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Viral diagnostics eac for finals Presentation Transcript

  • 1. VIRAL DIAGNOSTICS February 2012Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 2. REMINDER: REMAINING SCHEDULE Modifications: PH Viruses merged with Emerging and Re-emerging Viruses (March 2)Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 3. PLENARY GROUPS: Advances in Laboratory Diagnostics (Then and Now) • INFLUENZA (AH1N1 • HIV by Lao to Manahan and SEASONAL FLU) by Group Advincula to Bundang Group • HEPATITIS A/B/C by Pedregosa to Santos, Dana • INFLUENZA (AVIAN Group FLU) by Cailao to Emerciana Group • SARS by Santos, Fatima to Velasco Group • DENGUE by Faderog to Jamias GroupFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 4. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF VIRAL INFECTIONSFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 5. STORAGE AND COLLECTION OF BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS FOR VIRAL TESTINGFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 6. STORAGE AND COLLECTION OF BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS FOR VIRAL TESTING • What types of specimens are collected to diagnose?Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 7. STORAGE AND COLLECTION OF BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS FOR VIRAL TESTING • What types of specimens are collected to diagnose? • Respiratory tract infections: Nasal and bronchial washings, throat and nasal swabs, sputumFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 8. STORAGE AND COLLECTION OF BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS FOR VIRAL TESTING • What types of specimens are collected to diagnose? • Respiratory tract infections: Nasal and bronchial washings, throat and nasal swabs, sputum • Eye infections: throat and conjunctival swab/scrapingFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 9. STORAGE AND COLLECTION OF BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS FOR VIRAL TESTING • What types of specimens are collected to diagnose? • Respiratory tract infections: Nasal and bronchial washings, throat and nasal swabs, sputum • Eye infections: throat and conjunctival swab/scraping • Gastrointestinal tract infections: stool and rectal swabsFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 10. STORAGE AND COLLECTION OF BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS FOR VIRAL TESTING • What types of specimens are collected to diagnose? • Respiratory tract infections: Nasal and bronchial washings, throat and nasal swabs, sputum • Eye infections: throat and conjunctival swab/scraping • Gastrointestinal tract infections: stool and rectal swabs • Vesicular rash: vesicle fluid, skin scrapingsFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 11. STORAGE AND COLLECTION OF BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS FOR VIRAL TESTING • What types of specimens are • Maculopapular rash: throat, stool, collected to diagnose? and rectal swabs • Respiratory tract infections: Nasal and bronchial washings, throat and nasal swabs, sputum • Eye infections: throat and conjunctival swab/scraping • Gastrointestinal tract infections: stool and rectal swabs • Vesicular rash: vesicle fluid, skin scrapingsFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 12. STORAGE AND COLLECTION OF BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS FOR VIRAL TESTING • What types of specimens are • Maculopapular rash: throat, stool, collected to diagnose? and rectal swabs • Respiratory tract infections: Nasal • CNS (encephalitis and meningitis and bronchial washings, throat cases): stool, tissue, saliva, brain and nasal swabs, sputum biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid • Eye infections: throat and conjunctival swab/scraping • Gastrointestinal tract infections: stool and rectal swabs • Vesicular rash: vesicle fluid, skin scrapingsFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 13. STORAGE AND COLLECTION OF BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS FOR VIRAL TESTING • What types of specimens are • Maculopapular rash: throat, stool, collected to diagnose? and rectal swabs • Respiratory tract infections: Nasal • CNS (encephalitis and meningitis and bronchial washings, throat cases): stool, tissue, saliva, brain and nasal swabs, sputum biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid • Eye infections: throat and • Genital infections: vesicle fluid or conjunctival swab/scraping swab • Gastrointestinal tract infections: stool and rectal swabs • Vesicular rash: vesicle fluid, skin scrapingsFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 14. STORAGE AND COLLECTION OF BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS FOR VIRAL TESTING • What types of specimens are • Maculopapular rash: throat, stool, collected to diagnose? and rectal swabs • Respiratory tract infections: Nasal • CNS (encephalitis and meningitis and bronchial washings, throat cases): stool, tissue, saliva, brain and nasal swabs, sputum biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid • Eye infections: throat and • Genital infections: vesicle fluid or conjunctival swab/scraping swab • Gastrointestinal tract infections: • Urinary tract infections: urine stool and rectal swabs • Vesicular rash: vesicle fluid, skin scrapingsFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 15. STORAGE AND COLLECTION OF BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS FOR VIRAL TESTING • What types of specimens are • Maculopapular rash: throat, stool, collected to diagnose? and rectal swabs • Respiratory tract infections: Nasal • CNS (encephalitis and meningitis and bronchial washings, throat cases): stool, tissue, saliva, brain and nasal swabs, sputum biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid • Eye infections: throat and • Genital infections: vesicle fluid or conjunctival swab/scraping swab • Gastrointestinal tract infections: • Urinary tract infections: urine stool and rectal swabs • Bloodborne infections: blood • Vesicular rash: vesicle fluid, skin scrapingsFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 16. General Categories • Direct Examination • Indirect Examination (Virus Isolation) • SerologyFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 17. DIRECT EXAMINATIONFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 18. DIRECT: clinical specimen is examined directly for the presence of virus particles, virus antigen or viral nucleic acids • Electron Microscopy morphology / immunoelectron microscopy • Light microscopy histological appearance - e.g. inclusion bodies • Antigen detection immunofluorescence, ELISA etc. • Molecular techniques for the direct detection of viral genomesFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 19. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY • BASIS: morphology • MAGNIFICATION: 50,000 • USE: • diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis by detecting viruses in faeces e.g. rotavirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, calicivirus and Norwalk- like viruses • detection of viruses in vesicles and other skin lesions, such as herpesviruses and papillomaviruses • NOTE: With the availability of reliable antigen detection and molecular methods for the detection of viruses associated with viral gastroenteritis, EM is becoming less and less widely usedFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 20. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY • SENSITIVITY & SPECIFICITY ISSUES: • sensitivity and specificity of EM may be enhanced by immune electron microscopy • virus specific antibody is used to agglutinate virus particles together and thus making them easier to recognize, or to capture virus particles onto the EM grid • DISADVANTAGE: • expense involved in purchasing and maintaining the facility • poor sensitivity (at least 10 to 10 virus particles per ml in 5 6 the sample required for visualization) • observer must be highly skilledFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 21. Electronmicrographs of viruses commonly found in stool specimens from patients suffering from gastroenteritis. From left to right: rotavirus, adenovirus, astroviruses, Norwalk-like viruses.  (Courtesy of Linda M. Stannard, University of Cape Town, http://www.uct.ac.za/depts/mmi/stannard/emimages.html) Influenza Virus Ebola VirusFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 22. Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 23. Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 24. IMMUNOELECTRON MICROSCOPY PARAMYXOVIRUSES Int. J. Morphol., 28(2):627-636, 2010 COXSACKIE B4 VIRUS (http://www.rightdiagnosis.com) NEW CASTLE DISEASE (Veits J et al. PNAS 2006;103:8197-8202)Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 25. LIGHT MICROSCOPY • ASSUMPTION: Replicating virus often produce histological changes in infected cells. • Viral inclusion bodies: collections of replicating virus particles either in the nucleus or cytoplasm • EXAMPLES: negri bodies (RABIES) and cytomegalic inclusion bodies (CYTOMEGALOVIRUS / CMV) • Not sensitive or specific; BUT useful adjunct in the diagnosis of certain viral infectionsFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 26. LIGHT MICROSCOPY RABIES http://infectionnet.org’; http://virology-online.com CYTOMEGALOVIRUS http://www.meddean.luc.edu http://en.citizendium.orgFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 27. ANTIGEN DETECTION Immunofluorescence (IF) • specimen: nasopharyngeal aspirates for respiratory viruses (e.g.. RSV, flu A, flu B, and adenoviruses) • specimen: stool (rotavirus) • specimen: skin scrapings (HSV) • specimen: serum (HepB)* • Advantage: rapid to perform; result being available within a few hours • Disadvantage: technique is often tedious and time consuming; result difficult to read and interpret; sensitivity and specificity poor • NOTE: quality of the specimen obtained is of utmost importance in order for the test to work properly • * also categorized as serological assayFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 28. ANTIGEN DETECTION Immunofluorescence (IF) CYTOMEGALOVIRUS http://www.med.upenn.eduFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 29. ANTIGEN DETECTION Immunofluorescence (IF) VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS BMJ Case Reports 2009; doi:10.1136/bcr.07.2008.0461 AFRICAN SWINE FEVER Journal of General Virology March 2005; 86 (3)Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 30. ANTIGEN DETECTION Molecular Probes • Dot-blot and Southern-blot: use of specific DNA/RNA probes for hybridization • Specificity: depends on the conditions used for hybridization • Allow for the quantification of DNA/RNA present in the specimen • Sensitivity: not better than conventional viral diagnostic methods.Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 31. ANTIGEN DETECTION Molecular Probes CYTOMEGALOVIRUS EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS http://www.fgsc.net Mol Path 2000;53:255-261 doi:10.1136/mp.53.5.255Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 32. ANTIGEN DETECTION Molecular Probes (PCR) • extremely sensitive technique (1 DNA molecule in a clinical specimen) • ISSUES: contamination (danger of false + result); + result may not necessarily indicate the INFLUENZA presence of disease http://www.nanohelix.netFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 33. ANTIGEN DETECTION Molecular Probes (PCR)Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 34. INDIRECT EXAMINATIONFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 35. INDIRECT: the specimen into cell culture, eggs or animals in an attempt to grow the virus (virus isolation) • Cell Culture - cytopathic effect, haemadsorption, confirmation by neutralization, interference,  immunofluorescence etc. • Eggs pocks on CAM - haemagglutination, inclusion bodies • Animals disease or death confirmation by neutralizationFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 36. RECALL: Koch’s PostulatesFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 37. RECALL: 1. Organism present only in Koch’s Postulates diseased individualsFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 38. RECALL: 1. Organism present only in Koch’s Postulates diseased individuals 2. Organism cultivated in pure culture from diseased individualFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 39. RECALL: Koch’s PostulatesFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 40. 3. Organism causes disease RECALL: when injected into Koch’s Postulates healthy individualsFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 41. 3. Organism causes disease RECALL: when injected into Koch’s Postulates healthy individuals 4. Organism re-isolated from infected individual from point 3.Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 42. MODIFICATION TO THE KOCH’S POSTULATE (T.M. River, 1937) • Isolate virus from diseased hosts • Cultivation of virus in host cells • Proof of filterability • Production of a comparable disease when the cultivated virus is used to infect experimental animals • Re-isolation of the same virus from the infected experimental animal • Detection of a specific immune response to the virusFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 43. TYPES OF CELL CULTURE • Primary cells - e.g. Monkey Kidney • essentially normal cells obtained from freshly killed adult animals; can only be passaged once or twice • Semi-continuous cells - e.g. Human embryonic kidney and skin fibroblasts • taken from embryonic tissue; may be passaged up to 50 times • Continuous cells - e.g. HeLa,Vero, Hep2, LLC-MK2, BGM • immortalized cells i.e. tumour cell lines; may be passaged indefinitely NOTE: Primary cell culture are widely acknowledged as the best cell culture systems available since they support the widest range of viruses BUT are very expensive and it is often difficult to obtain a reliable supply. Continuous cells are the most easy to handle BUT range of viruses supported is often limitedFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 44. PRESENCE OF GROWING VIRUS IS USUALLY DETECTED BY: • Cytopathic Effect (CPE) - may be specific or non-specific e.g. HSV and CMV produces a specific CPE, whereas enteroviruses do not • Haemadsorption - cells acquire the ability to stick to mammalian red blood cells • mainly used for the detection of influenza and parainfluenzaviruses. NOTE: Confirmation of the identity of the virus may be carried out using neutralization, haemadsorption-inhibition, immunofluorescence, or molecular testsFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 45. Detection of Herpes Virus Simplex 1 using the shell vial technique and immunofluorescence Tissue culture cells are grown on coverslips on the bottom of shell vialsFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 46. Quantitative Assays Quantitative Plaque AssaysFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 47. CYTOPATHIC EFFECTSFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 48. CYTOPATHIC EFFECTS • Visible results of viral infection • Cell death by • Multiplying viruses • Inhibition of DNA, RNA or protein synthesis • Effects on permeability of membraneFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 49. CYTOPATHIC EFFECTS • Cytopathic effects (CPEs) of infected cells can be observed with inverted light microscopes • Rounding/detachment from plastic flask • Syncytia/fusion (Fusion of cells) • Shrinkage • Increased refractility • Aggregation • Loss of adherence Cytopathic effect of HSV, enterovirus 71, and RSV in cell culture. Note the ballooning of cells in the cases of HSV and enterovirus 71. Note syncytia formation in the case of RSV. (Linda Stannard. University of Cape Town, • Cell lysis/deathFriday, March 2, 2012 Virology Laboratory,Yale-New Haven Hospital)
  • 50. Quantitative Assays  Tissue Culture Infectious Dose: TCID50  Measure cytopathic effects other than lysis  Concentration of virus it takes to produce cytopathic effect (CPE) in 50% of the dishes of cells infected with virusFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 51. Quantitative Assays TCID50 AssaysFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 52. PROBLEMS WITH CELL CULTURE • Long period (up to 4 weeks) required for a result to be available • Sensitivity is often poor and depends on many factors, such as the condition of the specimen, and the condition of the cell sheet • Very susceptible to bacterial contamination and toxic substances in the specimen • Many viruses will not grow in cell culture at all e.g. Hepatitis B and C, Diarrhoeal viruses, parvovirus etc.Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 53. SEROLOGYFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 54. SEROLOGICAL TESTS • ASSUMPTION: • Primary Exposure: first antibody to appear is IgM, which is followed by a much higher titre of IgG • Secondary exposure or Re-infection: level of specific IgM either remain the same or rises slightly But IgG shoots up rapidly and far more earlier than in a primary infection. • ASSAYS AVAILABLE: • EIA and RIA, one can look specifically for IgM or IgG (most sensitive) • CFT and HAI, one can only detect total antibody, which comprises mainly IgG (not so sensitive) • The sensitivity and specificity of the assays depend greatly on the antigen used • Assays that use recombinant protein or synthetic peptide antigens tend to be more specific than those using whole or disrupted virus particlesFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 55. SEROLOGY: detection of rising titres of antibody between acute and convalescent stages of infectionFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 56. NOTE: CRITERIA FOR PRIMARY INFECTION • A significant rise in titre of IgG/total antibody between acute and convalescent sera • however, a significant rise is very difficult to define and depends greatly on the assay used • CFT and HAI: normally taken as a four-fold or greater increase in titre • The main problem is that diagnosis is usually retrospective because by the time the convalescent serum is taken, the patient had probably recoveredFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 57. NOTE: CRITERIA FOR PRIMARY INFECTION • Presence of IgM • EIA, RIA, and IF may be used for the detection of IgM • offers a rapid means of diagnosis • PROBLEMS: interference by rheumatoid factor, re- infection by the virus, and unexplained persistence of IgM years after the primary infectionFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 58. NOTE: CRITERIA FOR PRIMARY INFECTION • Seroconversion • changing from a previously antibody negative state to a positive state e.g. seroconversion against HIV following a needle-stick injury, or against rubella following contact with a known case • A single high titre of IgG (or total antibody) • very unreliable means of serological diagnosis since the cut-off is very difficult to defineFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 59. SEROLOGY: detection of rising titres of antibody between acute and convalescent stages of infection • Classical Techniques • Newer Techniques • Complement Fixation Test • Radioimmunoassay (RIA) • Hemagglutination Inhibition • Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) Test • Particle Agglutination Tests • Immunofluorescence Technique (IF • Western Blot (WB) • Neutralization Tests • Recombinant Immunoblot assay (RIBA) • Single Radial HemolysisFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 60. LIMITATIONS OF SEROLOGY • For viruses such as rubella and hepatitis A, the onset of clinical symptoms coincide with the development of antibodies (detection of IgM or rising titres of IgG in the serum of the patient would indicate active disease) • Many viruses often produce clinical disease before the appearance of antibodies such as respiratory and diarrheal viruses (any serological diagnosis would be retrospective and therefore will not be that useful) • There are also viruses which produce clinical disease months or years after seroconversion e.g. HIV and rabies (mere presence of antibody is sufficient to make a definitive diagnosis)Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 61. DISADVANTAGES OF SEROLOGYFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 62. DISADVANTAGES OF SEROLOGY • Long length of time required for diagnosis for paired acute and convalescent seraFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 63. DISADVANTAGES OF SEROLOGY • Long length of time required for diagnosis for paired acute and convalescent sera • Mild local infections may not produce a detectable humoral immune response (e.g. HSV genitalis)Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 64. DISADVANTAGES OF SEROLOGY • Long length of time required for diagnosis for paired acute and convalescent sera • Mild local infections may not produce a detectable humoral immune response (e.g. HSV genitalis) • Extensive antigenic cross-reactivity between related viruses may lead to false positive results (e.g. Japanese B encephalitis and Dengue)Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 65. DISADVANTAGES OF SEROLOGY • Long length of time required for diagnosis for paired acute and convalescent sera • Mild local infections may not produce a detectable humoral immune response (e.g. HSV genitalis) • Extensive antigenic cross-reactivity between related viruses may lead to false positive results (e.g. Japanese B encephalitis and Dengue) • Immunocompromised patients often give a reduced or absent humoral immune responseFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 66. DISADVANTAGES OF SEROLOGY • Long length of time required for diagnosis for paired acute and convalescent sera • Mild local infections may not produce a detectable humoral immune response (e.g. HSV genitalis) • Extensive antigenic cross-reactivity between related viruses may lead to false positive results (e.g. Japanese B encephalitis and Dengue) • Immunocompromised patients often give a reduced or absent humoral immune response • Patients with infectious mononucleosis and those with connective tissue diseases such as SLE may react non-specifically giving a false positive resultFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 67. DISADVANTAGES OF SEROLOGY • Long length of time required for diagnosis for paired acute and convalescent sera • Mild local infections may not produce a detectable humoral immune response (e.g. HSV genitalis) • Extensive antigenic cross-reactivity between related viruses may lead to false positive results (e.g. Japanese B encephalitis and Dengue) • Immunocompromised patients often give a reduced or absent humoral immune response • Patients with infectious mononucleosis and those with connective tissue diseases such as SLE may react non-specifically giving a false positive result • Patients given blood or blood products may give a false positive result due to the transfer of antibodyFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 68. HEMAGGLUTINATION/ HEMAGGLUTINATION-INHIBITION/ COMPLEMENT FIXATION TESTFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 69. • Some viruses agglutinate RBCs • Mumps, measles, influenza • Hemagglutination • Clumps RBCsFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 70. HEMADSORPTION TEST Hemadsorption of red blood cells onto the surface of a cell sheet infected by mumps virus (Courtesy of Linda Stannard, University of Cape Town).Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 71. ENZYME -LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA)Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 72. HIV & ELISAFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 73. WESTERN BLOT TO CONFIRM HIVFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 74. (b) (c) Image courtesy of Bio-Rad Laboratories Figure 5.21c: The typical results of a Western blot Figure 5.21b: The structure of HIV-1. testing patient serum for HIV-1 antibodies.Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 75. WESTERN BLOT TO CONFIRM HIVFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 76. SEROLOGY AND HEPATITISFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 77. SEROLOGY AND HEPATITISFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 78. SEROLOGY AND HEPATITISFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 79. SEROLOGY AND HEPATITISFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 80. SEROLOGY AND HEPATITISFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 81. SEROLOGY AND HEPATITISFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 82. USUALLY DIAGNOSED BY SEROLOGY • Hepatitis Viruses - hepatitis A, B and C infections are usually diagnosed by serology as these viruses cannot be routinely cultured • including the test for HBsAg • HIV - HIV infection is normally diagnosed by serology • The only instance when serology cannot be relied on is in diagnosing HIV infection in the newbornFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 83. USUALLY DIAGNOSED BY SEROLOGY • Rubella and parvovirus - rubella and parvovirus infections are usually diagnosed by serology • difficult to isolate and parvovirus cannot be isolated by routine cell culture • onset of clinical symptoms for these infections coincide with the appearance of antibodies and thus there is little need for other means of diagnosis • EBV - although EBV serology is reliable, the heterophile antibody test is usually used for diagnosing cases of infectious mononucleosisFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 84. MAY BE DIAGNOSED BY SEROLOGY BUT NOT METHOD OF CHOICE • HSV - although CFT and other serological tests are available for HSV, HSV infections are usually diagnosed by cell culture • Electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and PCR are available as rapid diagnostic methods • Serology is not that reliable in the case of HSV infections, in particular reactivations • CMV - although serology is available for diagnosing CMV infections, it is not reliable as most cases of CMV infections are a result of reactivation/reinfection • Cell culture (including the DEAFF test) and rapid methods such as the CMV antigenaemia test and PCR are preferred means of diagnosisFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 85. MAY BE DIAGNOSED BY SEROLOGY BUT NOT METHOD OF CHOICE • Respiratory viruses - diagnosis of respiratory virus infections is more commonly made by cell culture or more rapidly by immunofluorescence of the clinical material • CFT and HAI techniques are usually used for serology and any diagnosis is going to be retrospective • Enteroviruses - enterovirus infections are usually diagnosed by cell culture • Serology has a very limited role to play as available tests such as neutralization, are cumbersome to perform and in any case, the diagnosis would be retrospectiveFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 86. MAY BE DIAGNOSED BY SEROLOGY BUT NOT METHOD OF CHOICE • Rabies - serology is used along with other direct detection methods in diagnosing rabies and it may be used to check for immunity after vaccination • Arboviruses - arbovirus infections may be diagnosed by serology or virus isolation • Arboviruses will not usually grow in routine cell cultures and may require mosquito cell lines or animal inoculation.Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 87. NOT NORMALLY DIAGNOSED BY SEROLOGY • Diarrhoeal viruses - diagnosis is going to be retrospective • normally diagnosed by electron microscopy and the detection of viral antigens by ELISA or particle agglutination • Papovavirus - serology is of virtually no value in diagnosing papovavirus infections • Poxviruses - serology is of little value in diagnosing poxvirus infectionsFriday, March 2, 2012
  • 88. SAFETY FIRST! Figure 5.25b: A CDC researcher working on a BSL-4 infectious agent. Figure 5.25c: A CDC scientist showers in a protective suit before leaving a BSL-4 laboratory.Friday, March 2, 2012
  • 89. Friday, March 2, 2012 QUIZ TIME!
  • 90. • Draw the general serologic course of a viral disease/infection and label properly (6 points) • Give one direct examination to diagnose a given viral pathogen and cite one virus that can use this method for diagnosis (8 points) • Give one indirect examination to diagnose a given viral pathogen cite one virus that can use this method for diagnosis (8 points) • Give one serological examination to diagnose a given viral pathogen cite one virus that can use this method for diagnosis (8 points)Friday, March 2, 2012