Cierra B.
Daniella C.
Vanessa P.
Liat S.
Lauren W.
*(photo from Wikimedia Commons,
see credits)
 Cognitive Psychologist
 Four Cognitive Stages:
◦ Sensorimotor (birth- 2 yr...
 American Psychologist
 Believed that learning is an
active process where new ideas
are formed based on prior and
presen...
 WHAT HE BELIEVED…
 Russian educational psychologist
 Social cognition- he believed
that learning was influenced
signif...
 Educational
psychologist,
philosopher, political
activist
 Advocate for child-
centered instrucition
 In 1896 he opene...
 Students learn by doing
◦ Actively participate in learning process
◦ Learn critical-thinking skills
◦ Learner forms much...
 Teachers: A teacher’s job is to guide her
students. By providing clear instructions and
activities where they will physi...
 Try to use raw data and primary sources, in
addition to manipulative, interactive, and
physical materials.
 Encourage c...
 Graphics:
◦ Jean Piaget– Taken from Wikimedia Commons,
uploaded by Roland Zumbuhl
 Information:
◦ Integrating Technolog...
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Constructivism 1

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Constructivism 1

  1. 1. Cierra B. Daniella C. Vanessa P. Liat S. Lauren W.
  2. 2. *(photo from Wikimedia Commons, see credits)  Cognitive Psychologist  Four Cognitive Stages: ◦ Sensorimotor (birth- 2 yrs): learn through what they feel, see, touch, hear, smell and motor skills; do not understand the outside world yet. ◦ Preoperational (2- 6/7 yrs): egocentric, start to understand/use symbols and numbers, develop concrete thought. ◦ Concrete Operational (6/7 yrs- 11/12 yrs): use logical thinking, understand outside perspectives. ◦ Formal Operational (11/12 yrs- adult): abstract thinking develops, understand cause and effect.  Adaptation: sense of cognitive understanding and development.  Assimilation: incorporate new experiences and knowledge into the mind.  Accommodation: change their ideas to fit in the new information in a way that makes sense.  Children learn through active analysis of a subject.
  3. 3.  American Psychologist  Believed that learning is an active process where new ideas are formed based on prior and present knowledge.  Discovery Learning: based on inquiry and exploration that results in greater retention.  Socratic Method: students learn problem analysis, critical thinking on perspectives and outside opinions, how to defend their stances.  Spiral curriculum: always building upon prior knowledge.  Benefits of Discovery Learning: ◦ Engaging ◦ Motivation ◦ Instills responsibility and independence ◦ Fosters creativity ◦ Develops problem solving skills ◦ customized learning  Criticisms: ◦ Can breed cognitive overload ◦ Potential for misconceptions ◦ Failure to notice problems *(information from learning-theories.com, see credits)
  4. 4.  WHAT HE BELIEVED…  Russian educational psychologist  Social cognition- he believed that learning was influenced significantly by social development  Said that a child’s social and cultural environment can have a positive or negative affect on their cognitive development  Zone of proximal development- the difference between what the child can do on their own and what they can do through collaboration with a more advanced peer or teacher.  HOW HE APPLIED IT..  Collaborative learning is a way for students to learn with the aid of a peer or adult what they couldn’t on their own. They learn through observing and understanding new concepts and ideas.  Scaffolding- the process by which teachers discover the level of each child’s development and construct their learning experiences based off that point  Anchored instruction- a form of instruction where the student already has learned concepts and information, which form a basis for other information to connect with and build upon
  5. 5.  Educational psychologist, philosopher, political activist  Advocate for child- centered instrucition  In 1896 he opened the a Laboratory school, which came to be known as the “Dewey school”  Thought that learning should be student- directed with teacher’s there as a guide for resources  He was a part of a movement called progressive education, which focused on educating the whole child (mentally, psychically, and socially)  He also believed in pragmatism, which was the belief that the truth of a theory could be determined only if a theory worked. He said theories are only valuable for practical application.
  6. 6.  Students learn by doing ◦ Actively participate in learning process ◦ Learn critical-thinking skills ◦ Learner forms much of what they learn or comprehend  Integrated curriculum must be emphasized ◦ Students learn subjects in various ways by doing different activities and incorporating technology  It is important for students to work together to learn new information ◦ New ideas and different perspectives are brought about by doing so
  7. 7.  Teachers: A teacher’s job is to guide her students. By providing clear instructions and activities where they will physically do the job, then the teacher will help with the constructive learning process.  Students: A student’s job is to learn and cooperate with the instructions given. They should use the hands on tasks provided to benefit and learn from. A student best learns from different types of activities.
  8. 8.  Try to use raw data and primary sources, in addition to manipulative, interactive, and physical materials.  Encourage communication between the teacher and the students and also between the students.  Ask follow up questions and seek elaboration after a student's initial response.  Provide enough time for students to construct their own meaning when learning something new.  Encourage and accept student autonomy and initiative.
  9. 9.  Graphics: ◦ Jean Piaget– Taken from Wikimedia Commons, uploaded by Roland Zumbuhl  Information: ◦ Integrating Technology and Digital Media in the Classroom, 6th Edition by Shelly, Gunter and Gunter. ◦ http://www.learning-theories.com/discovery- learning-bruner.html

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