Media TheoryGenre   Barry Keith Grant (1995) Genres allow audiences to identify texts specifically by their familiar    a...
Narrative      Tim O’Sullivan(1998) All media texts tell a kind of story            o     Through mediation, media texts ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Media Theory

228

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
228
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Media Theory"

  1. 1. Media TheoryGenre Barry Keith Grant (1995) Genres allow audiences to identify texts specifically by their familiar and recognisable characteristics Jason Mittell (2001) Industries use genre to sell products to audiences Denis McQuail - Uses and Gratifications Theory o Information learning, satisfying o Personal Identity gaining insight into ones self, reinforcement of personal values o Integration and Social Interaction identifying with others, sense of belonging o Entertainment escapism, relaxing, filling time David Buckingham (1993) “Genre not… simply “given” by the culture: rather, it is in a constant process of negotiation and change” (genres are not fixed and evolve over time)Media Language Carol Vernallis (2001) o Narrative  Disjointed/fragmented narrative  May not be clear resolution  Video may pose unanswered questions o Editing  Jump cuts  Juxtaposed shots  Breaking 180° rule o Camera Movement & Framing  Camera moves in time with music  Close up and master shots often used o Diegesis (world of music video)  Diegesis slowly revealed  Character or objects move in time with music  Some frames more important than others  Gaps in audiences’ understanding of diegesis in time and space, music, performance and narrative Andrew Goodwin o Thought beats o Narrative and performance is repetitive o Idea of “star image” o Relation of visuals to a song (illustration, amplification, disjuncture) o Technical aspects (camera, editing, effects, etc.) o Record companies demand lots of close-ups of main artist or vocalist o Voyeurism present in many music videos (in both treatment of females and general systems of looking (e.g. screens within screens)) o Intertextual references to other music videos, films, TV texts (provides further gratification for viewer/fan)Representation Stuart Hall (1980)The media is an insight into society but through careful mediation o Representation can only being meaningful if shared recognition of people, situations, ideas, etc. David Guantlett (2007) “Identity is complicated. Everybody thinks they’ve got one. Artists play with the idea of identity in modern society”. James Baker (2007) o Selection Much more will have been left out than what appears on screen o OrganisationVarious elements organised in a way that real life is not o Focusing Mediation always ends up with us. Audience encouraged to concentrate on one element of the text and ignore others Stereotypes Race, age, gender, sexuality Liam Hedley A2 Media Studies 2012
  2. 2. Narrative Tim O’Sullivan(1998) All media texts tell a kind of story o Through mediation, media texts offer a way of telling us stories about ourselves (not personally but of cultures) through ideologies o All narratives have common structures:  Establishment of plot or theme  Development of an problem/enigma (ref. Barthes), an increase in tension  Resolution of plot  Such narratives can be unambiguous and linear Pam Cook (1985) o “Linearity of cause and effect within an overall trajectory of enigma resolution” o High degree of narrative closure o Fictional world contains verisimilitude governed by spatial and temporal coherences Tzvetan Todorov (1977) o Stage 1 Stable equilibrium o Stage 2Stability disrupted, disequilibrium o Stage 3 Recognition that disruption taken place o Stage 4 Action against disruption o Stage 5 Restoration of new state of equilibrium Claude Levi-Strauss (1958) Stories operate to certain clear binary opposites Barthes (1977) Five different codes o Enigma Code Works to keep setting up problems or puzzles for audience o Action Code Based on cultural and stereotypical understanding of actions acting as shorthand to advancing the narrative Adrian Tilley (1991) Use buckling of gun belt in Western genre as a means of signifying the preferred reading of an imminent shoot out, works in same way as starting car engine Vladimir Propp (1928)All narratives contain stock characters as audiences understand stories because of such features Andrew Goodwin (1992) o “Narrative relations highly complex” – meaning can be created from individual audio-viewer’s personal musical taste to sophisticated intertextuality that uses multidiscursive phenomena of Western culture o Many narratives dominanted by advertising references, film pastiche and [1] reinforce postmodern ‘reuse’ tradition Carol Vernallis o Narrative  Disjointed/fragmented narrative  May not be clear resolution  Video may pose unanswered questions Sven Carlsson (1999)Music videos generally fall into two rough groups o Performance shows mostly artist of band singing and dancing  Instrumental  Song  Dance o Conceptual shows something else, often with artistic ambitions Narrative Clip Visual story that is easy to follow and can stand alone as a short silent movie. True narrative clips contain no lip-synchronised singing. Art Clip Contains no perceptible visual narrative and no lip-synchronised singing. Tends to be more experimental music.[1] Postmodern: reaction to scientific or objective efforts to explain reality.Mixture of old and new,parody of genre, bricolage Liam Hedley A2 Media Studies 2012

×