li>AMPLIACION OR WORD ADDING . </li></ul><ul><li>It consist of an extension of the target language text (texto de llegada) due to limitations in the languages involved in the process of translation (M Tricas Preckler) </li></ul>
  44. 44. TRANSPOSITION <ul><li>It is used with verbs , adjectives , adverbs </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns , pronouns and prepositions. </li></ul><ul><li>Its intention is to recover the semantic and pragmatic function when translating into the target language. </li></ul>
  45. 45. MODULATION <ul><li>It is used to change the conceptual basis of the words when translating. </li></ul><ul><li>It is believed to be the most interesting translation technique </li></ul><ul><li>It can be seen as reduction or as expansion of the words </li></ul>
  46. 46. REDUCTION <ul><li>It is about not translating some words within the ideas in the source language. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Translation Techniques Examples <ul><li>AMPLIACION OR WORD ADDING </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher will give us a test tomorrow morning </li></ul><ul><li>El profesor nos evaluara mañana en la mañana </li></ul><ul><li>Marcos is studying English next year </li></ul><ul><li>Marcos va a estudiar ingles el próximo año </li></ul>
  48. 48. TRANSPOSITION <ul><li>WHAT A BEAUTIFUL HOUSE YOU LIVE IN </li></ul><ul><li>QUE CASA TAN LINDA EN LA QUE VIVES </li></ul><ul><li>O </li></ul><ul><li>VIVES EN UNA CASA MUY BONITA </li></ul>
  49. 49. REDUCTION <ul><li>Please tell him the time </li></ul><ul><li>Por favor dile la hora </li></ul><ul><li>Please show them the house </li></ul><ul><li>por favor muestrales la casa </li></ul>
  50. 50. MODULATION <ul><li>Speaking English is very important </li></ul><ul><li>Hablar Inglès es muy importante </li></ul><ul><li>Es muy importante hablar Inglés </li></ul><ul><li>Doing the right is sample of justice </li></ul><ul><li>Hacer lo correcto es una muestra de justicia </li></ul>

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