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Post Lab Bio 22 Exam 2
Post Lab Bio 22 Exam 2
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Post Lab Bio 22 Exam 2
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Post Lab Bio 22 Exam 2
Post Lab Bio 22 Exam 2
Post Lab Bio 22 Exam 2
Post Lab Bio 22 Exam 2
Post Lab Bio 22 Exam 2
Post Lab Bio 22 Exam 2
Post Lab Bio 22 Exam 2
Post Lab Bio 22 Exam 2
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Post Lab Bio 22 Exam 2
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Post Lab Bio 22 Exam 2

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  • 1. POST‐LABORATORY
DISCUSSION
 for
EXAMINATION
2
 Marilen
M.
Parungao
 Biology
22
 (special
thanks
to
Miss
Jillian
Sia
and
Google
Images
for
some
of
the
photos)

  • 2. DISCUSSION
OUTLINE
 •  Integumentary
System
 •  External
Anatomy
of
the
Frog
 •  Skeletal
System
 •  Muscular
System
 •  Nervous
System
 •  To
be
Reported
 – Muscle
Physiology
 – Nervous
Responses

  • 3. THE
INTEGUMENTARY
SYSTEM
 Main
Func<on
:
serves
as
a
 protec<ve
barrier
against
outside
 elements

  • 4. INTEGUMENTARY
SYSTEMS
OF
 INVERTEBRATES

  • 5. THE
INTEGUMENTARY
SYSTEM:
 VERTEBRATES
 •  Outer
epidermis
+
Inner
dermis
(corium)
divided
 into
strata
or
layers
 •  FROG:

 – Epidermis
(stratum
corneum)
followed
by
stratum
 germinaIvum
 – Dermis
(Upper
stratum
laxum
or
spongiasum
and
 stratum
compactum=
conInuous
with
loosely
 arranged
subcutaneous
connecIve
Issue)
 •  Humans:
epidermis
=
more
layers
versus
frog

  • 6. AMOEBA
&
PARAMECIUM

  • 7. AMOEBA
&
PARAMECIUM
 1.  Rigidity
of
Membrane?
Amoeba
less
rigid
 2.  Pellicle:
 provides
 and
 maintains
 shape;
 prevents
excessive
flows
in
of
water
 3.  Cilia:
surface
of
epithelium
 4.  FuncXon::
for
locomoXon,
feeding,
defense,
 prey
capture

  • 8. GRANTIA
 pinacocytes pinacoderm
 A.  Radial
canal
opens
to
inside
 Take
Note:
simple
squamous
 B.  Incurrent
canal
opens
to
outside
 with
choanocytes
 C.  OsXum
is
the
opening
of
an
incurrent
 canal

  • 9. TERMS…
 •  Pellicle:
thin
layer
supporIng
the
cell
 membrane
in
various
protozoa,
protecIng
 them
and
allowing
them
to
retain
their
shape
 •  Pinacoderm:
a
single
cell
layer
found
on
the
 body
surface
and
lining
the
canals
 (pinacocytes
form
the
pinacoderm;
they
are
 flaRened
cells
containing
many
granules;
 capable
of
contracIng)

  • 10. HYDRA
 mesoglea
 gastrovascular
 cavity
 Take
note:

 simple
cuboidal
cells
with
 nematocysts!!!

  • 11. TERMS…
 •  Nematocysts,
Cnidoblast
or
Cnidocytes:
a
 venomous
cell,
provides
a
means
for
them
to
 catch
prey
and
defend
themselves
from
predators
 (e.g.
jellyfish
sIng)
 •  Rhabdites:
rodlike
structures
in
the
cells
of
the
 epidermis
or
underlying
parenchyma
in
certain
 turbellarians
discharged
in
mucous
secreIons
act
 as
a
defensive
mechanism,
they'll
dissolve
in
 water,
and
they
are
distasteful
to
most
animal
 who
would
prey
on
rhabdiIa

  • 12. DUGESIA:
CILIATED
VENTRAL
 EPIDERMIS
 Take
Note:
simple
 cuboidal
cells,
 ventrally‐ciliated
 with
rhabdites

  • 13. DUGESIA
(Planarian)
 On
 the
 outside
 of
 the
 flatworm
 is
 a
 ciliated
 epidermis
 that
contains
many
 gland
 cells
 as
 well
 as
 dark‐staining
 rod‐shaped
 bodies
 called
 rhabdites
 that
 can
 discharge
 their
 contents
 to
 1.  Buccal cavity ; 2. Gastrodermis; form
 a
 protecIve
 3. Gastrovascular cavity; m u c o u s
 l a y e r
 4. Epidermis; 5. Pharynx; 6. Parenchyma around
the
body.



  • 14. FASCIOLA
(Flukes)
 syncytial
 tegument parenchyma
  • 15. TERMS…
 •  Syncy<um:
a
large
cell‐like
structure
filled
with
 cytoplasm
containing
many
nuclei;
are
 specialized
forms
used
by
various
organisms
in
 normal
Issue;
occurs
most
simply
when
a
cell
 divides
without
undergoing
cytokinesis

  • 16. Take
note:
collagen
fibers
 and
lipid
=
non‐cellular
 EARTHWORM
 cuXcle
or
non‐chiXnized

  • 17. ASCARIS
 Cross‐secXon
of
an
adult
female
A.
lumbricoides,
stained
with
hematoxylin
 and
eosin
(H&E).

Note
the
presence
of
the
prominent
muscle
cells
(MU),
 gravid
uterus
(UT),
intes<ne
(IN)
and
coiled
ovary
(OV).
 Cross‐sec<on
of
the
cu<cle
of
an
adult
A.
lumbricoides,
stained
with
H&E.

 Shown
here
are
the
cu<cle
(CU),
and
immediately
below
the
cu<cle,
the
thin
 hypodermis
(HY).

Also
shown
are
the
prominent
muscle
cells
(MU)
and
one
of
 the
lateral
chords
(LC).

  • 18. COCKROACH
CUTICLE:
CHITINIZED
 DEVELOPING
INTO
A
CARAPACE
 Take
Note:
ChiXn
=
 polysaccharide
and
 calcium
chloride

  • 19. STARFISH
ARM
(echinoderms)
=
 EPIDERMIS
+
DERMIS
WITH
OSSICLES
 1. Coelom; 2. Dermal ossicle; 3. Dermal branchiae; 4. Pyloric ceca; 5. Spine; 6. Radial canal; 7. Pedicellariae; 8. Radial nerve; 9. Tube foot; 10. Sucker Take
Note:
ossicles,
spicules
and
granules
=
calcium
 carbonate
=
hard!

  • 20. FROG
SKIN
 Mucus
gland
=
 cuboidal
 epithelial
cells
 Poison
glands
 =
simple
 squamous
to
 columnar

  • 21. GLANDS
OF
THE
FROG
SKIN
 CRITERIA
 MUCUS
GLAND
 POISON
GLAND
 Epithelial
lining
 Simple
Cuboidal
 Squamous
 Size
 Small
 Big
 DistribuIon
in
Frog
 Many
 Centralized
(Few)
 Layer
Origin
 Stratum
 Stratum
spongiusom
 germinaIvum
 (Dermis)
 (Epidermis)
 Layer
to
which
it
 Mid‐spongiosum
 EnIre
spongiosum
 extends
 FuncIon
 Reduce
water
loss
 Defense
 and
protecIon
from
 dessicaIon

  • 22. HUMAN
SCALP
 CORTEX
 MEDULLA
 •  Note
the
proximity
of
sebaceous
glands
to
hair
 follicles
 •  Sweat
glands
and
their
ducts
are
scaRered
in
the
 connecIve
Issue
stroma

  • 23. HUMAN
BROWN
SKIN

  • 24. FROG
INTEGUMENT
 •  Epidermis:
about
a
cell
or
 two
thick
 •  Dermis:
three
or
four
cells
 thick
 •  The
dark
purple
structures
 are
nuclei
 •  The
structure
to
the
right
 in
the
photo
is
a
mucus
 gland

  • 25. HUMAN
INTEGUMENT
 Outer
layer
–
dead
cells
 epidermis
 dermis
 •  Note
the
several
layers
peeling
from
the
surface
 •  The
outer
porXon
of
human
skin
is
composed
of
 flagened
cells
that
make
a
rather
water
 impervious
barrier

  • 26. EXTERNAL
ANATOMY
OF
THE
 FROG

  • 27. WHY
CHOOSE
 •  They
show
both
 primiIve
and
advanced
 THEM
AS
ANIMAL
 vertebrate
structures
 MODELS?
 (e.g.
fish‐like
and
 mammal‐like
features)
 •  PosiIon
of
internal
 organs
similar
to
 humans
 •  Readily
available,
small
 and
easy
to
study

  • 28. FROG
VERSUS
TOAD

  • 29. 3
ESSENTIAL
SENSE
ORGANS
OF
 FROGS
 •  EXTERNAL
NARES/ NOSTRILS
 •  EYES
 –  Protected
by
nicItaIng
 membrane/lower
eyelid
 •  EARS
 –  Tympanun/tympanic
 membrane
=
eardrum
 –  Represents
outer
ear
of
 the
frog

  • 30. THE
FROG’S
APPENDICULAR
REGION

  • 31. MALE
VERSUS
FEMALE
FROG
 TAKE
NOTE:
 1.  Overall
size
of
 organism
 2.  Tympanun
 size
 3.  PigmentaXon

  • 32. THE
SKELETAL
SYSTEM

  • 33. FUNCTION:
SUPPORTIVE
SYSTEMS/
 PROTECTION
 HYDROSTATIC
SKELETONS
 RIGID/MINERAL
SKELETONS
 •  Have
no
firm
base
 •  Consist
of
mineral
elements
made
 aRachments
 of
solid
crystals
of
slats
 •  Develop
muscular
force
by
 incorporated
with
some
organic
 contracIng
against
the
 compounds
 coelomic
fluid
 •  Types
 •  Example:
annelids,
 –  Exoskeleton:
arthropods
and
 cnidarians
 mollusks
 –  Endoskeleton:
vertebrates
 •  SomaIc
and
visceral
 •  Dermal
and
replacement

  • 34. TYPE
AND
CHEMICAL
COMPOSITION
 OF
EXOSKELETONS
 ORAGNISMS
 TYPE
 COMPOSITION
 Radiolarians
 Shell
with
testa
 StronIum
sulfate,
silica
and
 calcium
carbonate
 Arthropods
 ChiInized
cuIcle/ Mineralized
chiIn
 carapace
 Mollusks
 shell
 Canchiolin
with
calcium
 carbonate
 Echinoderms
 ossicles
 calcium
carbonate
 Turtles
 Carapace
and
 calcium
carbonate/
keraIn
 plastron/scutes

  • 35. TYPE
AND
COMPOSITION
OF
 ENDOSKELETONS
 ORGANISMS
 TYPE
 COMPOSITION
 Sponges
 Spicules
spongia
 Silica/spongin
fiber/Calcium
 carbonate
 Corals
 Spicules
 Calcium
carbonate
 Vertebrates
 Bone
 Calcium/
Magnesium
 phosphate,
collagen
and
 glycosaminoglycans

  • 36. TAKE
NOTE:
THE
SKULL
 •  Convex
dorsally,
concave
ventrally
 •  Encloses
the
brain
&
lodges
the
sense
organs
 •  Parasphenoid
–
unpaired
bone
 •  Dermal
bones
–
bones
formed
from
intramembranous
 ossificaIon
 –  From
direct
mineralizaIon
of
the
embryonic
connecIve
 Issue
matrix
 •  CarIlage
bones
–
bones
formed
from
endochondral
 ossificaIon
 –  Requires
a
carIlage
template
or
model

  • 37. VISCERAL
SKELETON
 •  Derived
from
gill
arches
 •  Upper
and
lower
jaws
 •  Hyoid
apparatus
 •  CarIlages
that
support
the
larynx
or
voice
box

  • 38. VERTEBRAL
COLUMN
 •  Main
axial
endoskeletal
support
of
the
body
 •  Enclose
and
protect
the
spinal
cord
 •  10
separate
series
of
bones
connected
by
 ligaments
and
arIculated
by
zygapophyses
 – Typical
vertebra
(2nd
to
8th)
 – Atypical
vertebra
(1,
9
and
10)

  • 39. •  Clavicle
–
only
membrane
bone
 PECTORAL
GIRDLE
 •  Glenoid
fossa
–
holds
the
head
of
the
humerus
in
a
ball‐and‐socket
 joint
 •  Acetabulum
–
holds
the
head
of
the
femur
in
a
ball‐and‐socket
joint
 •  Deltoid
crest
–
muscle
aRachment
to
facilitate
easier
movement
 •  CarIlage
(at
the
end
of
limbs)
 –  Reduce
fricIon
of
bone
to
bone
contact

 –  Makes
connecIon
smooth
 •  SKULL,
PECTORAL
GIRDLE,
STERNUM
CENTRUM
(vertebral
column)
 –  Protects
the
very
sensiIve
and
essenIal
organs
of
the
body

  • 40. •  juncIon
of
two
bones
that
permits
movement
 WHAT
ARE
 JOINTS
 •  TYPES:
 –  Ribs
and
vertebrae
=
semi‐mobile
joints:
ribs:
bones
of
the
thoracic
 cage.
Vertebra:
each
of
the
bones
of
the
spinal
column.
Semi‐mobile
 joints:
very
restricted
flexibility.
 –  Vertebrae
=
carXlaginous
joints:
vertebra:
each
of
the
bones
of
the
 spinal
column.
CarIlaginous
joints:
flexibility
due
to
carIlage,
an
 elasIc
Issue.
 –  Skull
=
immovable
joints:
skull:
bony
case
of
the
brain.
Fixed
joints:
 joints
that
do
not
allow
flexibility.
 –  Elbow
=
hinged
joint:
elbow:
joint
connecIng
the
forearm
to
the
 upper
arm.
Hinged
joint:
flexible
in
only
one
direcIon.
 –  Hip
=
ball
and
socket
joint:
hip:
part
on
the
side
of
the
body,
between
 the
waist
and
the
top
of
the
thigh.
Ball
and
socket
joint:
flexibility
due
 to
a
domed
bone
that
turns
in
a
cavity
of
the
same
shape.

  • 41. THE
MUSCLE
SYSTEM

  • 42. TAKE
NOTE:
MUSCLE
SYSTEM
 •  ORIGIN
 – More
fixed
or
more
proximal
aRachment
 •  INSERTION
 – More
movable
or
more
distal
aRachment
 •  ACTION
 – Accomplished
by
contrac<on
or
shortening
in
 length

  • 43. VENTRAL
MUSCLES
OF
THE
FROG
 THIGH
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 •  
 1.
Sartorius
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 •  
 2.
Adductor
longus
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 •  
 3.
Adductor
magnus
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 •  
 4.
Gracilis
major

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 •  
 5.
Gracilis
minor

 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 •  
 6.
Semitendinosus
 
 

  • 44. DORSAL
MUSCLES
OF
THE
THIGH
 •  
 1.
Gluteus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 •  
 2.
Piriformis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 •  
 3.
Triceps
femoris
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 •  
 4.
Semimembranosus
 
 
 
 

 
 
 •  
 5.
Biceps
femoris
 
 
 

  • 45. MUSCLES
OF
THE
SHANK
 •  
1.
Gastrocnemius
 
 
 
 
 

 •  
2.
Tibialis
posXcus

 
 
 
 

 •  
3.
Extensor
cruris
 
 
 
 
 

 
 •  
4.
Tibialis
anXcus
 longus

 
 
 PERONEUS
 
 

 •  
5.
Tibiofibula
bone
 
 

  • 46. MUSCLES
OF
HEAD
 •  4.
masseter
 
 
 
 •  5.
depressor
 mandibularis

 •  6.
dorsalis
 scapulae
 •  10.
laXssimus
 dorsi
 

  • 47. MUSCLES
OF
THE
HEAD
 •  2.
pterygoideus
 
 •  4.
masseter
 
 •  5.
depressor
 mandibularis
 
 •  6.
dorsalis
scapulae
 
 •  7.
deltoid
 
 •  10.
laXssimus
dorsi
 

  • 48. •  7.
deltoid

 •  9.
pectoralis
 
 •  13.
linea
alba
 
 •  20.
triceps
femoris
 
 •  21.
adductor
magnus
 
 •  22.
sartorius

 •  24.
gracilis
major
 
 •  25.
gracilis
minor
 
 •  26.
gastrocnemius
 
 •  27.
tendon
Achilles
 •  30.
mylohyoid
 
 
 

  • 49. •  2.
pterygoideus
 
 •  3.
temporal
 
 •  4.
masseter
 
 •  5.
depressor
 mandibularis
 
 •  6.
dorsalis
scapulae
 
 •  10.
laXssimus
dorsi
 
 •  11.
longissimus
dorsi

 •  17.
gluteus
 
 •  18.
piriformis
 
 •  20.
triceps
femoris
 
 
 •  25.
gracilis
minor

 •  26.
gastrocnemius
 
 •  28.
Semimembranosus
 
 •  29.
biceps
femoris
 

  • 50. THE
NERVOUS
SYSTEM

  • 51. FROG
BRAIN
(VENTRAL)
 •  
1.
Olfactory
nerves
 
 
 
 
 
 •  
2.
OpXc
nerves

 
 
 
 
 
 
 •  
3.
Olfactory
lobes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 •  
4.
OpXc
tracks
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 •  
5.
Cerebral
hemispheres

 
 
 
 •  
6.
Pituitary
gland
 
 
 
 
 
 
 •  
7.
Medulla
oblongata

 
 
 
 

  • 52. FROG
BRAIN
(DORSAL)
 •  
1.
Olfactory
lobes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 •  
2.
Cerebral
hemisphere
 
 
 
 
 •  
3.
OpXc
lobes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 •  
4.
Cerebellum
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 •  
5.
Medulla
oblongata

 
 
 
 
 •  
6.
Choroid
plexus
 
 
 
 
 
 

  • 53. FROG’S
CRANIAL
NERVES
 NUMBER
 NAME
 NATURE
 FUNCTION
 I
 olfactory
 sensory
 smell
 II
 opIc
 sensory
 vision
 III
 osculomotor
 motor
 Movement
of
eye
muscles
 IV
 trochlear
 motor
 Movement
of
eye
muscles
 V
 trigeminal
 Motor/sensory
 Muscles
of
masIcaIon;
conveys
 sensaIon
 VI
 abduceus
 motor
 Movement
of
eye
muscles
 VII
 facial
 Motor/sensory
 Movement
of
facial
muscles;
 chewing;
movement
of
neck
 VIII
 auditory
 sensory
 Hearing
and
sense
of
equilibrium
 IX
 glossopharyngeal
 Motor/sensory
 Taste
and
touch;
movement
in
the
 phranyx
 X
 vagus
 Motor/sensory
 Sensory:
vocal
chords;
lungs,
motor
 pharnyx

  • 54. FROG’S
SPINAL
NERVES

  • 55. FROG’S
SPINAL
NERVES
 NUMBER
 FUNCTION
 I
 II
 Forms
branchial
plexus
that
controls
motor
reflex
of
 upper
body
 III
 IV
 V
 Supply
the
musculature
and
the
skin
of
abdomen
 VI
 VII
 VIII
 Unite
to
form
the
sciaIc
plexus
which
results
in
the
 sciaIc
nerve
to
the
hind
leg
 IX
 X
 Supplies
the
cloaca,
urinary
bladder
and
oviducts

  • 56. SPINAL
CORD

  • 57. STRUCTURAL
DIFFERENCE:
WHITE
 AND
GRAY
MATTER
 •  The
white
maRer
gets
its
name
from
the
 whiIsh
myelin
that
covers
the
axons
 •  The
gray
maRer
consist
of
cell
bodies
and
 dendrites
and
is
concerned
mainly
with
reflex
 connecIons
at
various
levels
of
the
spinal
cord

  • 58. PLEXUS:
Nerve
Fibers
 •  BRACHIAL
 –  an
arrangement
of
nerve
fibers
running
from
the
spine
 through
the
neck,
the
axilla
(armpit
region),
and
into
the
 arm
 –  all
nerves
of
the
arm
stem
from
the
brachial
plexus
 –  lesions
of
the
plexus
can
lead
to
severe
funcIonal
 impairment
 •  SCIATIC/SACRAL
 –  a
nerve
plexus
that
lies
against
the
posterior
and
lateral
 walls
of
the
pelvis,
is
formed
by
the
union
of
the
lumbo‐ sacral
trunk
and
the
first,
second,
and
third
sacral
nerves,
 and
conInues
into
the
thigh
as
the
sciaIc
nerve
 –  PAIN
or
sciaIc

  • 59. THE
CSF
FUNCTIONS:
A
CUSHION
 BETWEEN
PIA
AND
DURA
MATER
 •  Buoyancy
=
allows
the
brain
to
maintain
its
density
without
being
 impaired
by
its
own
weight,
which
would
cut
off
blood
supply
and
 kill
neurons
in
the
lower
secIons
without
CSF.
 •  ProtecIon
=
protects
the
brain
Issue
from
injury
when
jolted
or
hit
 causing
hemorrhaging,
brain
damage,
and
someImes
death.
 •  Chemical
Stability
=
rinsing
the
metabolic
waste
from
the
central
 nervous
system
allows
for
homeostaIc
regulaIon
of
the
 distribuIon
of
neuroendocrine
factors,
to
which
slight
changes
can
 cause
problems
or
damage
to
the
nervous
system
 •  PrevenIon
of
brain
ischemia
=
by
decreasing
the
amount
of
CSF
in
 the
limited
space
inside
the
skull
facilitates
blood
perfusion.

  • 60. Ok…ready
for
the
EXAM???


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