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Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3
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Principles od disease and epidemiology for exam 3

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  • 1. THE WAR WITH MICROBES...Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 2. PRINCIPLES OF DISEASE AND EPIDEMIOLOGYMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 3. DEFINING TERMS.. Pathogenicity: ability to cause disease Pathogenesis: steps or mechanism involved in the development of the disease Infection: colonization by a pathogen (may cause or not cause a disease) Infectious disease: disease caused by the microorganismMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 4. DEFINING TERMS... Localized infections: localized to one site (pimples, boils, abscess) Systemic infections: has spread throughout the body (e.g. miliary TB) Acute: rapid onset of disease and rapid recovery (e.g. measles. mumps, flu) Chronic: slow onset of disease and last a long time (e.g. HIV/AIDS, TB, leprosy)Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 5. DEFINING TERMS... Signs: subjective evidences of the disease experienced by the patient (aches, pains, itching, etc) Symptoms: objective evidence of the disease (verified by laboratory tests (heart rate, lumps via scans, etc) Latent: symptomatic to asymptomatic to symptomatic (e.g. herpes) Primary infection: first disease Secondary infection: complications due to opportunistic pathogensMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 6. STAGES OF DISEASEMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 7. TRANSMISSION: MEANS OF SPREAD Contact...Aerosols...Droplets...Oral-Fecal, Vectors, VehiclesMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 8. REPORTING DISEASES & SURVEILLANCE MORBIDITY (The rate of incidence of a notifiable disease) = How many got sick? MORTALITY (deaths from notifiable diseases) = How many died?Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 9. REPORTING DISEASES & SURVEILLANCE PREVALENCE (The total number of cases of a disease in a given population at a specific time) INCIDENCE (number of new cases during some time period)Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 10. REPORTING DISEASES & SURVEILLANCE DALYs (disability-adjusted life year) Estimate the number of years of life lost due to premature death and any years lost in disability Used by policy makers to determine the level of funding for prevention programs, treatment efforts, and researchMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 11. FEB 28, 2012Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 12. CALENDAR UPDATE FEB 28-MAR 6 Last lectures for Exam 3 MAR 9-13 Journal Reporting MAR 16 Exam 3 MAR 23 Bio 120 PFGMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 13. THE CAST IN THE WARMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 14. THE CAST IN THE WARMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 15. THE CAST IN THE WARMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 16. THE CAST IN THE WARMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 17. STEPS IN PATHOGENESISMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 18. VIRULENCE FACTORS 1. Bacterial Structures (flagella, capsules, pili) 2. Enzymes (coagulase, kinases, hyaluronidase, lecithinase, necrotizing enzymes) 3. Toxins (exotoxins, endotoxins like neurotoxins and enterotoxins)Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 19. IMPORTANT ACTIONS OF TOXINSMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 20. How do genes get transferred laterally? Transduction: via bacteriophage Conjugation: direct contact Transformation: integrating free DNA or plasmids (from Redfield, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2001)Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 21. How do genes get transferred laterally? Transduction: via bacteriophage Conjugation: direct contact Transformation: integrating free DNA or plasmids (from Redfield, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2001) Staph aureus = plasmid (B-lactamase, tets, eryth, amynoglycosides); chromosome (nafcillin, meth, oxacillin); toleranceMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 22. FOR VIRUSES...Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 23. Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 24. ENVIRONMENT FACTORS: Enabling or Preventing Infection Probability of Encounters Between Host and Agent Climate Change and Weather Disturbances Health Care Advances Industrialization and Land Use Non-Adherence to PH and good hygiene practicesMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 25. ENABLING ENVIRONMENTMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 26. PREVENTIVE ENVIRONMENTMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 27. CLIMATE CHANGE AND WEATHER DISTURBANCESMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 28. HEALTH CARE ADVANCES & DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGESMonday, February 27, 2012

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