French revolution begins honors 2013


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French revolution begins honors 2013

  1. 1.  Before the revolution France operated on a system known as the Old Regime.  In this system there is an absolute monarch and three social class: clergy (first estate), nobility (second estate), and everyone else (third estate). How you are treated depends on what estate you are in.  People have no say in the government unless the king asks for it (which is rare).
  2. 2. What was life like for the people of France under the Old Regime?
  3. 3. Pay 2% of income in tax Pay NO TAXES Pay up to 50% of income in taxes
  4. 4. Where the government's money comes from First Estate Second Estate Third Estate
  5. 5. 98% of the French people are part of the Third Estate:  Bourgeoisie – educated citizens who believe in the ideas of the Enlightenment (artisans & merchants)  Workers – lower paid workers who were less educated (servants, cooks, etc.)  Peasants – 80% of the population, work directly for a noble typically farming or doing other manual labor, generally not educated
  6. 6. Why were the bourgeoisie motivated to make changes? Why are they driving the revolution?
  7. 7. Enlightenment Ideas were spreading and people began to question whether the Old Regime (an absolute monarch and the three estates system), was the best approach for France. The bourgeoisie knew about Enlightenment ideas and wanted more freedoms and say in the government.
  8. 8. People saw the success of the American revolution. Many of the ideas put forth in the American Declaration of Independence were Enlightenment ideas. It was very inspiring to people to see these ideas put into action.
  9. 9. How did the American Revolution play a role in what would happen in France according to this author?
  10. 10. France used to be very wealthy, but lately there were a lot of problems with their economy. There were several causes for this struggle: 1. Heavy taxes to countries who tried to do business with France. 2. The cost of living rose for everyone. 3. Bad weather in the 1780’s resulted in food shortages. 4. The price for bread doubled in 1789 and many people faced starvation. 5. France’s King, Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette were very extravagant and spent lots of money. Bankers refused to lend him anymore money and he was in deep trouble.
  11. 11.  Louis XVI was an absolute monarch who ruled France before and during the revolution.  Louis XVI didn’t think the people should have more rights and freedoms, and didn’t want them to have any say in the government.
  12. 12.  Marie Antoinette was an Austrian princess who was married to Louis XVI.  She was hated by the French people for being from Austria and spending a ton of money.
  13. 13. Louis put off dealing with the money issue until France was facing bankruptcy. Louis knew he needed to raise money so he tried to tax the Second Estate. The Second Estate protested wildly and insisted the Louis call together a meeting of the Estates – General an assembly of representatives from all three of the estates to decide what to do on the issue. The Estates – General had not met in 175 years.
  14. 14. What complaints did the Third Estate have about the way Louis XVI conducted the Estates-General?
  15. 15.  In the Estates – General each estate gets one vote.  The Third Estate would never win because the First & Second Estate voted together.  This time the representatives from the Third Estate demanded that they vote by population.  Louis XVI said no, which made the Third Estate angry.
  16. 16. The Third Estate decided they would form there own group and called themselves the National Assembly. The goal of the National Assembly was to pass laws and reforms in the name of the French people. Three days later when the National Assembly found themselves locked out of a meeting hall they broke into a local tennis court and took a pledge to keep meeting until they had created a new constitution for France. This became known as the Tennis Court Oath.
  17. 17.  Louis was scared so he hired Swiss Guards to protect him (he didn’t trust his soldiers).  People saw the Swiss Guards and thought Louis was going to attack them. On July 14, 1789 angry citizens stormed the Bastille, a prison in Paris, to get gunpowder and supplies to fight back.
  18. 18.  After the invasion of the Bastille a wave of senseless panic known as the Great Fear spread through out France.  In October 1789 approximately 60,000 Parisian women rioted over the rising price of bread. The women marched to Versailles and broke into the palace.  They took the king and queen as prisoners.
  19. 19.  Historical Context: Imagine you are a member of the bourgeoisie who is leading the French Revolution. You have to make quick decisions for each crisis. After you read about each real situation below, then the class will ask any clarifying questions about it, and then you will write your own solution to the problems presented. When you are done, the teacher will tell you what really happened.   1789 - The peasants are rebelling, but the bourgeoisie cannot control them. The peasants think that their right to freedom means they can do whatever they want since now they are free from the control of the king. They don’t know what good rights or bad rights are and have no understanding of the “social contract”. This is looking more like the state of nature. What should you do?