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0205684181ch12 101030134433-phpapp02 0205684181ch12 101030134433-phpapp02 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 12 Political Parties To Accompany Comprehensive, Alternate, and Texas EditionsAmerican Government: Roots and Reform, 10th editionKaren O’Connor and Larry J. Sabato Pearson Education, 2009
  • Political Parties  Organized effort to gain power through elections.  Consist of three entities.  Governmental party, or the office holders.  Organizational party, or the workers and activists.  Party in the electorate, or the voters.
  • Roots of the Party System  Federalists and Democratic-Republicans were earliest.  1820s Era of Good Feelings is relatively party-free.  Whigs and Democrats after 1832.  Development of the Republican Party in 1854.
  • Twentieth-Century Party System  1876-1912 was Golden Age of parties due to machines.  Parties weakened in the modern era.  Development of direct primary system.  Changes in civil service laws.  Growth of candidate-centered and issue-oriented politics.  Increase in ticket-splitting.
  • Party Realignment  During a realignment, party coalitions change.  Critical elections put key issues into perspective.  1800, 1860, and 1932 were critical elections.  No uniform realignment has occurred since 1932.  Political system characterized by secular realignment.
  • Functions of the Party System  Mobilizing support and building coalitions.  Encouraging stability in the political system.  Providing accountability for public policy.  Running candidates for office.  Providing a cue for voters.  Formulating policy through a national party platform.
  • Minor Parties  Winner-take-all system makes it difficult to win office.  Sharp contrast to proportional systems used elsewhere.  Rooted in sectionalism, protest, issues, and people.  Do best when there is little trust in other parties.  Can have success in putting issues on agenda.
  • Party Organization  National committees, which hold conventions.  State committees.  Local committees.  Informal groups, such as PACs and think tanks.  Changed dramatically in recent years.  New rules about soft and hard money have played role.
  • Party in Government  Parties play a major role in organizing Congress.  Parties shape perceptions of presidents.  Presidents--to varying degrees--act as party leaders.  Party may predict some judicial decisions.
  • Party in the Electorate  Party identification shapes political worldview.  May be shaped by demographic characteristics.  South, middle-aged, and white-collar more Republican.  Evangelicals and married more Republican.  Women, minorities, and Jews more Democratic.  Unions, advanced degrees, and single more Democratic.
  • Dealignment and Party Strength  Argument that we are in a period of dealignment.  Voters are much less likely to identify with a party.  Result of the growth in issue-oriented politics.  Parties are important in electorate and in government.  Parties continue to be competitive with one another.
  • AV- Partisan Identification  Back
  • Figure 12.1- American Party History  Back
  • Figure 12.2- Realigning Elections  Back
  • Figure 12.3- Party Organization  Back
  • Figure 12.4- Political Party Finances  Back
  • Figure 12.5- Congressional Party Unity  Back
  • Figure 12.6- Gender Gap  Back
  • Table 12.1- Party Platforms  Back
  • Table 12.2- Party Identification by Group  Back