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RESEARCH METHODS                  (2nd semester, 2011-2012)                                        MMPBalolongSunday, Janu...
LECTURES                          TYPES OF RESEARCH -                          FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES                  ...
ACTIVITIES                          Formulating Titles, Research Questions                          and Objectives        ...
LECTURES                          TYPES OF RESEARCH -                          FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES                  ...
The usual definition of RESEARCH...                  “going to the library”                  “google-ing some key         ...
RESEARCH                the process of constant exploration                and discovery                the process of dis...
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH                            systematic, controlled,                            empirical, critical     ...
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH                          a process through which we attempt to                          achieve SYSTEM...
8 DISTINCT CHARACTERISTICS  OF A RESEARCH  METHODOLOGY                          MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
1. Originates with a question or                          problem                          What are he environmental      ...
2. Requires a clear articulation of                          a goal                           What precisely do you intend...
3. Follows a specific plan of                          procedure                           carefully planned              ...
4. Usually divides the principal problem     into more manageable subproblems                principal problem: How do we ...
5. Guided by specific research problem,     question or hypothesis                          hypothesizing: attempting to  ...
6. Accepts certain critical                          assumptions                           it is necessary to assume      ...
8. It follows logical,                          developmental stages                          From questions to answer    ...
ULTIMATE AIM OF RESEARCH                 To fill in the gaps along the stream of knowledge                 To provide solu...
EXPERIMENTAL              Purpose: the only method of research which can truly test !     !              ! !       hypothe...
The Process of Research:                                 Logical Steps                The Research problem                ...
THE RESEARCH PROBLEM                          the heart of the research project                          requirement: to s...
IDENTIFYING YOUR PROBLEM                 where to find interesting problems...                          journals, books, a...
CHARACTERISTIC OF A    RESEARCH PROBLEM              should be of great interest     can be completed in the              ...
A GOOD RESEARCH          PROBLEM SHOULD BE               S-M-A-R-T!             SPECIFIC, MEASURABLE, ACHIEVABLE,         ...
IS MY PROBLEM WORTHY OF RESEARCH?               EXternal factors                          novelty and avoidance of unneces...
IS MY PROBLEM WORTHY OF RESEARCH?              personal factors                   specialized working                     ...
STATING YOUR RESEARCH                          THE RESEARCH PROBLEM                          MUST BE STATED IN A CLEAR    ...
WHAT’S WRONG WITH THESE    RESEARCH PROBLEMS?               BUSING OF SCHOOL CHILDREN               RETIREMENT PLANS OF AD...
FORMULATION OF RESEARCH      OBJECTIVES                RESEARCH OBJECTIVES                          REFLECT THE QUESTIONS ...
SAMPLE OBJECTIVES                          TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMIZED                          PROTOCOL TO DETECT            ...
HOW DO YOU FORMULATE      YOUR OBJECTIVES?                          GENERAL                          summarize what is to ...
HOW DO YOU FORMULATE      YOUR OBJECTIVES?                          SPECIFIC                            smaller, logically...
PICKING THE RIGHT WORDS                          Clearly phrased in operational terms                          Use action ...
WORDS TO AVOID...         • To know         • To internalize         • To understand   • To grasp the                     ...
SAMPLE OBJECTIVES                          GENERAL: To evaluate if home-based care (CHBC) projects in Zimbabwe            ...
ACTIVITY FOR TODAY      1. Formulate Title from Desired Topics  2. Formulate the Research Question/Research               ...
LECTURES                          TYPES OF RESEARCH -                          FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES                  ...
SCOPE & LIMITATIONS                          Researcher must be shrewd in narrowing                          the scope of ...
FACTORS TO CONSIDER                 the scope of the problem                 time allotted for the conduct of the study   ...
THE LITERATURE                               REVIEW                          Evaluating Others’ and Developing Your OwnSun...
THE LITERATURE                               REVIEW                          Evaluating Others’ and Developing Your OwnSun...
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                          After the research problem has been identified and the objectives   ...
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                RELATED LITERATURE: Composed of                discussions of facts and princi...
FUNCTIONS OF YOUR RRL              It identifies the start for the research problem by              presenting the gaps, we...
CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUR RRL                 The surveyed materials must be as recent as                 possible          ...
HOW TO CONDUCT THE                           REVIEW OF RELATED                               LITERATURE                   ...
WHERE TO SEARCH                 personal or school library (magazines,                 journals, books, etc)              ...
WHERE ELSE???                          You can actually ask for                          reprints:                        ...
AFTER ALL THESE PHOTOX                  WHAT’S NEXT?                          “ITS TIME TO ORGANIZE YOUR TREASURES!”Sunday...
ORGANIZING YOUR RRL                          General Information                          Methods in Other Studies        ...
ALSO....                          write all bibliographic information,                          i.e., author(s), complete ...
IT’S TIME TO WRITE...                          AVOIDING PLAGIARISM!Sunday, January 1, 2012
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                          Use headings arranged in logical order to                          i...
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                Give due credit to the real source of your data.                Cite the autho...
A common problem...                              “turning your                           list of ideas into a             ...
HOW TO AVOID IT                          Make subheads (not too                          many), transitional              ...
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                Spice your writing with a variety. Keep your paper alive!                Vary ...
READY TO DO YOUR                       RRL?Sunday, January 1, 2012
But before that, let us learn to              critique or evaluate a research                           studySunday, Janua...
ACTIVITY FOR TODAY: CRITIQUING A        JOURNAL PAPER                    Why did the Researchers do this particular       ...
TODAY!!!           TYPES OF RESEARCH -           FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES                          SIGNIFICANCE - REVIEW ...
MATERIALS & METHODS              MATERIALS                         METHODS                          laboratory supplies   ...
FORMULATING YOUR        HYPOTHESIS                  A tentative explanation for certain phenomena, or                  eve...
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD        HYPOTHESIS                 Stated in declarative form                 Stated in definite ...
TWO TYPES OF                           HYPOTHESIS               “RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS AND THE NULL HYPOTHESIS”Sunday, Janua...
THE NULL HYPOTHESIS                    Ho                    Never true or established but can be possibly                ...
RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS/ALTERNATIVE        HYPOTHESIS                          HA                          Alternative hypothe...
EXAMPLES...                Ho : Vitamin C does not inhibit chromosomal lagging                HA : Vitamin C inhibit chrom...
TWO TYPES OF HA                    Non-directional – reflects a difference                    between groups, but the dire...
IDENTIFYING YOUR RESEARCH        VARIABLES                  Variable – any trait/characteristic that                  mani...
TYPES OF VARIABLE                Independent – the treatment variable                          variables in the course of ...
TRY THIS....                PROBLEM: the effect of carbon dioxide                loading on plant morphology              ...
CONSTRUCTING YOUR        RESEARCH DESIGN                  represents the “plan of attack” of the                  research...
CONSTRUCTING YOUR        RESEARCH DESIGN                  the specific areas of concern in the choice of a                ...
FACTORS TO CONSIDER...                  research objectives                  feasibility                  ethical consider...
INTERNAL VALIDITY                refers to extent to which investigator is able to                control the different bi...
EXTERNAL VALIDITY                 refers to the extent to which the                 investigator is able to generalize the...
DESIGN TOOLS                          Experimentation                          Questionnaire                          Inte...
DESIGN THE PLAN FOR DATA        ANALYSIS                A number of researchers think about data analysis only            ...
THE SOLUTION...                 A good practice is to construct a dummy                 table                 Dummy Tables...
RESEARCH DESIGN             Table 1 - Research Questions and Designs  ----------------------------------------------------...
DATA ANALYSIS     TABLE 2      Relating Research Designs to Appropriate Statistical Analyses   ---------------------------...
DATA ANALYSIS  3. Time-Series or Single        3.    Interrupted time-series  analysis      Subject                       ...
CITING YOUR REFERENCES         Format: American         Psychological         Association (APA)         http://         ww...
GANTT CHARTSunday, January 1, 2012
READY TO MAKE          YOUR        PROPOSAL?Sunday, January 1, 2012
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  1. 1. RESEARCH METHODS (2nd semester, 2011-2012) MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  2. 2. LECTURES TYPES OF RESEARCH - FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES SIGNIFICANCE - REVIEW OF LITERATURE METHODOLOGIES - GANTT CHART MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  3. 3. ACTIVITIES Formulating Titles, Research Questions and Objectives Writing an RRL Constructing Dummy Tables and Graphs Developing the Literature Citations MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  4. 4. LECTURES TYPES OF RESEARCH - FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES SIGNIFICANCE - REVIEW OF LITERATURE METHODOLOGIES - GANTT CHART MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  5. 5. The usual definition of RESEARCH... “going to the library” “google-ing some key words” What’s your definition??? MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  6. 6. RESEARCH the process of constant exploration and discovery the process of discovering new information and gain new knowledge MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  7. 7. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH systematic, controlled, empirical, critical investigation of hypothetical prepositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena (Kerlinger, 1973) MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  8. 8. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH a process through which we attempt to achieve SYSTEMATICALLY and with the support of data: the answer to a question the resolution of a problem the greater understanding of a phenomenon MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  9. 9. 8 DISTINCT CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  10. 10. 1. Originates with a question or problem What are he environmental factors that increase shrimp productivity? What active compound in atis leaves extract is cytotoxic to cancer cells? MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  11. 11. 2. Requires a clear articulation of a goal What precisely do you intend to do? Example: to determine the difference in body weight loss after administration of various plant extracts MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  12. 12. 3. Follows a specific plan of procedure carefully planned methods in a purposeful way: to yield data relevant to their particular research problem MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  13. 13. 4. Usually divides the principal problem into more manageable subproblems principal problem: How do we get from UP Manila to Trinoma? subproblems: What is the most direct route? How far do I travel by train? How much will I spend to reach my destination? MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  14. 14. 5. Guided by specific research problem, question or hypothesis hypothesizing: attempting to account for the cause (*guesses) MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  15. 15. 6. Accepts certain critical assumptions it is necessary to assume 7. Research requires the collection and interpretation of data in attempting to resolve the problem that initiated the research MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  16. 16. 8. It follows logical, developmental stages From questions to answer “research begets research” MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  17. 17. ULTIMATE AIM OF RESEARCH To fill in the gaps along the stream of knowledge To provide solution to contradictory results from previous studies To satisfy one’s curiosity and quest for knowledge To find truths for the satisfaction of answering questions and using this new information to help others MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  18. 18. EXPERIMENTAL Purpose: the only method of research which can truly test ! ! ! ! hypothesis concerning cause-effect relationship. the effect of a single variable applied to one situation can be assessed and the difference determined Independent Variable : also referred to as the experimental variable, the cause, or the treatment, is that activity or characteristic believed to make a difference. Dependent Variable : also known as the criterion variable, effect, or posttest is the outcome of the study, the change or difference in groups which occurs as a result of the manipulation of the independent variable. Example: 1.! Effect of varying concentrations of Pb on the brain of golden apple snail MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  19. 19. The Process of Research: Logical Steps The Research problem ProblEm Identification (Looking for a Topic) Characteristics of a Good Research Problem Researchability of the Problem Formulation of Research Objectives Definition of Research Objectives Characteristics of Research ObjectivesSunday, January 1, 2012
  20. 20. THE RESEARCH PROBLEM the heart of the research project requirement: to state the problem with unwavering clarity, precision what if i simply cannot find a good problem? MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  21. 21. IDENTIFYING YOUR PROBLEM where to find interesting problems... journals, books, abstracts (library/trusted links) recommendation sections of theses and dissertations/journal articles ideas from your mentor or professor ideas from seminars, research colloquia and conferences personal/family experiences rare/interesting occurrences which needs to be explained top ten causes of mortality/morbidity in your locality MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  22. 22. CHARACTERISTIC OF A RESEARCH PROBLEM should be of great interest can be completed in the to you allotted time desired useful for the concerned must use appropriate and people in a particular field up-to-date technology possess novelty does not carry ethical or moral impediments lays foundation for further research in the field MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  23. 23. A GOOD RESEARCH PROBLEM SHOULD BE S-M-A-R-T! SPECIFIC, MEASURABLE, ACHIEVABLE, REALISTIC, TIME-BOUND MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  24. 24. IS MY PROBLEM WORTHY OF RESEARCH? EXternal factors novelty and avoidance of unnecessary repetition practical value of the problem availability of data on the problem MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  25. 25. IS MY PROBLEM WORTHY OF RESEARCH? personal factors specialized working conditions training and personal qualifications hazards to be encountered time requirements research funds (cost) availability of subjects and equipments MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  26. 26. STATING YOUR RESEARCH THE RESEARCH PROBLEM MUST BE STATED IN A CLEAR AND COMPLETE GRAMMATICAL SENTENCE IN AS FEW WORDS AS POSSIBLE! MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  27. 27. WHAT’S WRONG WITH THESE RESEARCH PROBLEMS? BUSING OF SCHOOL CHILDREN RETIREMENT PLANS OF ADULTS EFFECT OF PHARMACEUTICALS ON EMBRYO E. COLI AND WATER QUALITY MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  28. 28. FORMULATION OF RESEARCH OBJECTIVES RESEARCH OBJECTIVES REFLECT THE QUESTIONS WHOSE ANSWERS THE INVESTIGATOR WANTS TO STUDY YIELD TO CAN BE EXPRESSED EITHER IN THE FORM OF A STATEMENT OR A QUESTION SERVES AS THE STEERING WHEEL IN THE CONDUCT OF A RESEARCH PROJECT SERVES A S AGUIDE IN SPECIFYING VARIABLES TILL INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  29. 29. SAMPLE OBJECTIVES TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMIZED PROTOCOL TO DETECT FLAVIVIRUSES IN SERUM SAMPLES USING PCR TO DETERMINE THE EFFICACY OF ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  30. 30. HOW DO YOU FORMULATE YOUR OBJECTIVES? GENERAL summarize what is to be achieved by the study. should be closely related to the research question. EXAMPLE: Problem: low utilization of child protection units (CPUs) General Objective: to identify the reasons for this low utilization MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  31. 31. HOW DO YOU FORMULATE YOUR OBJECTIVES? SPECIFIC smaller, logically connected parts of a general objective should systematically address the various aspects (dimensions) of the general objective should specify what you will do in your study, where and for what purpose.! MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  32. 32. PICKING THE RIGHT WORDS Clearly phrased in operational terms Use action verbs Examples: explain, apply, predict, identify, employ, evaluate, describe, illustrate, defend, integrate, use, assess, contrast, interpret, distinguish, sort, categorize, diagram, solve, formulate, report, relate, organize, restate, recall, prepare, review, list, arrange, classify, name, construct, translate, recognize, create, determine MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  33. 33. WORDS TO AVOID... • To know • To internalize • To understand • To grasp the significance • To really of! understand • To have an • To fully awareness appreciate of! ! MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  34. 34. SAMPLE OBJECTIVES GENERAL: To evaluate if home-based care (CHBC) projects in Zimbabwe provide adequate, affordable and sustainable care of good quality to people with HIV/AIDS, and to identify ways in which these services can be improved SPECIFIC To identify the full range of economic, psychosocial, health/nursing care and other needs of patients and their families affected by AIDS. To determine the extent to which formal and informal support systems address these needs from the viewpoint of service providers as well as patients. To determine the economic costs of CHBC to the patient and family as well as to the formal CHBC programmes themselves. To relate the calculated costs to the quality of care provided to the patient by the family and to the family/patient by the CHBC programme. MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  35. 35. ACTIVITY FOR TODAY 1. Formulate Title from Desired Topics 2. Formulate the Research Question/Research problem 3. Formulate Objectives MMPBalolongSunday, January 1, 2012
  36. 36. LECTURES TYPES OF RESEARCH - FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES SIGNIFICANCE - REVIEW OF LITERATURE METHODOLOGIES - GANTT CHARTSunday, January 1, 2012
  37. 37. SCOPE & LIMITATIONS Researcher must be shrewd in narrowing the scope of his study without becoming concerned with a trivial problem Assumptions, restrictions and limitation must be explicit with respect to the coverage of the study Helps focus attention on valid objectives, & helps minimize the dangers of over generalizationSunday, January 1, 2012
  38. 38. FACTORS TO CONSIDER the scope of the problem time allotted for the conduct of the study cost and funding cooperation/coordination needed from other institutions or researchers availability of research subjects availability of equipment needed ethical considerationsSunday, January 1, 2012
  39. 39. THE LITERATURE REVIEW Evaluating Others’ and Developing Your OwnSunday, January 1, 2012
  40. 40. THE LITERATURE REVIEW Evaluating Others’ and Developing Your OwnSunday, January 1, 2012
  41. 41. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE After the research problem has been identified and the objectives formulated, a review of related literature needs to be done. Two Important Uses: • To get acquainted with the existing studies related to the research to be conducted relative to: - who have done the work on the problem area - what has been found - research design utilized - statistical analysis applied - problem met and how were they resolved • To establish a rationale or a theoretical or conceptual framework based on previous research studies done.Sunday, January 1, 2012
  42. 42. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE RELATED LITERATURE: Composed of discussions of facts and principles to which the present study is related RELATED STUDIES: studies, inquiries or investigations conducted to which the present proposed study is related or has some bearing or similarity usually unpublished materials manuscripts; theses; dissertationsSunday, January 1, 2012
  43. 43. FUNCTIONS OF YOUR RRL It identifies the start for the research problem by presenting the gaps, weak points, and inconsistencies in the previous researches. This provides the study with a conceptual framework justifying the need for investigations. It puts together all the constructs or concepts that are related with the researcher’s topic. The theory then leads you into the specific questions to ask in your own investigation It presents the relationships among variables that have been investigated. This process enables you to view your topic on hand against the findings earlier bared.Sunday, January 1, 2012
  44. 44. CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUR RRL The surveyed materials must be as recent as possible Materials reviewed must be objective and unbiased Materials surveyed must be relevant to the study Surveyed materials must have been based upon genuinely original and true facts or data to make them valid and reliable Reviewed materials must not be too few or too manySunday, January 1, 2012
  45. 45. HOW TO CONDUCT THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE “WHERE DO I GO FROM HERE?”Sunday, January 1, 2012
  46. 46. WHERE TO SEARCH personal or school library (magazines, journals, books, etc) attend seminars, scientific meetings (under your topic of course)...take down notes do a computer-aided search through databases example: www.scirus.com; pubmed; SCIENCE DIRECT, etcSunday, January 1, 2012
  47. 47. WHERE ELSE??? You can actually ask for reprints: via postcards via request letters via emailsSunday, January 1, 2012
  48. 48. AFTER ALL THESE PHOTOX WHAT’S NEXT? “ITS TIME TO ORGANIZE YOUR TREASURES!”Sunday, January 1, 2012
  49. 49. ORGANIZING YOUR RRL General Information Methods in Other Studies Support for Objectives Results to Compare with My Results Pros and Cons of Controversy Others...it may be of use (malay mo!)Sunday, January 1, 2012
  50. 50. ALSO.... write all bibliographic information, i.e., author(s), complete title, publisher, date and place of publication, and so on write what others have said on the subject plus your own impressions and commentsSunday, January 1, 2012
  51. 51. IT’S TIME TO WRITE... AVOIDING PLAGIARISM!Sunday, January 1, 2012
  52. 52. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Use headings arranged in logical order to indicate main points Avoid too long introduction to your main topic. Include information that are directly related and relevant to your topic. A maximum of half-page (double-space) must constitute one paragraph Do not copy in toto the information from your source. No more than 10% of the entire paper is allowed for direct quotationSunday, January 1, 2012
  53. 53. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Give due credit to the real source of your data. Cite the authors at the end of the sentence. Paraphrase using your own words and style the data gathered. Summarize important points from your sources and relate them to your topic. Reinforce your data with selected figures or statistics from your course.Sunday, January 1, 2012
  54. 54. A common problem... “turning your list of ideas into a BORING review”Sunday, January 1, 2012
  55. 55. HOW TO AVOID IT Make subheads (not too many), transitional phrases and unifying ideas to make information flow smoothlySunday, January 1, 2012
  56. 56. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Spice your writing with a variety. Keep your paper alive! Vary the way sentence and paragraph begins: Author A found out Author B found out Replace found out with: demonstrates; presented evidence for; supported; observed; reported; examined; concluded Early in the 1980’s, author A According to Author A,Sunday, January 1, 2012
  57. 57. READY TO DO YOUR RRL?Sunday, January 1, 2012
  58. 58. But before that, let us learn to critique or evaluate a research studySunday, January 1, 2012
  59. 59. ACTIVITY FOR TODAY: CRITIQUING A JOURNAL PAPER Why did the Researchers do this particular study? Who/What was/were studied? How was the study done? What did the researchers find? What were the limitations of the study? What are the implications of the study?Sunday, January 1, 2012
  60. 60. TODAY!!! TYPES OF RESEARCH - FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES SIGNIFICANCE - REVIEW OF LITERATURE METHODOLOGIES - GANTT CHARTSunday, January 1, 2012
  61. 61. MATERIALS & METHODS MATERIALS METHODS laboratory supplies formulate hypothesis equipment (descriptive) travel, testing hypothesis communication (analytical)Sunday, January 1, 2012
  62. 62. FORMULATING YOUR HYPOTHESIS A tentative explanation for certain phenomena, or events which have occurred or will occur (Gay, 1976) States the researcher’s expectations concerning the relationship between two or more variables in the research problem Testable statement of a potential relationship between two or more variables (McGuigan, 1978)Sunday, January 1, 2012
  63. 63. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD HYPOTHESIS Stated in declarative form Stated in definite terms, the relationship between variables Should reflect the theory or literature that it is based on Should be brief and to the point Should be testableSunday, January 1, 2012
  64. 64. TWO TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS “RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS AND THE NULL HYPOTHESIS”Sunday, January 1, 2012
  65. 65. THE NULL HYPOTHESIS Ho Never true or established but can be possibly disproved in the course of the experimentation No difference relationship between the variables we want to study May act as a starting point and as a benchmark against which the researcher will measure the actual outcome of the study once the researcher has collected the dataSunday, January 1, 2012
  66. 66. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS/ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS HA Alternative hypothesis Relationship is always positiveSunday, January 1, 2012
  67. 67. EXAMPLES... Ho : Vitamin C does not inhibit chromosomal lagging HA : Vitamin C inhibit chromosomal lagging by 50% compared to placebo Ho : There is no significant difference between the effectivity of cerebral artery bypass and standard medical therapy) HA : Cerebral artery bypass is more effective than standard medical therapySunday, January 1, 2012
  68. 68. TWO TYPES OF HA Non-directional – reflects a difference between groups, but the direction of the difference (unequal) is NOT specified Directional – reflects a difference between groups and the difference is specifiedSunday, January 1, 2012
  69. 69. IDENTIFYING YOUR RESEARCH VARIABLES Variable – any trait/characteristic that manifest differences irrespective of whether the differences are qualitative or quantitative Qualitative – eye color, shape of teeth, sex Quantitative – weight, height, length, light intensity, temperatureSunday, January 1, 2012
  70. 70. TYPES OF VARIABLE Independent – the treatment variable variables in the course of an experiment in an effort to understand the effects of this manipulation on some outcome (which you know as the dependent variable) the variable which is presumed to cause, effect, influence, or stimulate the outcome Dependent – outcome variables in a research study refers to the outcome or response variable Extraneous Variable – by themselves produce changes which may be mistaken to be the effect of the independent variable being considered Controlled, held constant or randomized – so the effects are neutralized, cancelled out or equated for all conditionsSunday, January 1, 2012
  71. 71. TRY THIS.... PROBLEM: the effect of carbon dioxide loading on plant morphology Identify the: Independent variable Dependent variable Intervening/extraneous variableSunday, January 1, 2012
  72. 72. CONSTRUCTING YOUR RESEARCH DESIGN represents the “plan of attack” of the researcher in answering the research objectives in obtaining all the relevant data in relation to objectives and hypothesisSunday, January 1, 2012
  73. 73. CONSTRUCTING YOUR RESEARCH DESIGN the specific areas of concern in the choice of a research design are the following selection and number of subjects control and manipulation of relevant variables establishment of criteria to evaluate outcomes instrumentation maximization of internal and external validitySunday, January 1, 2012
  74. 74. FACTORS TO CONSIDER... research objectives feasibility ethical considerations economy and efficiency internal and external validitySunday, January 1, 2012
  75. 75. INTERNAL VALIDITY refers to extent to which investigator is able to control the different biases affecting the study and in the end, measures what he really intends to measure Did the experimental treatment really bring about a change in the dependent variable? Did the independent variable make a significant difference?Sunday, January 1, 2012
  76. 76. EXTERNAL VALIDITY refers to the extent to which the investigator is able to generalize the results of his study Are the results applicable to groups and environment outside of experimental setting?Sunday, January 1, 2012
  77. 77. DESIGN TOOLS Experimentation Questionnaire Interview schedule and formsSunday, January 1, 2012
  78. 78. DESIGN THE PLAN FOR DATA ANALYSIS A number of researchers think about data analysis only after all data has been collected Consequences: Some very important variables in study are either not measured at all or collected using a measurement scale which is inconsistent with desired mode of data analysis Objectives are too ambitious or non-measurable, given the nature of the data that were collectedSunday, January 1, 2012
  79. 79. THE SOLUTION... A good practice is to construct a dummy table Dummy Tables – skeleton tables drawn to help the investigator conceptualize how the data is going to be organized and presented after it has been collectedSunday, January 1, 2012
  80. 80. RESEARCH DESIGN Table 1 - Research Questions and Designs -------------------------------------------------------------------------- TYPE OF RESEARCH RESEARCH DESIGN QUESTION USUALLY USED -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Descriptive 1. Observational w/ one observation (Describe conditions) 2. Observational w/ multiple obs. 3. Ex Post Facto Differences 3. Ex Post Facto * (Is there a difference?) 4. Pre/Post (two obs. of DV) 5. Pre/Post w/Control Group (two obs. of DV) 6. Two-Group (one after treat. obs. of DV) 7. Three-Group (one after treat. obs. of DV) 8. Repeated Measures (two or more obs.) 9. Factorial (two or more IVs) 10. Co-variance (pre-observation as control) 11. ABA Time Series (single subject) 12. AB Time Series (single subject) Relationships (How do the variables 13. Correlation/Regression (one group) relate to each other) 14. Correlation/Reliability (one group and two obs.) ------------------------------------------------------------------------- * This design bridges both typesSunday, January 1, 2012
  81. 81. DATA ANALYSIS TABLE 2 Relating Research Designs to Appropriate Statistical Analyses ------------------------------------------------------------------ - DESIGN STATISTICAL TEST ------------------------------------------------------------------ - DIFFERENCES RESEARCH QUESTION 1. Basic two-group design 1. a. t-test - independent means (Interval or ratio data)* b. Mann-Whitney U test (Ordinal data) c. Chi-square (nominal data) 2. Pre-test and post-test 2. a. t-test - dependent design. (non-independent) means (Interval) b. Wilcoxon or Sign test (Ordinal) c. McNemar test (Nominal)Sunday, January 1, 2012
  82. 82. DATA ANALYSIS 3. Time-Series or Single 3. Interrupted time-series analysis Subject (interval) 4. Covariance, or repeated 4. a. Repeated measures analysis measures design. of variance OR Analysis of co-variance (Interval) b. Friedmans AOV by ranks (Ordinal) c. Cochrans Q (Nominal) 5. Three or more groups 5. a. Analysis of variance design (Interval) b. Kruskal-Wallis AOV (Ordinal) c. Chi-square test for K independent groups (Nominal)Sunday, January 1, 2012
  83. 83. CITING YOUR REFERENCES Format: American Psychological Association (APA) http:// www.apastyle.orgSunday, January 1, 2012
  84. 84. GANTT CHARTSunday, January 1, 2012
  85. 85. READY TO MAKE YOUR PROPOSAL?Sunday, January 1, 2012
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