Anatomy and physiology of the eye

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Anatomy and physiology of the eye

  1. 1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye Medical Terminology 120 Latoyska Howard
  2. 2. Emmetropia (EM) <ul><li>State of normal vision </li></ul><ul><li>No need for contact lenses or glasses </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when cornea curvature, shape of the lens and their distance from each other and retina are working together perfectly </li></ul><ul><li>Cornea and lens focus the rays of light from the object evenly on the retina, creating a sharp image </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ophthalmology (Ophth) <ul><li>Branch of medicine specializing in the anatomy, function and diseases of the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>Ophthalmologist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialize in eye and vision care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prescribe glasses and contact lenses and eye surgery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specialties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glaucoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuro – Ophthalmology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pediatric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ophthalmic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And many more… </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Astigmatism (Astigm) <ul><li>A condition where light rays are not focused evenly on the retina. This causes a person to have distorted image </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In other words a person doesn’t see as clearly as they should </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Esotropia (ST) <ul><li>Condition where an eye is turned inward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as cross eyed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example, of strabismus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle weakness of the eye </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Conditions begins in early child hood </li></ul><ul><li>Adults can form this condition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>loss of vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grave’s disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain or head tumor or trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can run in the family </li></ul>
  6. 6. Visual Acuity (VA) <ul><li>Measures the sharpness of a patients vision </li></ul><ul><li>A chart is used called a Snellen Chart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patient identifies letters from a distance of 20 feet </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Laser –Assisted in – situ Keratomileusis (LASIK)
  8. 8. Laser –Assisted in – situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) <ul><li>Common surgery correcting nearsightedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Astigmatism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myopia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Removes tissue from the cornea w/o damaging any tissue surrounding it </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a cosmetic surgery and may or may not be covered by insurance </li></ul>
  9. 9. Exotropia (XT) <ul><li>Outward turning of the eye </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example of strabismus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called wall-eyed </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Each Eye/ Both Eye (OU) <ul><li>OU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means dealing with both eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually seen for prescriptions for glasses or contact lenses </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Rapid Eye Movement (REM) <ul><li>Occurs when enters the sleep stage </li></ul><ul><li>REM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90 minutes after the body has entered the sleep stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense dreams may occur </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Eye, Ears, Nose, and Throat (EENT) <ul><li>A brunch of medicine specializing in the, eye, ears, nose and throat </li></ul>
  13. 13. Bone Conduction (BC) <ul><li>Conduction of sound through the bones of the skull </li></ul><ul><li>High pitched sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes vibrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compresses the bony case of the inner ear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates the sensory cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perceives sound waves in the air </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Low pitched sounds (inertial bone) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vibrate the entire skull </li></ul></ul>

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