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Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9
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Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9

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  • 1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Urinary System Abbreviations Presentation 9 By: Latoyska Howard
  • 2. Abbreviations <ul><li>BUN - Blood Urea Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>CATH – Catheterization </li></ul><ul><li>UTI – Urinary Tract Infection </li></ul><ul><li>U/A, UA – Urinalysis </li></ul><ul><li>ARF – Acute Renal Failure </li></ul>
  • 3. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) <ul><li>A diagnostic blood test that measures the kidney functions by the level of nitrogenous waste (urea) that’s in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Urea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made in the liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made when protein is broken down in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made in the liver and passed through in the urine </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. BUN Testing <ul><li>BUN test is done to see how well your kidneys are functioning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test how well, your kidneys pass blood through Urea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much Urea BUN levels will rise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart failure, liver disease, high protein diets can cause this as well. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy usually causes low Bun levels </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. BUN/ Creatinine Test <ul><li>Creatinine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A waste product formed by the breakdown of substance creatine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Converts food into energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and then passed out by the urine. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>helps determine how well your kidneys are working. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUN and Creatinine ratio easier to check for problems in the kidneys. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Such as: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydration and other issues that can cause kidney failure. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 6. CATH (Catheterization) <ul><li>Catheterization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A insertion of a tube through the urethra and into the urinary bladder for the purpose of withdrawing urine or inserting dye. </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Catheterization <ul><li>Used to drain the bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Long term or short term use, such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to control urine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leakage of the bladder, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And medical illness that causes weakness of the bladder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different sizes and materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small, large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latex, silicone and Teflon </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Three types of Catheters <ul><li>Indwelling catheter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short term or long term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attaches to the drainage bag to catch urine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condom catheter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in elderly men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placed around the penis area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed every day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intermittent catheter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used when urine is not able to be controlled at a short period time. </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) <ul><li>Infection, of the urinary system such as bladder and kidneys. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria or foreign objects in the urinary system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common in women and children. </li></ul><ul><li>Most UTI’s are bladder infections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not serious if treated right away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Untreated can spread to your kidneys and cause damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treated able with antibiotics </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Causes of a UTI <ul><li>Germs (bacteria) found in the stool and can travel to your bladder and kidney to cause and infection. </li></ul><ul><li>Urethra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women have shorter Urethras than men, causing them to have more infections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Having intercourse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes it easier for germs to enter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not drinking enough fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul>
  • 11. Symptoms of a UTI <ul><li>Pain or burning during urination </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of urination </li></ul><ul><li>Urine smells bad and cloudy </li></ul><ul><li>Pain in the back or under the rib cage area </li></ul><ul><li>Fever, chills, nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Weak immune system </li></ul>
  • 12. How UTI’s Can be prevented <ul><li>Drink lots of fluids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(water) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cranberry juice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t hold your urine </li></ul><ul><li>Urinate right after having intercourse </li></ul>
  • 13. U/A,UA (Urinalysis) <ul><li>Lab test that consists of physical, chemical and microscopic examination of urine. </li></ul>
  • 14. U/A: Urine Test <ul><li>Checks the different components of urine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste product made by the kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cause of symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Gives information about a persons health and condition </li></ul>
  • 15. What Does a Urinalysis Test <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Odor </li></ul><ul><li>Specific gravity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How the kidney balances water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PH </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Ketones </li></ul><ul><li>And many more microscopic test </li></ul>
  • 16. ARF (Acute Renal Failure) <ul><li>Kidneys have stopped working and are unable to balance water, salt and minerals in your blood. </li></ul><ul><li>When kidneys stops working there is a build of waste and fluids products that can be damaging to ones body. </li></ul>
  • 17. Causes of ARF <ul><li>Three main causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden drop in blood flow to the kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage from poisons, medicines, no fluids and infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blockage from allowing urine to flow from the kidneys. </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Causes of ARF <ul><li>Drop in blood flow to the kidneys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy blood loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of fluids (water, cranberry juice) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injury to the kidney(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infection of the kidney </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greater chance to get ARF if: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older adult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term health problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes, kidney disease, liver, obesity, and heart failure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transplant or serious surgery </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Causes of ARF <ul><li>Damage from poisons, medicines, no fluids and infections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicines that can cause kidney failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antibiotics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pain medicines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dyes used in x-rays </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Blockage from allowing urine to flow from the kidneys. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney stones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tumor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlarged prostate (men) </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. Symptoms <ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no urine when urinating </li></ul><ul><li>No appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Restless, anxiety, anxious </li></ul><ul><li>Pain in the back and below the rib cage (kidneys are located) </li></ul><ul><li>Its very important to note that everyone is different and some people may not have symptoms. </li></ul>

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