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Virology issues for exam 3 mc

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  • 1. emerging and re- emerging virusesMonday, February 6, 2012
  • 2. what are emerging infections? Newly appeared in the population Have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range from PH 301 lectures of Lilen Sarol, PhDMonday, February 6, 2012
  • 3. EXAMPLESMonday, February 6, 2012
  • 4. Monday, February 6, 2012
  • 5. Monday, February 6, 2012
  • 6. PROCESS OF EMERGENCE Introduction of the agent into a new host population, originating from: environment another host species variant of an existing human infection Establishment and further dissemination within the new host population from PH 301 lectures of Lilen Sarol, PhDMonday, February 6, 2012
  • 7. AGENT-RELATED FACTORS Microbial adaptation Mutation Natural selection antibiotic-resistant bacteria Evolutionary progression Virulence factors from PH 301 lectures of Lilen Sarol, PhDMonday, February 6, 2012
  • 8. HOST-RELATED FACTORS Human Human behavior Susceptibility and demographics immune status Affect disease dissemination nutrition age occupation, etc. from PH 301 lectures of Lilen Sarol, PhDMonday, February 6, 2012
  • 9. environment-related factors (#1) Changing ecosystems / land use Argentine, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever changes in agriculture (grassland to maize) favoring rodent host Hantaviruses Ecological or environmental changes increasing contact with rodent hosts Rift Valley fever agriculture, irrigation from PH 301 lectures of Lilen Sarol, PhDMonday, February 6, 2012
  • 10. environment-related factors (#2) Economic development Dengue/DHF urbanization favoring mosquito vector Lassa fever urbanization favoring rodent hosts, increasing exposure Rift Valley fever dam building from PH 301 lectures of Lilen Sarol, PhDMonday, February 6, 2012
  • 11. environment-related factors (#3) Technology and industry Hepatitis B and C transfusions, organ transplants Influenza (pandemic) possibly pig-duck agriculture facilitating reassortment from PH 301 lectures of Lilen Sarol, PhDMonday, February 6, 2012
  • 12. environment-related factors (#4) International travel and commerce Dengue/DHF Ebola, Marburg In Europe and US, importation of monkeys HIV Influenza (pandemic) SARS from PH 301 lectures of Lilen Sarol, PhDMonday, February 6, 2012
  • 13. environment-related factors (#4) International travel and commerce Dengue/DHF Ebola, Marburg In Europe and US, importation of monkeys HIV Influenza (pandemic) SARS from PH 301 lectures of Lilen Sarol, PhDMonday, February 6, 2012

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