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Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
Virology lec 1:2012
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Virology lec 1:2012

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  • 1. VIROLOGY Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong (Reference: http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/book/virol-sta.htm)Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 2. REMAINING CALENDARThursday, January 19, 2012
  • 3. TOPICS TO COVER • CLASSIFICATION • REPLICATION • DIAGNOSTICS • PUBLIC HEALTH VIRUSES • EMERGING & RE-EMERGING VIRUSESThursday, January 19, 2012
  • 4. PLENARY REPORTS • CLASS MUST HAVE 6 GROUPS (7-8 PEOPLE EACH GROUP) • A TOPIC WILL BE ASSIGNED & TO BE REPORTED FORMALLY IN CLASS • FOCUS: ADVANCES IN DIAGNOSTICS • 3 GROUPS PER MEETING (MARCH 9 & 16)Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 5. TOPICS • ADVANCES IN LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS (THEN & NOW) • INFLUENZA (AH1N1 @ SEASONAL FLU) • INFLUENZA (AVIAN FLU) • DENGUE • HIV • HEPATITIS A/B/C • SARSThursday, January 19, 2012
  • 6. VIROLOGY INTRODUCTIONThursday, January 19, 2012
  • 7. INTRODUCTION • VIROLOGY • scientific study of viruses and the disease they cause • VIRUSES • an infective agent typically consists of nucleic acid in a protein coat • too small to be seen by light microscopy • multiply within living cells of host (obligate parasite) • filterable Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 8. VIRUSES • Contain DNA or RNA • Contain a protein coat (capsid) • Some are enclosed by an envelope • Some viruses have spikes • Most viruses infect only specific types of cells in one host • Host range is determined by specific host attachment sites and cellular factors Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 9. VIRUSES Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 10. RELATIVE SIZES & TOOLS Jane Flint Principles of Virology, 2004 Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 11. ARE THEY ALIVE? • Viruses challenge the way we define LIFE: • they do not respire • they do not display irritability • they do not move • they do not “grow” • WHAT THEY DO: they reproduce and adapt to new hosts Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 12. STRATEGIES FOR SURVIVAL • Genomes are packaged inside a particle (transmission) • Genome contains all information needed for infection cycle (attachment to release) • Establishment in a host population Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 13. NATURE OF VIRUSES • Viruses are Small Particles Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 14. NATURE OF VIRUSES • Viruses Have Genes • virus code efficiently • virus use host cell • multifunctional proteins Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 15. NATURE OF VIRUSES • Viruses are Parasites Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 16. DOWN MEMORY LANE... • Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanowsky (1892) • Martinus Beijerink (1898) • Filterable agent: Tobacco Mosaic Virus Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 17. OTHERS FOLLOWED... • Freidrich Loeffler & Paul Frosch (1898) • Foot & Mouth Disease Virus Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 18. THE THIRD PARTY.. • Walter Reed (1899) • Yellow fever: transmission by insect vectors Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 19. LINKS TO CANCER??? • VIRUSES AND ONCOGENESIS • Ellerman and Bang (1908) • Chicken leukemia • Peyton Rous (1911) • Rous Sarcoma virus Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 20. AND THEN, THERE WERE THE PHAGES • Bacteriophages Era • Frederick Twort (1915) • discovery of phages • Felix D’ Herelle (1917) • role in immunity Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 21. AND THE REST IS HISTORY • Wendell Stanley (1935): crystallization of TMV • Delbruck (1940s): modern molecular biology and virology • Lwoff (1949): discovery of lysogeny • Enders et al., (1949): poliovirus and tissue culture/ plaque assays • 1980s: Immunology and PCR technology was Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 22. WHY DO WE STUDY VIROLOGY? • Some Viruses Cause Disease Rabies Common Cold Smallpox HIV Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 23. WHY DO WE STUDY VIROLOGY? • Some Viruses Cause Disease Pepper Mottle Cauliflower Mosaic Rice Tungro Virus Virus Virus Papaya Ringspot Virus Tobacco Mosaic Virus Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 24. WHY DO WE STUDY VIROLOGY? • Some Viruses Cause Disease Foot & Mouth Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Classical Swine Fever Disease Syndrome (PRRS) Ebola Avian Flu Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 25. WHY DO WE STUDY VIROLOGY? • Some Viruses Cause Disease AH1N1 Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 26. WHY DO WE STUDY VIROLOGY? • Some Viruses are Useful • Phage Typing of Bacteria • e.g. Salmonella spp. • classified into strains on the basis of the spectrum of phages to which they are susceptible • advantage: Epidemiology Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 27. WHY DO WE STUDY VIROLOGY? • Some Viruses are Useful • Sources of Enzymes • RNA polymerase (T7 phage) • Genetic Pesticides • gene from baculovirus against worms Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 28. WHY DO WE STUDY VIROLOGY? • Some Viruses are Useful • Gene Vector for Protein Production • baculovirus, adenovirus • vaccine component • Gene Vector for Treatment of Genetic Diseases • retrovirus • immunodeficient cases Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 29. WHY DO WE STUDY VIROLOGY? • Virus Studies Have Contributed to Knowledge • Hershey and Chase experiment (T2 phage) Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 30. WHY DO WE STUDY VIROLOGY? • Virus Studies Have Contributed to Knowledge • Characterization of enhancers (genes of Simian SV 40) • Characterization of transcription factors and localization of protein signal (genes of Simian SV 40) Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 31. WHY DO WE STUDY VIROLOGY? • Virus Studies Have Contributed to Knowledge • Discovery of introns (adenovirus) • Role of cap structure at 5’ end of eukaryotic mRNA (vaccinia and reovirus) • discovery of internal ribosomal entry site (RNA of poliovirus) • discovery of RNA pseudoknot (turnip yellow mosaic virus) Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, January 19, 2012
  • 32. NEXT MEETING STRUCTURE, CLASSIFICATION & REPLICATIONThursday, January 19, 2012

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