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Viruses & cancer + emerging and re emerging viruses
 

Viruses & cancer + emerging and re emerging viruses

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    Viruses & cancer + emerging and re emerging viruses Viruses & cancer + emerging and re emerging viruses Presentation Transcript

    • viruses & cancerMonday, September 19, 2011
    • Monday, September 19, 2011
    • Monday, September 19, 2011
    • emerging and re- emerging virusesMonday, September 19, 2011
    • what are emerging infections? Newly appeared in the population Have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range from PH 301 lectures of Lilen Sarol, PhDMonday, September 19, 2011
    • EXAMPLESMonday, September 19, 2011
    • Monday, September 19, 2011
    • Monday, September 19, 2011
    • PROCESS OF EMERGENCE Introduction of the agent into a new host population, originating from: environment another host species variant of an existing human infection Establishment and further dissemination within the new host population from PH 301 lectures of Lilen Sarol, PhDMonday, September 19, 2011
    • AGENT-RELATED FACTORS Microbial adaptation Mutation Natural selection antibiotic-resistant bacteria Evolutionary progression Virulence factors from PH 301 lectures of Lilen Sarol, PhDMonday, September 19, 2011
    • HOST-RELATED FACTORS Human Human behavior Susceptibility and demographics immune status Affect disease dissemination nutrition age occupation, etc. from PH 301 lectures of Lilen Sarol, PhDMonday, September 19, 2011
    • environment-related factors (#1) Changing ecosystems / land use Argentine, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever changes in agriculture (grassland to maize) favoring rodent host Hantaviruses Ecological or environmental changes increasing contact with rodent hosts Rift Valley fever agriculture, irrigation from PH 301 lectures of Lilen Sarol, PhDMonday, September 19, 2011
    • environment-related factors (#2) Economic development Dengue/DHF urbanization favoring mosquito vector Lassa fever urbanization favoring rodent hosts, increasing exposure Rift Valley fever dam building from PH 301 lectures of Lilen Sarol, PhDMonday, September 19, 2011
    • environment-related factors (#3) Technology and industry Hepatitis B and C transfusions, organ transplants Influenza (pandemic) possibly pig-duck agriculture facilitating reassortment from PH 301 lectures of Lilen Sarol, PhDMonday, September 19, 2011
    • environment-related factors (#4) International travel and commerce Dengue/DHF Ebola, Marburg In Europe and US, importation of monkeys HIV Influenza (pandemic) SARS from PH 301 lectures of Lilen Sarol, PhDMonday, September 19, 2011
    • environment-related factors (#4) International travel and commerce Dengue/DHF Ebola, Marburg In Europe and US, importation of monkeys HIV Influenza (pandemic) SARS from PH 301 lectures of Lilen Sarol, PhDMonday, September 19, 2011
    • SPECIAL TOPICS IN VIROLOGY BIOTERRORISM & DUAL RESEARCHMonday, September 19, 2011
    • OUTLINE ❖ Overview: Dual-Use Research ❖ Overview: Risks ❖ Biotechnology and Bioterrorism ❖ Case StudiesMonday, September 19, 2011
    • Biological Research has led to the development of new drugs, treatments, and medical advancements that have profoundly impacted our health and way of life The General Public holds scientists and their work in high regard and trusts that they will act in the best interest of societyMonday, September 19, 2011
    • “Legitimate scientific work that could be misused to threaten public health or national security” What is Dual-Use Research?Monday, September 19, 2011
    • Monday, September 19, 2011
    • THUS: any medical advance that improves the ease of engineering, handling, or delivering treatment has the potential to be applied by those wishing to do harm and can be considered "dual- useMonday, September 19, 2011
    • “advances in biotechnology … have the potential to create a much more dangerous biological warfare threat … engineered biological agents could be worse than any disease known to man.” (CIA, 2003)Monday, September 19, 2011
    • “advances in biotechnology … have the potential to create a much more dangerous biological warfare threat … engineered biological agents could be worse than any disease known to man.” (CIA, 2003)Monday, September 19, 2011
    • Case StudiesMonday, September 19, 2011
    • ❖ Dr. Wimmer, Distinguished Professor in the Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook ❖ 1991: Published the chemical formula of the polio virus ❖ 2001:biochemically synthesized (deliberately) poliovirus according to its genomic sequence in the absence of a template without a DNA or RNA template, or the help of living cells ❖ 2002 published in Science ❖ DUAL USE Implications: unnecessarily demonstrating how bioterrorists could use modern scientific techniques to create dangerous pathogens ❖ POLICY: “prior to attempting synthesis of a microbial chromosome we commissioned an independent bioethical review of our proposed scientific plan.”Monday, September 19, 2011
    • ❖ Dr. Wimmer, Distinguished Professor in the Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook ❖ 1991: Published the chemical formula of the polio virus ❖ 2001:biochemically synthesized (deliberately) poliovirus according to its genomic sequence in the absence of a template without a DNA or RNA template, or the help of living cells ❖ 2002 published in Science ❖ DUAL USE Implications: unnecessarily demonstrating how bioterrorists could use modern scientific techniques to create dangerous pathogens ❖ POLICY: “prior to attempting synthesis of a microbial chromosome we commissioned an independent bioethical review of our proposed scientific plan.”Monday, September 19, 2011
    • Monday, September 19, 2011
    • Monday, September 19, 2011
    • Monday, September 19, 2011
    • Monday, September 19, 2011
    • Monday, September 19, 2011
    • ❖ PROS: experiments could uncover the reasons why the Spanish flu pandemic was so deadly and could offer insight into avian flu pathology and how it might become transmissible in humans. ❖ CONS: ❖ publication of the viral sequence, conditions under which the virus was handled and the threat of its escape into the environment; ❖ recreate deadly and transmissible though extinct or eradicated viruses; ❖ can be used for the design of a weapon of mass destruction; there is a risk verging on inevitability of accidental… or deliberate release of the virus. ❖ IMPACT TO PUBLIC HEALTH: advancement in tools to sequence genomes and synthesize DNA; BUT could be used to engineer biological weaponsMonday, September 19, 2011
    • VIDEO ON SCIENTISTS’ VIEWSMonday, September 19, 2011
    • “are there potential benefits to public health and safety from application or utilization of this information?” We must PREVENT such MISUSE without IMPEDING research PROGRESS!Monday, September 19, 2011
    • Monday, September 19, 2011
    • LABORATORY ACTIVITYMonday, September 19, 2011
    • Create a letter-sized POSTER to educate college students on your choice of emerging/re-emerging infection...FOCUS on : 1. awareness 2. preventionMonday, September 19, 2011