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Virology special topics for exam 3 mc

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  • 1. SPECIAL TOPICS IN VIROLOGY BIOTERRORISM & DUAL RESEARCHMonday, February 6, 2012
  • 2. OUTLINE ❖ Overview: Dual-Use Research ❖ Overview: Risks ❖ Biotechnology and Bioterrorism ❖ Case StudiesMonday, February 6, 2012
  • 3. Biological Research has led to the development of new drugs, treatments, and medical advancements that have profoundly impacted our health and way of life The General Public holds scientists and their work in high regard and trusts that they will act in the best interest of societyMonday, February 6, 2012
  • 4. “Legitimate scientific work that could be misused to threaten public health or national security” What is Dual-Monday, February 6, 2012
  • 5. Monday, February 6, 2012
  • 6. THUS: any medical advance that improves the ease of engineering, handling, or delivering treatment has the potential to be applied by those wishing to do harm and can be considered "dual- useMonday, February 6, 2012
  • 7. “advances in biotechnology … have the potential to create a much more dangerous biological warfare threat … engineered biological agents could be worse than any disease known to man.” (CIA, 2003)Monday, February 6, 2012
  • 8. “advances in biotechnology … have the potential to create a much more dangerous biological warfare threat … engineered biological agents could be worse than any disease known to man.” (CIA, 2003)Monday, February 6, 2012
  • 9. Monday, February 6, 2012
  • 10. ❖ Dr. Wimmer, Distinguished Professor in the Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook ❖ 1991: Published the chemical formula of the polio virus ❖ 2001:biochemically synthesized (deliberately) poliovirus according to its genomic sequence in the absence of a template without a DNA or RNA template, or the help of living cells ❖ 2002 published in Science ❖ DUAL USE Implications: unnecessarily demonstrating how bioterrorists could use modern scientific techniques to create dangerous pathogens ❖ POLICY: “prior to attempting synthesis of a microbial chromosome we commissioned an independent bioethical review of our proposed scientific plan.”Monday, February 6, 2012
  • 11. ❖ Dr. Wimmer, Distinguished Professor in the Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook ❖ 1991: Published the chemical formula of the polio virus ❖ 2001:biochemically synthesized (deliberately) poliovirus according to its genomic sequence in the absence of a template without a DNA or RNA template, or the help of living cells ❖ 2002 published in Science ❖ DUAL USE Implications: unnecessarily demonstrating how bioterrorists could use modern scientific techniques to create dangerous pathogens ❖ POLICY: “prior to attempting synthesis of a microbial chromosome we commissioned an independent bioethical review of our proposed scientific plan.”Monday, February 6, 2012
  • 12. Monday, February 6, 2012
  • 13. Monday, February 6, 2012
  • 14. Monday, February 6, 2012
  • 15. Monday, February 6, 2012
  • 16. Monday, February 6, 2012
  • 17. ❖ PROS: experiments could uncover the reasons why the Spanish flu pandemic was so deadly and could offer insight into avian flu pathology and how it might become transmissible in humans. ❖ CONS: ❖ publication of the viral sequence, conditions under which the virus was handled and the threat of its escape into the environment; ❖ recreate deadly and transmissible though extinct or eradicated viruses; ❖ can be used for the design of a weapon of mass destruction; there is a risk verging on inevitability of accidental… or deliberate release of the virus. ❖ IMPACT TO PUBLIC HEALTH: advancement in tools to sequence genomes and synthesize DNA; BUT could be used to engineer biological weaponsMonday, February 6, 2012
  • 18. “are there potential benefits to public health and safety from application or utilization of this information?” We must PREVENT such MISUSE without IMPEDING research PROGRESS!Monday, February 6, 2012
  • 19. Monday, February 6, 2012
  • 20. THANK YOU!!!Monday, February 6, 2012

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