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VIROLOGY                             STRUCTURE, CLASSIFICATION & REPLICATIONThursday, January 26, 2012
TOPICS     • STRUCTURE           • describe and differentiate various viral             structural types and relate to its...
the structure of virusesThursday, January 26, 2012
Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007 Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011   dvm5.blogspot.comThursday, January 26, ...
Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007                                          The nucleic acid genome plus the  ...
the envelope     • Enveloped viruses obtain their       envelope by budding through       a host cell membrane     • In so...
the envelope     • Enveloped viruses do not       necessarily have to kill their       host cell in order to be       rele...
the envelope     • Enveloped viruses are readily       infectious only if the envelope       is intact (since the viral   ...
the capsidThursday, January 26, 2012
THE CAPSID & VIRAL                                 SYMMETRY COMPLEX    HELICAL ICOSAHEDRALThursday, January 26, 2012
BASED ON THE                             ARCHITECTURE...                                         Enveloped Viruses     Hel...
ICOSAHEDRAL                            CAPSID                                   •   Icosahedral morphology is             ...
HELICAL                             CAPSID                                  • The icosahedral capsid structure            ...
CAPSOMERES:                    structural polypeptide                               ✤   The number and                    ...
NOTING THE CAPSID &                         THE ENVELOPE..Thursday, January 26, 2012
THE NUCLEIC ACID                                  COREThursday, January 26, 2012
THE NUCLEIC ACID                                  COREThursday, January 26, 2012
THE NUCLEIC ACID                                  COREThursday, January 26, 2012
THE NUCLEIC ACID                                  COREThursday, January 26, 2012
THE NUCLEIC ACID                                  COREThursday, January 26, 2012
IN RELATION TO                               SYMMETRY...                TYPES                    GENOMES                  ...
BASIS OF                             CLASSIFICATION         • PRIMARY: nature of their genome and           their structur...
BASIS OF                             CLASSIFICATION         • SECONDARY:               • replication strategyThursday, Jan...
Thursday, January 26, 2012
Thursday, January 26, 2012
Thursday, January 26, 2012
Thursday, January 26, 2012
Thursday, January 26, 2012
Thursday, January 26, 2012
Thursday, January 26, 2012
Thursday, January 26, 2012
NAMING YOUR                               VIRUSESThursday, January 26, 2012
HOW ARE THEY NAMED?       • Family names end in -viridae.       EXAMPLE                                             Herp...
REPRESENTATIVE                                VIRUSESThursday, January 26, 2012
Virus Families     Single-stranded DNA,         nonenveloped viruses            Parvoviridae                 Human parv...
Virus Families     Single-stranded DNA,         nonenveloped viruses            Parvoviridae                 Human parv...
 Mastadenovirus            Respiratory infections in              humans            Tumors in animals    Copyright © 20...
Double-Stranded DNA, Nonenveloped Viruses     Mastadenovirus            Respiratory infections in              humans   ...
 Papillomavirus (human         wart virus)     Polyomavirus            Cause tumors; some              cause cancer    ...
Double-Stranded DNA, Nonenveloped Viruses     Papillomavirus (human         wart virus)     Polyomavirus            Cau...
 Orthopoxvirus (vaccinia         and smallpox viruses)     Molluscipoxvirus            Smallpox            Molluscum c...
Double-Stranded DNA, Enveloped Viruses     Orthopoxvirus (vaccinia         and smallpox viruses)     Molluscipoxvirus   ...
 Simplexvirus (HHV1 and HHV 2)     Varicellavirus (HHV 3)     Lymphocryptovirus (HHV 4)     Cytomegalovirus (HHV 5)   ...
Double-Stranded DNA, Enveloped Viruses     Simplexvirus (HHV1 and HHV 2)     Varicellavirus (HHV 3)     Lymphocryptovir...
 Hepadnavirus (Hepatitis B         virus)            Use reverse              transcriptase to produce              DNA ...
Double-Stranded DNA, Enveloped Viruses     Hepadnavirus (Hepatitis B         virus)            Use reverse              ...
 Enterovirus            Enteroviruses include              poliovirus and              coxsackievirus.     Rhinovirus  ...
Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Nonenveloped     Enterovirus            Enteroviruses include              poliovirus and...
 Hepatitis E virus     Norovirus causes         gastroenteritis.    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing...
Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Nonenveloped     Hepatitis E virus     Norovirus causes         gastroenteritis.    Copyr...
 Alphavirus            Alphaviruses are transmitted              by arthropods; include EEE,              WEE.     Rubi...
Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Enveloped     Alphavirus            Alphaviruses are transmitted              by arthropo...
 Arboviruses can replicate         in arthropods; include         yellow fever, dengue, SLE,         and West Nile viruse...
Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Enveloped     Arboviruses can replicate         in arthropods; include         yellow feve...
 Coronavirus            Upper respiratory              infections            SARS    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education...
Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Enveloped     Coronavirus            Upper respiratory              infections           ...
 Vesiculovirus     Lyssavirus (rabies virus)     Cause numerous animal         diseases    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Edu...
Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand,    One RNA Strand     Vesiculovirus     Lyssavirus (rabies virus)     Cause numerous ani...
 Filovirus            Enveloped, helical              viruses            Ebola and Marburg              viruses    Copy...
Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand,    One RNA Strand     Filovirus            Enveloped, helical              viruses       ...
 Paramyxovirus     Morbillivirus     Paramyxovirus            Parainfluenza            Mumps            Newcastle di...
Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand,    One RNA Strand     Paramyxovirus     Morbillivirus     Paramyxovirus            Para...
 Hepatitis D virus            Depends on coinfection              with Hepadnavirus    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Educatio...
Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand,    One RNA Strand     Hepatitis D virus            Depends on coinfection              wi...
 Influenzavirus (Influenza         viruses A and B)     Influenza C virus            Envelope spikes can              a...
Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand,    Multiple RNA Strands     Influenzavirus (Influenza         viruses A and B)     Influe...
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings   UN 13.3Thursday, January 26, 2012
Crossing the Species Barrier    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings   UN 13.3Thursda...
 Bunyavirus (CE virus)     Hantavirus    Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings   Tab...
Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand,    Multiple RNA Strands     Bunyavirus (CE virus)     Hantavirus    Copyright © 2006 Pear...
 Arenavirus            Helical capsids contain              RNA-containing granules            Lymphocytic             ...
Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand,    Multiple RNA Strands     Arenavirus            Helical capsids contain              RN...
 Lentivirus (HIV)     Oncogenic viruses            Use reverse              transcriptase to produce              DNA f...
Single-Stranded RNA, Two RNA Strands,    Produce DNA     Lentivirus (HIV)     Oncogenic viruses            Use reverse ...
 Reovirus (Respiratory         Enteric Orphan)     Rotavirus            Mild respiratory infections              and ga...
Double-Stranded RNA, Nonenveloped     Reovirus (Respiratory         Enteric Orphan)     Rotavirus            Mild respi...
virus replicationThursday, January 26, 2012
GROWING VIRUSES                                           Embryonated                                              Eggs   ...
LIFE CYCLE                                          Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, January 26, 2012
LIFE CYCLE                                          Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, January 26, 2012
LIFE CYCLE      Lytic cycle: Phage causes lysis and death of host          cell.      Lysogenic cycle: Prophage DNA inco...
LIFE CYCLE     Lytic cycle: Phage causes lysis and death of host cell.     Lysogenic cycle: Prophage DNA incorporated in...
VIRUS MULTIPLICATION                             Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, January 26, 2012
VIRUS MULTIPLICATION                             Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, January 26, 2012
VIRUS MULTIPLICATION (DNA Virus)     •       DNA: Cellular enzyme transcribes viral             DNA in nucleus            ...
VIRUS MULTIPLICATION : (+ strand RNA Virus)     •RNA, + strand:Viral RNA is a template for synthesis of      RNA polymeras...
VIRUS MULTIPLICATION                                   (- strand RNA Virus)                                               ...
VIRUS MULTIPLICATION : (dsRNA Virus)     •       RNA, double-stranded:Viral enzyme copies – strand             RNA to make...
VIRUS MULTIPLICATION                                   (Retrovirus)   •       RNA, reverse transcriptase: Viral enzyme cop...
END OF COVERAGE                             NEXT MEETING:                              MIDTERMS!!!Thursday, January 26, 2012
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Transcript of "Virus structure: classification: replication"

  1. 1. VIROLOGY STRUCTURE, CLASSIFICATION & REPLICATIONThursday, January 26, 2012
  2. 2. TOPICS • STRUCTURE • describe and differentiate various viral structural types and relate to its function • CLASSIFICATION • ICTV vs Baltimore classification • REPLICATION • DNA viruses • RNA virusesThursday, January 26, 2012
  3. 3. the structure of virusesThursday, January 26, 2012
  4. 4. Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007 Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 dvm5.blogspot.comThursday, January 26, 2012
  5. 5. Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007 The nucleic acid genome plus the protective protein coat is called the nucleocapsid which may have icosahedral, helical or complex symmetry. Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 dvm5.blogspot.comThursday, January 26, 2012
  6. 6. the envelope • Enveloped viruses obtain their envelope by budding through a host cell membrane • In some cases, the virus buds through the plasma membrane but in other cases the envelope may be derived from internal cell membranes such as those of the Golgi body or the nucleusThursday, January 26, 2012
  7. 7. the envelope • Enveloped viruses do not necessarily have to kill their host cell in order to be released, since they can bud out of the cell - a process that is not necessarily lethal to the cell - hence some budding viruses can set up persistent infectionsThursday, January 26, 2012
  8. 8. the envelope • Enveloped viruses are readily infectious only if the envelope is intact (since the viral attachment proteins which recognize the host cell receptors are in the viral envelope) • This means that agents that damage the envelope, such as alcohols and detergents, reduce infectivityThursday, January 26, 2012
  9. 9. the capsidThursday, January 26, 2012
  10. 10. THE CAPSID & VIRAL SYMMETRY COMPLEX HELICAL ICOSAHEDRALThursday, January 26, 2012
  11. 11. BASED ON THE ARCHITECTURE... Enveloped Viruses Helical Viruses Complex VirusesIcosahedral VirusesThursday, January 26, 2012
  12. 12. ICOSAHEDRAL CAPSID • Icosahedral morphology is characteristic of the nucleocapsids of many “spherical” viruses • The icosahedral capsid structure of adenovirus is made up of three proteins, hexon, penton base, and fiber • Some proteins are associated with viral DNA, whereas others are associated with hexon and are involved in the formation of the capsidThursday, January 26, 2012
  13. 13. HELICAL CAPSID • The icosahedral capsid structure of adenovirus is made up of three proteins, hexon, penton base, and fiber • Helical morphology is seen in nucleocapsids of many filamentous and pleomorphic viruses • Helical nucleocapsids are characterized by length, width, pitch of the helix, and number of protomers per helical turnThursday, January 26, 2012
  14. 14. CAPSOMERES: structural polypeptide ✤ The number and arrangement of the capsomeres are useful in identification and classificationThursday, January 26, 2012
  15. 15. NOTING THE CAPSID & THE ENVELOPE..Thursday, January 26, 2012
  16. 16. THE NUCLEIC ACID COREThursday, January 26, 2012
  17. 17. THE NUCLEIC ACID COREThursday, January 26, 2012
  18. 18. THE NUCLEIC ACID COREThursday, January 26, 2012
  19. 19. THE NUCLEIC ACID COREThursday, January 26, 2012
  20. 20. THE NUCLEIC ACID COREThursday, January 26, 2012
  21. 21. IN RELATION TO SYMMETRY... TYPES GENOMES dsDNA ssDNA dsRNA ssRNA Icosahedral (naked) Icosahedral (Enveloped) Helical (naked) Helical (Enveloped)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  22. 22. BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION • PRIMARY: nature of their genome and their structure • NUCLEIC ACID • RNA or DNA (single-stranded or double-stranded; non- segmented or segmented; linear or circular; if genome is single stranded RNA, can it function as mRNA?; whether genome is diploid (such as in retroviruses) • VIRION STRUCTURE ( symmetry (icosahedral, helical, complex); enveloped or not enveloped; number of capsomeresThursday, January 26, 2012
  23. 23. BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION • SECONDARY: • replication strategyThursday, January 26, 2012
  24. 24. Thursday, January 26, 2012
  25. 25. Thursday, January 26, 2012
  26. 26. Thursday, January 26, 2012
  27. 27. Thursday, January 26, 2012
  28. 28. Thursday, January 26, 2012
  29. 29. Thursday, January 26, 2012
  30. 30. Thursday, January 26, 2012
  31. 31. Thursday, January 26, 2012
  32. 32. NAMING YOUR VIRUSESThursday, January 26, 2012
  33. 33. HOW ARE THEY NAMED? • Family names end in -viridae.  EXAMPLE  Herpesviridae • Genus names end in -virus  Herpesvirus • Viral species: A group of  Human herpes virus viruses sharing the same genetic information and  EXAMPLE ecological niche (host)  Retroviridae • Common names are used  Lentivirus for species  Human immunodeficiency virus • Subspecies are designated HIV-1, HIV-2 by a number Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, January 26, 2012
  34. 34. REPRESENTATIVE VIRUSESThursday, January 26, 2012
  35. 35. Virus Families  Single-stranded DNA, nonenveloped viruses  Parvoviridae Human parvovirus Fifth disease Anemia in immunocompromised patients Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (1 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  36. 36. Virus Families  Single-stranded DNA, nonenveloped viruses  Parvoviridae Human parvovirus Fifth disease Anemia in immunocompromised patients Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (1 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  37. 37.  Mastadenovirus  Respiratory infections in humans  Tumors in animals Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (2 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  38. 38. Double-Stranded DNA, Nonenveloped Viruses  Mastadenovirus  Respiratory infections in humans  Tumors in animals Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (2 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  39. 39.  Papillomavirus (human wart virus)  Polyomavirus  Cause tumors; some cause cancer Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (3 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  40. 40. Double-Stranded DNA, Nonenveloped Viruses  Papillomavirus (human wart virus)  Polyomavirus  Cause tumors; some cause cancer Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (3 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  41. 41.  Orthopoxvirus (vaccinia and smallpox viruses)  Molluscipoxvirus  Smallpox  Molluscum contagiosum  Cowpox Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (4 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  42. 42. Double-Stranded DNA, Enveloped Viruses  Orthopoxvirus (vaccinia and smallpox viruses)  Molluscipoxvirus  Smallpox  Molluscum contagiosum  Cowpox Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (4 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  43. 43.  Simplexvirus (HHV1 and HHV 2)  Varicellavirus (HHV 3)  Lymphocryptovirus (HHV 4)  Cytomegalovirus (HHV 5)  Roseolovirus (HHV 6)  HHV 7  Kaposis sarcoma (HHV 8)  Some herpesviruses can remain latent in host cells. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (5 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  44. 44. Double-Stranded DNA, Enveloped Viruses  Simplexvirus (HHV1 and HHV 2)  Varicellavirus (HHV 3)  Lymphocryptovirus (HHV 4)  Cytomegalovirus (HHV 5)  Roseolovirus (HHV 6)  HHV 7  Kaposis sarcoma (HHV 8)  Some herpesviruses can remain latent in host cells. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (5 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  45. 45.  Hepadnavirus (Hepatitis B virus)  Use reverse transcriptase to produce DNA from mRNA. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (6 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  46. 46. Double-Stranded DNA, Enveloped Viruses  Hepadnavirus (Hepatitis B virus)  Use reverse transcriptase to produce DNA from mRNA. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (6 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  47. 47.  Enterovirus  Enteroviruses include poliovirus and coxsackievirus.  Rhinovirus  Hepatitis A virus Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (7 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  48. 48. Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Nonenveloped  Enterovirus  Enteroviruses include poliovirus and coxsackievirus.  Rhinovirus  Hepatitis A virus Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (7 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  49. 49.  Hepatitis E virus  Norovirus causes gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (8 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  50. 50. Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Nonenveloped  Hepatitis E virus  Norovirus causes gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (8 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  51. 51.  Alphavirus  Alphaviruses are transmitted by arthropods; include EEE, WEE.  Rubivirus (rubella virus) Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (9 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  52. 52. Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Enveloped  Alphavirus  Alphaviruses are transmitted by arthropods; include EEE, WEE.  Rubivirus (rubella virus) Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (9 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  53. 53.  Arboviruses can replicate in arthropods; include yellow fever, dengue, SLE, and West Nile viruses  Hepatitis C virus Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (10 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  54. 54. Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Enveloped  Arboviruses can replicate in arthropods; include yellow fever, dengue, SLE, and West Nile viruses  Hepatitis C virus Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (10 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  55. 55.  Coronavirus  Upper respiratory infections  SARS Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (11 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  56. 56. Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Enveloped  Coronavirus  Upper respiratory infections  SARS Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (11 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  57. 57.  Vesiculovirus  Lyssavirus (rabies virus)  Cause numerous animal diseases Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (12 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  58. 58. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, One RNA Strand  Vesiculovirus  Lyssavirus (rabies virus)  Cause numerous animal diseases Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (12 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  59. 59.  Filovirus  Enveloped, helical viruses  Ebola and Marburg viruses Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (13 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  60. 60. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, One RNA Strand  Filovirus  Enveloped, helical viruses  Ebola and Marburg viruses Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (13 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  61. 61.  Paramyxovirus  Morbillivirus  Paramyxovirus  Parainfluenza  Mumps  Newcastle disease Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (14 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  62. 62. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, One RNA Strand  Paramyxovirus  Morbillivirus  Paramyxovirus  Parainfluenza  Mumps  Newcastle disease Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (14 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  63. 63.  Hepatitis D virus  Depends on coinfection with Hepadnavirus Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (15 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  64. 64. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, One RNA Strand  Hepatitis D virus  Depends on coinfection with Hepadnavirus Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (15 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  65. 65.  Influenzavirus (Influenza viruses A and B)  Influenza C virus  Envelope spikes can agglutinate RBCs. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (16 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  66. 66. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, Multiple RNA Strands  Influenzavirus (Influenza viruses A and B)  Influenza C virus  Envelope spikes can agglutinate RBCs. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (16 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  67. 67. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings UN 13.3Thursday, January 26, 2012
  68. 68. Crossing the Species Barrier Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings UN 13.3Thursday, January 26, 2012
  69. 69.  Bunyavirus (CE virus)  Hantavirus Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (17 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  70. 70. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, Multiple RNA Strands  Bunyavirus (CE virus)  Hantavirus Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (17 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  71. 71.  Arenavirus  Helical capsids contain RNA-containing granules  Lymphocytic choriomeningitis  VEE and Lassa Fever Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (18 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  72. 72. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, Multiple RNA Strands  Arenavirus  Helical capsids contain RNA-containing granules  Lymphocytic choriomeningitis  VEE and Lassa Fever Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (18 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  73. 73.  Lentivirus (HIV)  Oncogenic viruses  Use reverse transcriptase to produce DNA from viral genome.  Includes all RNA tumor viruses Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (19 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  74. 74. Single-Stranded RNA, Two RNA Strands, Produce DNA  Lentivirus (HIV)  Oncogenic viruses  Use reverse transcriptase to produce DNA from viral genome.  Includes all RNA tumor viruses Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (19 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  75. 75.  Reovirus (Respiratory Enteric Orphan)  Rotavirus  Mild respiratory infections and gastroenteritis  Colorado tick fever Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (20 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  76. 76. Double-Stranded RNA, Nonenveloped  Reovirus (Respiratory Enteric Orphan)  Rotavirus  Mild respiratory infections and gastroenteritis  Colorado tick fever Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.2 (20 of 20)Thursday, January 26, 2012
  77. 77. virus replicationThursday, January 26, 2012
  78. 78. GROWING VIRUSES Embryonated Eggs Plaques Cell Culture Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, January 26, 2012
  79. 79. LIFE CYCLE Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, January 26, 2012
  80. 80. LIFE CYCLE Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, January 26, 2012
  81. 81. LIFE CYCLE  Lytic cycle: Phage causes lysis and death of host cell.  Lysogenic cycle: Prophage DNA incorporated in host Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, January 26, 2012
  82. 82. LIFE CYCLE  Lytic cycle: Phage causes lysis and death of host cell.  Lysogenic cycle: Prophage DNA incorporated in host DNA. Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, January 26, 2012
  83. 83. VIRUS MULTIPLICATION Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, January 26, 2012
  84. 84. VIRUS MULTIPLICATION Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, January 26, 2012
  85. 85. VIRUS MULTIPLICATION (DNA Virus) • DNA: Cellular enzyme transcribes viral DNA in nucleus Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, January 26, 2012
  86. 86. VIRUS MULTIPLICATION : (+ strand RNA Virus) •RNA, + strand:Viral RNA is a template for synthesis of RNA polymerase. Attachment Capsid Nucleus RNA Cytoplasm Host cell Entry Maturation and uncoating and release Translation and synthesis RNA replication by viral RNA- of viral proteins dependent RNA polymerase Uncoating releases – strand is transcribed viral RNA and proteins. from + viral genome. Capsid Viral Viral protein genome protein (RNA) (a) ssRNA; + + strand or sense strand; Picornaviridae mRNA is transcribed from the – strand. Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, January 26, 2012
  87. 87. VIRUS MULTIPLICATION (- strand RNA Virus) Attachment Capsid Nucleus RNA Cytoplasm Host cell Entry Maturation and uncoating and release Translation and synthesis RNA replication by viral RNA- of viral proteins dependent RNA polymerase Uncoating releases viral RNA and proteins. The + strand (mRNA) must first be transcribed from the – viral Viral Viral genome before proteins can genome protein be synthesized. (RNA) Capsid protein (b) ssRNA; – or – strands are antisense strand; incorporated Rhabdoviridae into capsid Additional – strands are transcribed from mRNA. • RNA – strand:Viral enzyme copies viral RNA to make mRNA in cytoplasm Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, January 26, 2012
  88. 88. VIRUS MULTIPLICATION : (dsRNA Virus) • RNA, double-stranded:Viral enzyme copies – strand RNA to make mRNA in cytoplasm Attachment Capsid Nucleus RNA Cytoplasm Host cell Entry Maturation and uncoating and release Translation and synthesis RNA replication by viral RNA- of viral proteins dependent RNA polymerase Uncoating releases RNA polymerase initiates production of mRNA is produced inside the viral RNA and proteins. – strands. The mRNA and – strands form the capsid and released into the dsRNA that is incorporated as new viral genome. cytoplasm of the host. Viral Viral genome protein (RNA) (c) dsRNA; + or sense Capsid proteins and RNA- strand with – or dependent RNA polymerase antisense strand; Reoviridae Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, January 26, 2012
  89. 89. VIRUS MULTIPLICATION (Retrovirus) • RNA, reverse transcriptase: Viral enzyme copes viral RNA to make DNA in cytoplasm Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, January 26, 2012
  90. 90. END OF COVERAGE NEXT MEETING: MIDTERMS!!!Thursday, January 26, 2012
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