Virology lecture 1 introduction
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  • 1. S 144 (VIROLOGY) Lecture 1: Introduction Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 2. Skills, Values and Outputs Listening, Writing & Communication Skills Openness and Appreciation of Old & Advancing Ideas Objectivity & Critical Thinking Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 3. Lecture Outline Introduction to Virology History Reasons for the Study of Virology Origin & Evolution of Viruses Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 4. Introduction to Virology VIROLOGY scientific study of viruses and the disease they cause VIRUSES an infective agent typically consists of nucleic acid in a protein coat too small to be seen by light microscopy multiply within living cells of host (obligate parasite) filterable Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 5. Introduction to Virology Jane Flint Principles of Virology, 2004 Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 6. Introduction to Virology Viruses challenge the way we define LIFE: they do not respire they do not display irritability they do not move they do not “grow” WHAT THEY DO: they reproduce and adapt to new hosts Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 7. Strategies for Survival Genomes are packaged inside a particle (transmission) Genome contains all information needed for infection cycle (attachment to release) Establishment in a host population Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 8. History of Virology Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanowsky (1892) Martinus Beijerink (1898) Filterable agent: Tobacco Mosaic Virus Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 9. History of Virology Freidrich Loeffler & Paul Frosch (1898) Foot & Mouth Disease Virus Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 10. History of Virology Walter Reed (1899) Yellow fever: transmission by insect vectors Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 11. History of Virology VIRUSES AND ONCOGENESIS Ellerman and Bang (1908) Chicken leukemia Peyton Rous (1911) Rous Sarcoma virus Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 12. History of Virology Bacteriophages Era Frederick Twort (1915) discovery of phages Felix D’ Herelle (1917) role in immunity Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 13. History of Virology Wendell Stanley (1935): crystallization of TMV Delbruck (1940s): modern molecular biology and virology Lwoff (1949): discovery of lysogeny Enders et al., (1949): poliovirus and tissue culture/plaque assays 1980s: Immunology and PCR technology was introduced as well as gene therapy and bioterrorism Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 14. Why Study Viruses? Some Viruses Cause Disease Rabies Common Cold Smallpox HIV Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 15. Why Study Viruses? Some Viruses Cause Disease Pepper Mottle Virus Cauliflower Mosaic Virus Rice Tungro Virus Papaya Ringspot Virus Tobacco Mosaic Virus Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 16. Why Study Viruses? Some Viruses Cause Disease Foot & Mouth Disease Classical Swine Fever Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) Ebola Avian Flu Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 17. Why Study Viruses? Some Viruses Cause Disease AH1N1 Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 18. Why Study Viruses? Some Viruses are Useful Phage Typing of Bacteria e.g. Salmonella spp. classified into strains on the basis of the spectrum of phages to which they are susceptible advantage: Epidemiology Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 19. Why Study Viruses? Some Viruses are Useful Sources of Enzymes RNA polymerase (T7 phage) Genetic Pesticides gene from baculovirus against worms Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 20. Why Study Viruses? Some Viruses are Useful Anti-Bacterial Agents Extrasomatic SARS virus (e.g. NORWEX) Anti-Cancer Agents Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccinia Virus Destroy tumor cells not normal cells Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 21. Why Study Viruses? Some Viruses are Useful Gene Vector for Protein Production baculovirus, adenovirus vaccine component Gene Vector for Treatment of Genetic Diseases retrovirus immunodeficient cases Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 22. Why Study Viruses? Virus Studies Have Contributed to Knowledge Hershey and Chase experiment (T2 phage) Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 23. Why Study Viruses? Virus Studies Have Contributed to Knowledge Characterization of enhancers (genes of Simian SV 40) Characterization of transcription factors and localization of protein signal (genes of Simian SV 40) Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 24. Why Study Viruses? Virus Studies Have Contributed to Knowledge Discovery of introns (adenovirus) Role of cap structure at 5’ end of eukaryotic mRNA (vaccinia and reovirus) discovery of internal ribosomal entry site (RNA of poliovirus) discovery of RNA pseudoknot (turnip yellow mosaic virus) Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 25. Nature of Viruses Viruses are Small Particles Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 26. Nature of Viruses Viruses Have Genes virus code efficiently virus use host cell multifunctional proteins Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 27. Nature of Viruses Viruses are Parasites Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 28. Origin & Evolution of Viruses Origin & Evolution of Viruses Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011
  • 29. Origin & Evolution of Viruses Origin & Evolution of Viruses Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Friday, June 17, 2011