*(photo from Wikimedia Commons,
Four Cognitive Stages:
◦ Sensorimotor (birth- 2 yrs): learn
through what they feel, see, touch,
hear, smell and motor skills; do not
understand the outside world yet.
◦ Preoperational (2- 6/7 yrs):
egocentric, start to understand/use
symbols and numbers, develop
◦ Concrete Operational (6/7 yrs-
11/12 yrs): use logical thinking,
understand outside perspectives.
◦ Formal Operational (11/12 yrs-
adult): abstract thinking develops,
understand cause and effect.
Adaptation: sense of cognitive
understanding and development.
Assimilation: incorporate new
experiences and knowledge into
Accommodation: change their
ideas to fit in the new information
in a way that makes sense.
Children learn through active
analysis of a subject.
Believed that learning is an
active process where new ideas
are formed based on prior and
Discovery Learning: based on
inquiry and exploration that
results in greater retention.
Socratic Method: students learn
problem analysis, critical
thinking on perspectives and
outside opinions, how to defend
Spiral curriculum: always
building upon prior knowledge.
Benefits of Discovery Learning:
◦ Instills responsibility and
◦ Fosters creativity
◦ Develops problem solving skills
◦ customized learning
◦ Can breed cognitive overload
◦ Potential for misconceptions
◦ Failure to notice problems
*(information from learning-theories.com, see credits)
WHAT HE BELIEVED…
Russian educational psychologist
Social cognition- he believed
that learning was influenced
significantly by social
Said that a child’s social and
cultural environment can have a
positive or negative affect on
their cognitive development
Zone of proximal development-
the difference between what the
child can do on their own and
what they can do through
collaboration with a more
advanced peer or teacher.
HOW HE APPLIED IT..
Collaborative learning is a way for
students to learn with the aid of a
peer or adult what they couldn’t on
their own. They learn through
observing and understanding new
concepts and ideas.
Scaffolding- the process by which
teachers discover the level of each
child’s development and construct
their learning experiences based off
Anchored instruction- a form of
instruction where the student already
has learned concepts and
information, which form a basis for
other information to connect with
and build upon
Advocate for child-
In 1896 he opened
the a Laboratory
school, which came
to be known as the
Thought that learning
should be student-
teacher’s there as a
guide for resources
He was a part of a
which focused on
educating the whole
He also believed in
was the belief that the
truth of a theory could
be determined only if
a theory worked. He
said theories are only
valuable for practical
Students learn by doing
◦ Actively participate in learning process
◦ Learn critical-thinking skills
◦ Learner forms much of what they learn or
Integrated curriculum must be emphasized
◦ Students learn subjects in various ways by doing
different activities and incorporating technology
It is important for students to work together
to learn new information
◦ New ideas and different perspectives are brought
about by doing so
Teachers: A teacher’s job is to guide her
students. By providing clear instructions and
activities where they will physically do the
job, then the teacher will help with the
constructive learning process.
Students: A student’s job is to learn and
cooperate with the instructions given. They
should use the hands on tasks provided to
benefit and learn from. A student best learns
from different types of activities.
Try to use raw data and primary sources, in
addition to manipulative, interactive, and
Encourage communication between the teacher
and the students and also between the students.
Ask follow up questions and seek elaboration
after a student's initial response.
Provide enough time for students to construct
their own meaning when learning something
Encourage and accept student autonomy and
◦ Jean Piaget– Taken from Wikimedia Commons,
uploaded by Roland Zumbuhl
◦ Integrating Technology and Digital Media in the
Classroom, 6th Edition by Shelly, Gunter and Gunter.