Ns 5 lectures 7 and 8 2010

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Ns 5 lectures 7 and 8 2010

  1. 1. LECTURES 7 and 8: BIODIVERSITY (Concepts and Measurements)
  2. 2. OVERVIEW: 2010 AS INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF BIODIVERSITY
  3. 3. OVERVIEW: THE BIO-DAVERSITY CODE VIDEO
  4. 4. LECTURE 7: BIODIVERSITY CONCEPTS and HOTSPOTS
  5. 5. BIODIVERSITY: Definition variety of life forms, ecological functions they perform, genetic variations they contain the diversity of life on Earth variety at all levels of b i o l o g i c a l organization
  6. 6. COMPONENTS OF BIODIVERSITY Genetic diversity– genetic variation within populations or species Species diversity– numbers of species within an area; umber of species in a community. More species = greater species diversity Ecosystem diversity– variation among e c o s y s t e m s , c o m m u n i t i e s , landscapes
  7. 7. WHY IS BIODIVERSITY IMPORTANT? Economic value–resources, including food, medicines and other helpful chemicals, genes for better crops Utilitarian value–prevent erosion, purify water, recycle CO2, regulate climate, recycle nutrients through decomposition, collectively, “ecosystem services” Psychological value–direct or indirect enjoyment of nature Intrinsic value–independent of humans
  8. 8. BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
  9. 9. BIODIVERSITY QUALITY MAP
  10. 10. BIODIVERSITY- RICH AREAS
  11. 11. PROTECTED AREAS
  12. 12. THREATENED AREAS
  13. 13. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY Habitat Destruction Over-exploitation Chemical (Environmental) Pollution Biological Pollution (Species Level) Weak Institutional and Legal Capacities
  14. 14. FEEL THE CHANGE... The forest cover in the country has been reduced from more than 50 percent to less than 24 percent over a 40 year period (1948 to 1987) Only about 5 percent of the country’s coral reefs remains in excellent condition About 30-50 percent of its seagrass beds in the last 50 years About 80 percent of its mangrove areas in the last 75 years, have been lost About 50 percent of national parks are no longer biologically important
  15. 15. WHAT MAKES AN ECOSYSTEM HEALTHY?
  16. 16. HOW CAN YOU HELP?
  17. 17. HOW CAN YOU HELP?
  18. 18. DECISION 101: WHICH SPECIES TO CONSERVE?
  19. 19. PHILIPPINES AS A HOTSPOT (CHECK OUT: ACTIVITY BOOK FOR ENDEMIC AND THREATENED SPECIES)
  20. 20. Priority Sites for Conservation in the Philippines: Key Biodiversity Areas
  21. 21. Priority Sites for Conservation in the Philippines: Key Biodiversity Areas
  22. 22. Priority Sites for Conservation in the Philippines: Key Biodiversity Areas
  23. 23. Priority Sites for Conservation in the Philippines: Key Biodiversity Areas
  24. 24. Priority Sites for Conservation in the Philippines: Key Biodiversity Areas
  25. 25. Priority Sites for Conservation in the Philippines: Key Biodiversity Areas
  26. 26. Priority Sites for Conservation in the Philippines: Key Biodiversity Areas
  27. 27. LECTURE 8: BIODIVERSITY MEASUREMENTS
  28. 28. Measures : INDICATORS OF THE WELL- BEING OF ECOSYSTEMS Species Richness: Number of species in the community Species Evenness: Relative proportion of individuals belonging to each of the species Species Diversity: Shannon- Weiner index
  29. 29. GROUP WORK ON BIODIVERSITY MEASUREMENTS FORM 4 GROUPS (9-10 PER GROUP) CHOOSE A CAR PARK AND OBTAIN THE FOLLOWING DATA, FOLLOWING YOUR WORKSHEET (Prepare one-page report in an acetate) CHOOSE A REPRESENTATIVE AND REPORT YOUR RESULTS NEXT MEETING
  30. 30. DATA TO OBTAIN PROPORTION (pi) = Number/total Log (pi) = Get LOG using your calculator pilogpi = Multiply previously obtained value with your proportion H’ = -Σpilogpi (Get sum of your previously obtained values then Multiply with a negative sign to obtain a positive value

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