Philosophers power point


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Philosophers power point

  1. 1. BIRTH OF PHILOSOPHY Originated in Ionia 6th century B.C. Movement away from religious myths Celebrated man’s reason, ability to find Truth Combined religion, morals, and metaphysics (the nature of being)
  2. 2. MAN BEGAN ASKING IMPORTANT QUESTIONS. Do gods cause everything? Are the gods real? What is real? Can man affect change? How to live well =  Right opinions about God, world, man, virtue
  3. 3. OVERVIEW OF THE COSMOLOGISTS Questioned nature of the cosmos (universe) “Single, eternal, imperishable substance = basis for reality” Wanted to understand the “One”  Everything emerges from the “One”
  4. 4. THALES: THE FIRST PHILOSOPHER Contemporary of Solon “Water = basic element for everything in nature” Omitted gods from origin of nature Believed earth floated on water First to predict eclipse of the sun
  5. 5. ANAXIMANDER Rejected Thales belief about water “Indefinite substance (Boundless) = source of all” “Boundless” contains powers of heat and cold  Heat and cold produced nucleus (seed of world)  Influenced ideas about evolution
  6. 6. ANAXIMENES “Air is primary substance” Believed world was orderly “Rainbow = sun’s rays falling on dense air”
  7. 7. OVERVIEW OF RELIGIOUS MYSTICS Soul more important than body Immortality Transmigration of the soul (reincarnation)  Ate no meat  Influenced Plato
  8. 8. PYTHAGORAS: COINED THE TERM “PHILOSOPHY” Taught transmigration of souls (reincarnation) “Order in universe based on numbers” Mathematical, geometrical, astronomical science Knew that earth is a sphere Developed Pythagorean theorem
  9. 9. HERACLITUS “You can never step into same stream twice” “Material world is in state of flux”  Matter itself is constantly changing “Fire (constantly changing) = source of all things”
  10. 10. PARMENIDES Disagreed with Heraclitus “Change is an illusion of the senses” “Reality is fixed, unchanging” Founder of formal logic Believed in one True Being: transcendent, permanent, perf ect
  11. 11. EMPEDOCLES Identified four basic elements: Fire, Water, Earth, Air “Reality is permanent but mobile” Four elements move by two opposing forces  Love and Strife  Like magnet’s attraction or repulsion
  12. 12. DEMOCRITUS Called the “laughing philosopher” World made of atoms:  Innumerable tiny, solid, indivisible, unchangeab le particles  Atoms move, create shapes/colors  Senses perceive shapes/colors
  13. 13. ANAXAGORAS Friend of Pericles “World made of tiny fundamental particles: seeds” “Seeds unite on rational basis by nous, or mind” Made distinction between matter and mind
  14. 14. HIPPOCRATES: FATHER OF MEDICINE Started a school Observed ill patients, classified symptoms Predicted future course of an illness Rejected supernatural explanations and cures
  15. 15. SOPHISTS Paid, traveling teachers of rhetoric, dialectic, argumentation  Taught students how to win arguments  Some claimed to teach wisdom Socrates believed sophistry was wrong  “Distracts people from pursuit of Truth”
  16. 16. CRITIAS Sophist “Law is contrary to nature” “Law man-made, so weak controls strong” Extremist “Gods invented, keep people from acting independently” (There are no gods.)
  17. 17. SOCRATES – “I AM NOT A SOPHIST!” Never wrote anything  Plato wrote “dialogues,” Socrates was a character  Xenophon also wrote about Socrates Did not consider himself wise Denied he was a teacher or sophist
  18. 18. THE BAREFOOT PHILOSOPHER Socrates walked around Athens, barefooted Odd looking: Bulging eyes, large nose  Successfully argued that he was superior looking Taught by asking questions  Socratic Method
  19. 19. THE SOCRATIC METHOD OF TEACHING Leading questions get people to think (“Aha!”) Believed people do wrong because of ignorance  Don’t know what is virtuous  Educate in virtue, right living will follow BOTH student AND teacher learns
  20. 20. TRIAL AND EXECUTION Angry Athenians accused him of:  Corrupting youth + bringing new gods into city Stood trial Choice: exile or execution Chose death: drank poison (hemlock)
  21. 21. THE CYNICS Extremists Based philosophy on Socratic teaching Disdained worldly pleasure and wealth Withdrew from political life
  22. 22. ANTISTHENES Founded the Cynics Follower of Socrates
  23. 23. DIOGENES: THE MOST FAMOUS CYNIC Wore rags, lived in a tub Performed shameful acts in public Made living by begging Defined happiness:  Satisfy natural needs in simple, direct, public way
  24. 24. DIOGENES’ VIEW OF RELIGION Ridiculed all religious observances Plato said Diogenes was Socrates gone mad.
  25. 25. CYNICS’ BELIEF ABOUT VIRTUE “Virtue = wisdom and happiness” “Virtue comes from proper style of life”  Can’t be taught, does not come from philosophy  (Socrates said the opposite)
  26. 26. CYNICS’ VIEW OF THE POLIS Abandoned concept of polis altogether Diogenes said he was kosmopolites  “Citizen of the world”
  27. 27. PLATO Socrates’ most important student Became greater than Socrates First systematic philosopher Applied philosophy to political events, ideas
  28. 28. PLATO’S DIALOGUES Wrote 26 philosophical discussions  Almost all were dialogues  “Conversations” between Socrates and various people
  29. 29. BACKGROUND Noble Athenian family Wanted to participate in politics but didn’t  Socrates’ execution  Reign of Thirty Tyrants
  30. 30. PLATO’S SCHOOL: THE ACADEMY Influential school Purpose: train statesmen, citizens Closed by Justinian in 6th century A.D.
  31. 31. POLITICAL BELIEFS “Truth can be discovered by REASON” Disliked democracy because power given to “amateurs”  Philosopher = “lover of wisdom” should lead polis “We should question, challenge authority”
  32. 32. COMMITMENT TO THE POLIS “Polis is based on virtues: order, harmony, justice” Goal of the polis: Produce good people “Man was meant to live in community” “Community helps man become good”
  33. 33. KNOWLEDGE AND TRAINING “Knowledge” (episteme)  True, unchanging wisdom  Only for a few philosophers Philosophers need training (helps philosopher see “reality”)
  34. 34. PLATO’S PHILOSOPHER-KING Only philosophers qualified to rule Prefer “life of contemplation” Will accept responsibility from sense of duty
  35. 35. JUSTICE & HOLINESS Tried to define justice and holiness These are inherent in the Good Discovery possible only through philosophy
  36. 36. PRESERVING THE POLIS “Preserve polis through moral + political reform” Alleviate causes of strife:  Private property, family  Anything that comes between citizen and polis
  37. 37. THE GOOD Man must have knowledge of the Good Understand philosophical principles first Right action follows
  38. 38. BACKGROUND Plato’s student Son of court doctor in Macedon Studied at the Academy Joined Platonic colony in Asia Minor Taught Alexander the Great
  39. 39. ARISTOTLE’S SCHOOL Founded Athenian school: the Lyceum Goal: Gather, order, analy ze all human knowledge
  40. 40. ARISTOTLE’S WRITINGS Wrote dialogues on Platonic philosophy; none survive 158 collections of information  Served as basis for scientific works  Only the Constitution of the Athenians remains
  41. 41. BIRTH OF SCIENCE Philosophy led to scientific studies:  Logic, rhetoric  Physics, astronomy, biology (including marine biology  Ethics, politics  Literary Criticism (categorized genres)
  42. 42. ARISTOTLE’S SCIENTIFIC METHOD Observe evidence  Physical evidence OR opinion Apply reason; discover patterns/inconsistenci es  Compare + contrast Explain with metaphysical principles
  43. 43. THE GOOD LIFE Emphasized balanced life  Moderation in all things Goal: “The Good Life”  Contemplative but enough wealth to live comfortably
  44. 44. BELIEFS ABOUT THE POLIS Sophists: “Polis is a man-made convention” Aristotle said no:  Polis is natural, necessary  Polis will change over time  Polis will improve
  45. 45. ARISTOTLE’S CORE BELIEFS Everything evolves to final, perfected form Institutions serve human needs, helps continue species Marriage + household necessary to polis Purpose of polis: moral (not military, economic)
  46. 46. ARISTOTLE’S MIDDLE CLASS “Power should rest with middle class”  Most numerous and stable  Not arrogant from wealth or malicious from poverty Mixed Constitution best  Democracy AND oligarchy
  47. 47. ARISTOTLE’S LAST DAYS Alexander died; Athenians rebelled from Macedonian rule Aristotle fled  Died in Calcis (in Euboea) the next year
  48. 48. ISOCRATES Contemporary of Plato and Aristotle Headed important rhetorical/ philosophical school in Athens
  49. 49. POLITICAL BELIEFS Supported Philip of Macedon  Sought unity and leadership Urged imperial conquest  Plato said, “No – problem is moral”  Aristotle said, “Apply virtue, moderation; empower middle class”
  50. 50. SKEPTICS Founder: Pyrrho Pointed out philosophical fallacies in rival schools “Nothing can be known; accept conventional morality”
  51. 51. CYNICS Denounced morality and status quo Advocated crude, “natural” life Shocked and outraged public
  52. 52. DIOGENES: THE MOST FAMOUS CYNIC Diogenes reportedly walked around the streets of Athens, in broad daylight, carrying a lantern. When asked why he was doing this, Diogenes said that he was searching for an honest man.
  53. 53. DIOGENES AND ALEXANDER THE GREAT Alexander once had an opportunity to meet Diogenes, who was reclining in the sunshine. Thrilled to meet the famous philosopher, Alexander asked if there was any favor he might do for him. "Yes,” Diogenes replied. “Stand out of my sunlight."
  54. 54. ACCOUNTS OF DIOGENES’ DEATH Numerous reports:  held his breath till he died  became ill from eating raw octopus  suffered an infected dog bite
  55. 55. LAST WORDS…. Someone once asked Diogenes how he wished to be buried. He said he wanted to be thrown outside the city wall so wild animals could feast on his body. “Wouldn’t you mind that?” the man asked. "Not at all,” Diogenes said, “as long as you provide me with a stick to chase the creatures away!" “But how could you use the stick? Wouldn’t you lack awareness?” the man asked. “If I lack awareness,” the philosopher replied, “then why should I care what happens to me when I am dead?"
  56. 56. EPICUREANS Founded by Epicurus “Happiness achieved through reason” “Nothing after death, so no need to fear death” “Gods exist but uninterested in human affairs”
  57. 57. EPICUREANS Wanted to liberate people from:  Reliance on the gods  Belief in supernatural  Fear of death
  58. 58. EPICUREANS Emphasis on pleasure, good life (hedonism) Pleasure = “absence of pain, trouble or responsibility” Withdrew from society Avoided business and public life Advocated “restrained selfishness”
  59. 59. STOICS Founder: Zeno Established a school Combined philosophies of Socrates, Cynics, Ea stern thought
  60. 60. THE STOIC’S GOAL IN LIFE “Live in harmony with yourself and with nature.” “God and nature are the same.” Logos = guiding principle in life, divine reason “Everyone has spark of divinity” “After death, spark returns to eternal, divine spirit”
  61. 61. STOIC IDEAS ABOUT VIRTUE “Pursue virtue; differentiate between good, evil, indifferent” Good: prudence, justice, courage, temperance Evil: folly, injustice, cowardice Indifferent: life, beauty, health, strength, pleasure, wealth “Misery results from passion; passion = soul’s disease”