Theoretical Framework


Chapter I    L2 acquisition theory


Chapter II Basic Interpersonal Skills ( BICS)


Capter III   ...
What is Language Development?
Speak and listen to
communicate.
 Language develops through
conversations.
Learners need ...
How does Language Develop?




Language develops through meaningful conversations: talking
about books, daily events, plac...
Stage 1: Pre-Production
Silent Period

   Students comprehend
    simple language but
    cannot produce language
    yet...
Stage 2: Early Production
                       Students comprehend
                        more complex language
      ...
Stage 3: Speech Emergence
   Students can speak in
    phrases and sentences.
    –   Increased comprehension
    –   Som...
Stage 4: Intermediate Fluency
                      Students can combine phrases
                       and sentences int...
Summary of Language Acquisition
   The child learns by unconsciously generating rules.
   Errors often indicate that lea...
Learning             vs        Acquisition
                          Krashen’s theory

   Focus on forms to be           ...
Who defined BICS and CALP?

   Jim Cummins differentiated between social
    language (BICS) and academic language (CALP)...
What are BICS?

   Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
    are language skills needed in social situations.
...
What is CALP?

   Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency refers to
    formal academic learning.
   This level of langu...
BICS vs. CALP

Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills


Conversational fluency: social language
Includes “Silent Period”...
What processes are affected by BICS
and CALP?

   Cognitive process

   Cultural Process

   Language Process
Focusing on Cognitive and Language
Processes

    Cognitive Process   Language Process
   Knowledge              Vocabul...
BICS & CALP
   Social Language                    Academic Language
    –   Simpler language                –   Technica...
3 Principles for Engaging ELLs
          Interaction       Critical Thinking




            Comprehensibility
Principle #1: Social Interaction

   Take time to summarize learning frequently during
    instruction.

   Give student...
Principle #2: Comprehensibility

   Use diagrams and picture cues to reinforce the
    concepts and processes of a conten...
Principle #3: Critical Thinking

   Explicitly model the thinking processes of a content
    area during instruction.

 ...
Inquiry

   My concern is that my students need to
    improve communicative oral skills in English.
    How can I implem...
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Theoretical Presentation

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  1. 1. Theoretical Framework Chapter I L2 acquisition theory Chapter II Basic Interpersonal Skills ( BICS) Capter III Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency ( CALP)
  2. 2. What is Language Development? Speak and listen to communicate.  Language develops through conversations. Learners need to be exposure to language in a rich environment
  3. 3. How does Language Develop? Language develops through meaningful conversations: talking about books, daily events, places they’ve visited. These activities help increase vocabulary and increases the ability to understand stories and how things function
  4. 4. Stage 1: Pre-Production Silent Period  Students comprehend simple language but cannot produce language yet. – Minimal comprehension – No verbal production
  5. 5. Stage 2: Early Production  Students comprehend more complex language and can make one or two word responses. – Limited comprehension – One/two word responses
  6. 6. Stage 3: Speech Emergence  Students can speak in phrases and sentences. – Increased comprehension – Some basic errors in speech – Reading limited to what is understood orally – Writing limited to brief responses
  7. 7. Stage 4: Intermediate Fluency  Students can combine phrases and sentences into longer passages of language, oral and written – Good comprehension – Use of complex sentences – Some errors in written language
  8. 8. Summary of Language Acquisition  The child learns by unconsciously generating rules.  Errors often indicate that learning is taking place.  Students learn language in meaningful, supportive, and communicative settings.  Students understands more than they can say.  they will acquire a lot of time to become fluent.
  9. 9. Learning vs Acquisition Krashen’s theory  Focus on forms to be  Focus on need to mastered communicate  Error correction is a critical  Error is accepted as feature developmental  Learning is a conscious  Acquisition is an unconscious process process of internalizing  Rules are taught inductively and deductively  Rules are not taught unless  Lessons are characterized by requested teacher developed drills and  Lessons are characterized by exercises student-centered situational activities
  10. 10. Who defined BICS and CALP?  Jim Cummins differentiated between social language (BICS) and academic language (CALP)  ESL students acquire BICS rather quickly (e.g., 1-2 years) in the U.S.  It takes longer to learn CALP (e.g., about 5-7 years).
  11. 11. What are BICS?  Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) are language skills needed in social situations.  ELLs use BICS during social interactions in a meaningful social context (e.g., party, talking to a friend, face to face conversation).
  12. 12. What is CALP?  Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency refers to formal academic learning.  This level of language learning is essential for students success in school.  ELLs need time and support to become proficient in academic areas.
  13. 13. BICS vs. CALP Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills Conversational fluency: social language Includes “Silent Period” Lasts 1 – 3 years Early production: 1000 words (0-1 year) Speech Emergence: 3000 words (1-2 years) (first 2 years) Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Academic proficiency: “school” language Intermediate fluency: 6000 words (1-5 years) Advanced and continuing language development: 7000 words+ (5-7 and even 10 years)
  14. 14. What processes are affected by BICS and CALP?  Cognitive process  Cultural Process  Language Process
  15. 15. Focusing on Cognitive and Language Processes Cognitive Process Language Process  Knowledge  Vocabulary  Comprehension  Pronunciation  Application  Grammar  Analysis  Semantic meaning  Synthesis  Functional meaning  Evaluation
  16. 16. BICS & CALP  Social Language  Academic Language – Simpler language – Technical vocabulary, – Usually face to face complex grammar – Precise understanding is – Often lecture, or reading seldom required – Precise understanding is – Familiar topics required – Clues from body language, – New/difficult topics, abstract social context knowledge – Opportunities to clarify – Fewer clues (clues are language clues) – More difficult to clarify
  17. 17. 3 Principles for Engaging ELLs Interaction Critical Thinking Comprehensibility
  18. 18. Principle #1: Social Interaction  Take time to summarize learning frequently during instruction.  Give students an opportunity to talk about content with a partner, during instruction.
  19. 19. Principle #2: Comprehensibility  Use diagrams and picture cues to reinforce the concepts and processes of a content area.  Provide hands-on learning opportunities.
  20. 20. Principle #3: Critical Thinking  Explicitly model the thinking processes of a content area during instruction.  Ask frequent questions to check for understanding during instruction.
  21. 21. Inquiry  My concern is that my students need to improve communicative oral skills in English. How can I implement some strategies to help them to communicate in the second language at school?
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