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Ns 2 Lec For Exam 1 Ns 2 Lec For Exam 1 Presentation Transcript

  • NS
2
PART
TWO:
BIOLOGY
 (Fundamental
Concepts,
Principles
and

 Theories
of
Life
Sciences)
 MARILEN
M.
PARUNGAO

  • REQUIREMENTS
 •  2
EXAMINATIONS
 – INTRO
TO
HOMEOSTASIS
 – REPRODUCTION
TO
MAN
&
ENVIRONMENT
 •  GROUP
PROJECT
 – 10‐MINUTE
VIDEO
OF
AN
ASSIGNED
TOPIC
 •  QUIZZES,
ASSIGNMENTS,
SURPRISES


  • IMPORTANT
DATES
 •  FEB
12:
FREE
Day
for
Library
Work
 •  FEB
16:
ExaminaMon
and
Deadline
of
Report
 Topics
 •  MARCH
5:
Project
Day
 •  MARCH
16:
PresentaMon
in
Class
 •  MARCH
26:
ExaminaMon
2

  • PROJECT
GROUPING
 •  PLANT
GROUP
 – ACLA
–
CERVANTOS
 – CHUA
E
‐
DOMINGO
 •  ANIMAL
GROUP
 – DULAY
‐
MANDAC
 – MANGUNE
‐
TAN

  • BIOLOGY
PORTION:
NOT
ALL
ABOUT
 MEMORY
WORK!!!

  • NS
2
LECTURES
FOR
 EXAMINATION
1
 Introduc5on
to
Homeostasis

  • FROM
NS
2:
 GEOLOGY
 •  The
scenario
for
life
was
 set:
 –  Atmosphere
 –  Hydrosphere

  • THEORIES
OF
THE
ORIGIN
OF
LIFE
 •  Biogeochemical
or
Chemical
 •  Abiogenesis
(Spontaneous
GeneraMon)
and
 Biogenesis
 •  Interplanetary
or
Cosmozoic
 •  Special
CreaMon

  • BIOGEOCHEMICAL
THEORY
 •  Origin
of
life
on
earth
is
 the
result
of
a
slow
and
 gradual
process
of
 chemical
evoluMon
that
 probably
occurred
about
 3.8
billion
years
ago
 •  proposed
independently
 by:
Oparin,
a
Russian
 scienMst
in
1923
and
 Haldane,
an
English
 scienMst,
in
1928

  • ALSO
KNOWN
AS
THEORY
OF
CHEMICAL
EVOLUTION
 •  Spontaneous
generaMon
of
life,
under
the
present
 environmental
condiMons
is
not
possible
 •  Earth's
surface
and
atmosphere
during
the
first
billion
years
 of
existence,
were
radically
different
from
that
of
today's
 condiMons
 •  The
primiMve
earth's
atmosphere
was
a
reducing
type
of
 atmosphere
and
not
oxidising
type
 •  The
first
life
arose
from
a
collecMon
of
chemical
substances
 through
a
progressive
series
of
chemical
reacMons
 •  Solar
radiaMon,
heat
radiated
by
earth
and
lighMng
must
 have
been
the
chief
energy
source
for
these
chemical
 reacMons

  • THEORY
OF
SPONTANEOUS
 GENERATION
 •  This
theory
assumed
that
 living
organisms
could
 arise
suddenly
and
 spontaneously
from
any
 kind
of
non‐living
maher
 •  One
of
the
firm
believers
 in
spontaneous
 generaMon
was
Aristotle,
 the
Greek
philosopher
 (384‐322
BC)

  • LIFE
FROM
NON‐LIFE???
 •  dead
leaves
falling
from
a
tree
 •  Supporters:
Descartes,
Galileo
and
 into
a
pond
would
transform
 Helmont
supported
this
idea
 into
fishes
and
those
falling
on
 soil
would
transform
into
 worms
and
insects
 •  Von
Helmont:
prepared
a
'soup'
 from
which
he
could
 spontaneously
generate
rats
 •  insects
develop
from
morning
 –  The
'soup'
:

dirty
cloth
soaked
in
 dew
and
rojng
manure
 water
with
a
handful
of
wheat
 grains;
if
human
sweat
is
added
as
 an
'acMve
principle'
to
this,
in
just
17
 •  mud
of
the
Nile
river
could
 days,
it
could
generate
rats
 spontaneously
give
rise
to
 many
forms
of
life
 •  The
idea
of
spontaneous
 generaMon
was
popular
almost
 Mll
seventeenth
century

  • LIFE
FROM
NON‐LIFE???
 •  The
theory
of
Spontaneous
GeneraMon
was
 disproved
in
the
course
of
Mme
due
to
the
 experiment
conducted
by:
 – Fransisco
Redi,
(1665)
 – Spallanzani
(1765)
 – Louis
Pasteur
(1864)
in
his
famous
Swan
neck
 experiment
 •  This
theory
was
disapproved,
as
scienMsts
gave
 definite
proof
that
life
comes
from
pre‐exisMng
 life

  • REDI’S
EXPERIMENT

  • SPALLANZANI’S
EXPERIMENT
 •  placed
broth
in
eight
 containers
 –  four
with
cork
 –  four
with
air
Mght
tops
 –  RESULTS:

the
air
Mght
 containers
had
no
 microbes(
cloudiness);
the
 four
corked
vessels
showed
 organisms
 –  CONCLUSION:
did
not
 disprove
spontaneous
 generaMon
but
strengthened
 the
case
against
it
 



  • PASTEUR’S
EXPERIMENT

  • INTERPLANETARY
OR
COSMOZOIC
 THEORY
 •  Life
has
reached
this
 •  The
theory
did
not
gain
 planet
Earth
from
other
 any
support
 heavenly
bodies
such
as
 meteorites,
in
the
form
of
 highly
resistance
spores
 •  This
theory
lacks
 of
some
organisms
 evidence,
hence
it
was
 discarded
 •  This
idea
was
proposed
 by
Richter
in
1865
and
 supported
by
Arrhenius
 (1908)
and
other
 contemporary
scienMsts

  • SPECIAL
CREATION
THEORY

 •  According
to
this
theory,
all
the
 different
forms
of
life
that
occur
 today
on
planet
earth,
have
been
 created
by
God,
the
almighty
 •  This
idea
is
found
in
the
ancient
 scriptures
of
almost
every
religion
 •  According
to
Hindu
mythology,
Lord
 Brahma,
the
God
of
CreaMon,
 created
the
living
world
in
 accordance
to
his
wish
 •  According
to
the
ChrisMan
belief,
 God
created
this
universe,
plants,
 animals
and
human
beings
in
about
 six
natural
days

  • SPECIAL
CREATION
THEORY

 •  The
Sikh
mythology
says
that
all
forms
of
life
including
 human
beings
came
into
being
with
a
single
word
of
 God
 •  Special
creaMon
theory
believes
that
the
things
have
 not
undergone
any
significant
change
since
their
 creaMon
 •  The
theory
of
Special
CreaMon
was
purely
a
religious
 concept,
acceptable
only
on
the
basis
of
faith
 •  It
has
no
scienMfic
basis
to
date…

  • MANIFESTATIONS
AND
 CHARACTERISTICS
OF
LIFE

  • WHAT
IS
THE
DIFFERENCE?

  • THE
CHARACTERISTICS
OF
LIFE
 1  Life
has
OrganizaMon
 2  Life
Acquires
Materials
and
Energy
 3  Life
Stays
Just
About
the
Same
 4  Life
Responds
to
SMmuli
 5  Life
Reproduces
 6  Life
Grows
and
Develop
 7  Life
Adapts

  • ORGANIZATION
 •  Living
things
are
 organized
 •  Their
parts
are
 specialized
for
specific
 funcMons
 •  Note:
water
contains
H
 and
O
=
50%
of

a
cell’s
 weight

  • METABOLISM
 •  Living
things
take
 materials
and
energy
 from
the
environment
 •  They
need
an
outside
 source
of
nutrients
 •  Energy
=
capacity
to
do
 work
)maintain
the
 organizaMon
of
the
 cell)

  • REPRODUCTION
 •  Living
things
reproduce
 •  They
produce
offspring
 that
resembles
 themselves
 •  Life
begets
Life!

  • ASEXUAL
&
SEXUAL
REPRODUCTION

  • GROWTH
AND
DEVELOPMENT
 •  Living
things
grow
and
 develop
 •  During
their
lives
they
 change:
undergoing
 various
stages
from
 ferMlizaMon
to
death

  • IRRITABILITY
AND
MOVEMENT
 •  Living
things
respond
to
 sMmuli
 •  They
react
to
internal
and
 external
environment
 •  Homeostasis:
staying
 relaMvely
constant
 •  Behavior
=
responses
of
 an
organism

  • VARIATION,
CHANGE
AND
 EVOLUTION
(ADAPTATION)
 •  Living
things
are
adapted
 •  They
have
modificaMons
 that
make
them
suited
to
a
 parMcular
way
of
life
 •  AdaptaMon:
modificaMons
 that
make
an
organism
 suited
to
its
way
of
life
 •  EvoluMon:
process
by
which
 characterisMcs
of
species
 change
through
Mme


  • LIFE’S
PROCESSES

  • CELLULAR
PROCESSES
 •  Processes
that
are
carried
out
at
the
cellular
 level,
but
are
not
necessarily
restricted
to
a
 single
cell
 •  For
example,
cell
communicaMon
occurs
 among
more
than
one
cell,
but
occurs
at
the
 cellular
level

  • SOME
EXAMPLES
OF
CELLULAR
 PROCESSES
 •  Cellular
CommunicaMon
 –  Cell
signalling
 –  Nervous
response
or
endocrine
response
(ANIMALS)
 –  “Phytohormones”
and
for
root
development
 •  DNA
repair
 –  Response
to
damage
of
geneMc
material
 •  Gene
Expression
 –  Genes
for
turning
“ON”
and
“OFF”
 •  Metabolism
 –  Overall
cellular
chemical
reacMons
(anabolic
or
catabolic)
 •  Programmed
Cell
Death
or
Apoptosis

  • CELL
SIGNALLING/COMMUNICATION

  • CELL
SIGNALLING
IN
ROOT
 DEVELOPMENT

  • RESPONSE
TO
DAMAGE:
DNA
REPAIR

  • Example:
BASE
 EXCISION

  • GENE
EXPRESSION
IN
BACTERIA:
THEY
 CAN
DECIDE
ON
THEIR
OWN!

  • GENE
EXPRESSION
IN
PLANTS

  • GENE
EXPRESSION
IN
ANIMALS
 •  have
asymmetries
that
depend
on
 developmental
differences
in
gene
expression

  • CATABOLISM
AND
ANABOLISM

  • •  Programmed
cell
death
 APOPTOSIS
 •  the
body's
normal
method
 of
disposing
of
damaged,
 unwanted,
or
unneeded
 cells
 •  important
for
sculp5ng
 5ssue
and
organ
structure
 during
development
of
the
 embryo,
but
may
occur
at
 any
Mme
even
in
adult
cells
 when
a
Mssue
needs
to
be
 remodeled
(damage
 repair)


  • THE
CELL
 •  The
cell
is
considered
to
be
the
smallest
structure
 in
biology
 •  Understanding
of
cells
and
the
basics
of
cell
 structure
and
funcMon
is
criMcal
to
making
sense
 out
of
biology
 •  LimitaMons
of
the
human
eye:
early
biological
 research
concentrated
on
developing
tools
to
 help
us
see
very
small
things
(LEEUWENHOEK)

  • THE
CELL
THEORY
(1838)
 •  All
life
forms
are
made
from
one
or
more
cells
 •  Cells
only
arise
from
pre‐exisMng
cells
 •  The
cell
is
the
smallest
form
of
life
 •  TO
CORRECT
THE
EARLIER
BELIEF
OF
 SPONTANEOUS
GENERATION

  • PROKARYOTES
AND
 EUKARYOTES

  • THE
CELL:
PROKARYOTES
VERSUS
 EUKARYOTES
 •  The
common
features
of
prokaryoMc
and
 eukaryoMc
cells
are:
 •  DNA
(geneMc
material)
 –  located
in
a
non‐membrane
bound
nucleoid
 region
in
prokaryotes
and
a
membrane‐bound
 nucleus
in
eukaryotes
 •  Plasma
membrane
(phospholipid
bilayer
with
 proteins
that
separates
the
cell
from
the
 surrounding
environment)
 –  a
selecMve
barrier
for
the
import
and
export
of
 materials
 •  Cytoplasm
 –  consists
of
a
fluid
porMon
called
the
cytosol
and
 the
organelles
and
other
parMculates
suspended
 in
it
 •  Ribosomes
 –  protein
synthesis
takes
place

  • Prokaryotes
 •  Single‐celled
organisms
that
lack
a
 nucleus
 •  Do
not
have
their
geneMc
material
 organized
into
chromosomes
 •  Example:
Bacteria,
Blue‐green
Algae

  • EUKARYOTES
 •  Have
a
membrane‐bound
nucleus
 •  Complex
creatures
like
humans
have
special
 cells
for
parMcular
funcMons
 – carrying
oxygen
around
the
body
 – digesMng
food
 – making
bone
 – etc.

  • THE
CELL:
ANIMAL
VERSUS
PLANTS
 CELLS

  • ORGANIZATION
OF
PLANT
CELL

  • ORGANIZATION
IN
ANIMAL
CELL

  • READING
ASSIGNMENT
 Know
the
Specific
Func5ons
of
 Organelles

  • AFTER
THE
CELL:
THE
TISSUES

  • PLANT
TISSUES

  • 1.
MERISTEMATIC
TISSUES
 •  Examples:
apical
meristem;
lateral
meristem,
 intercalary
meristem,
etc
 •  Tissues
composed
of
immature,
 undifferen_ated
cells
capable
of
cell
division
 –  formed
exclusively
by
undifferenMated
or
 embryonic
cells
 •  Found
in
rapidly
growing
parts
of
the
plant
 –  responsible
for
bringing
about
growth
of
the
plant
 body
due
to
their
capacity
to
undergo
conMnuous
 mitoMc
divisions

  • SHOOT
TIP

 
 
 
 
 
 
 ROOT
TIP

  • 2.
PERMANENT
TISSUES

  • •  Nature:

 –  Cells
equally
expanded
on
all
 sides;
oval,
round,
polygonal
or
 elongated
 –  cell
walls
are
thin
and
made
of
 cellulose
 –  May
contain
chlorophyll
 (Chlorenchyma)
 •  Occurrence:

 –  cortex
of
root,
ground
_ssue
in
 stems
and
mesophyll
of
leaves
 •  Func_on:

 –  Store
and
assimilate
food
 –  Give
mechanical
strength
by
 maintaining
turgidity
 –  Store
waste
products
like
tanin,
 gum,
crystals
and
resins

  • •  Nature
 –  The
cells
are
elongated
and
 are
circular,
oval
or
polygonal
 in
cross‐sec_on
 –  Cell
wall
is
unevenly
thickened
 with
cellulose
at
the
corners
 against
the
intercellular
spaces
 •  Occurrence
 –  Found
under
the
skin
i.e.
 below
the
epidermis
in
dicot
 stems
 •  Func_on
 –  Provide
mechanical
support
to
 the
stem
 –  Being
extensible,
these
cells
 readily
adapt
themselves
to
 the
rapid
elonga_on
of
the
 stem

  • Sclereids:
These
are
special
sclerenchymatous
 cells
found
in
the
cortex,
pith,
phloem,
hard
 seeds,
nuts
and
stony
fruits.

 Example:
flesh
of
pear
and
guava
are
 someMmes
grihy
due
to
the
presence
of
 sclereids;
funcMon
is
to
give
firmness
and
 hardness
to
the
part
concerned

  • SCLERENCHYMA
 •  Nature
 –  The
cells
are
long,
narrow,
thick
and
lignified,
usually
pointed
at
both
 ends
 –  The
cell
wall
is
evenly
thickened
with
lignin
and
some_mes
is
so
thick
 that
the
cell
cavity
or
lumen
is
absent
 –  Nucleus
is
absent
and
hence
the
_ssue
is
made
up
of
dead
cells
 –  They
have
simple,
ogen
oblique
pits
in
the
walls
 –  The
middle
lamella
i.e.
the
wall
between
adjacent
cells
is
 conspicuous
 •  Occurrence
 –  Found
abundantly
in
stems
of
plants
like
hemp,
jute
and
coconut,
 their
length
varying
from
1
mm
to
550
mm
(FIBROUS)
 •  Func_on
 –  Gives
mechanical
support
to
the
plant
by
giving
rigidity,
flexibility
 and
elas_city
to
the
plant
body.

  • VASCULAR
TISSUES:
TREE

  • VASCULAR
TISSUES:
XYLEM
AND
 PHLOEM
 UPWARD
(WATER)
 
 
 
 
 
 
DOWNWARD
AND
LATERAL
(FOOD)

  • MONOCOT
 VERSUS
 DICOT

  • STRUCTURES
 OF
ANIMAL
 CELLS

  • ANIMAL
TISSUES
 •  EPITHELIAL
TISSUE
 •  CONNECTIVE
TISSUE
 •  MUSCULAR
TISSUE
 •  NERVOUS
TISSUE
 •  REPRODUCTIVE
 TISSUE
 Reproduc_ve
Tissue

  • EPITHELIAL:
lining
_ssues
of
the
 animal
body
 •  SQUAMOUS
 •  CUBOIDAL
 •  COLUMNAR
 EPITHELIUM

  • NERVOUS

  • CONNECTIVE
AND
SPECIALIZED
 CONNECTIVE
TISSUES
 CONNECTIVE
TISSUES
 SPECIALIZED
CONNECTIVE
TISSUES
 •  LOOSE
OR
AREOLAR
 •  CARTILAGE
 –  Collagenous,
ElasMc
and
 ReMcular
Fibers
 •  BONE
 •  DENSE
 •  BLOOD
 –  Regular
and
Irregular
 –  RBC
 –  WBC
 •  MODIFIED
LOOSE
 –  PLATELETS
 –  ReMcular
and
Adipose

  • AREOLAR
CONNECTIVE
TISSUE
 LOOSE
CONNECTIVE
TISSUE
 DENSE
CONNECTIVE
TISSUE
 CARTILAGE
 BLOOD
 BONE

  • THEY
MAY
BE
FOUND
IN
JUST
ONE
 ORGAN…

  • REPRODUCTIVE

  • WHAT
NOW???

  • In
order
to
understand
the
organ
 systems
we
need
to
know
the
 organisms…

  • AND
WE’RE
LEFT
WITH
3

  • UNDERSTANDING
HOW
YOUR
BODY
 FUNCTIONS

  • THE
ORGAN
SYSTEMS
 •  Integumentary
system
 •  Muscular
system
 •  Skeletal
system
 •  Nervous
System
 •  Endocrine
System
 •  Circulatory
system
 •  LymphaMc
system
 •  Respiratory
system
 •  DigesMve
system
 •  Urinary
and
Excretory
 System
 •  ReproducMve
System

  • THE
VARIOUS
ORGAN
SYSTEMS
 WORK
TOGETHER
 Homeostasis
and
Regula5on

  • HOMEOSTASIS:
internal
and
external
 balance
 •  Animals
cannot
survive
 unless
they
are
able
to
 control
the
internal
 environment
of
their
 body,
despite
con5nual
 changes
in
their
 surroundings

  • Controller
output
(informa_on
 CONTROLLER/
 modula_ng
effector
ac_vity)
 EFFECTOR
 INTEGRATOR
 Sensor
output
(informa_on
 Effector
output
(one
or
more
 conveying
the
current
level
of
the
 ac_vi_es
influencing
the
level
of
the
 controlled
variable
 controlled
variable
 Physical
system
 
impacted
by

 SENSOR
 effector
ac_vi_es

 Detec_on
and
Measurement
of
 (controlled
variable)
 the
controlled
variable
 disturbances

  • EXAMPLE:
BODY
TEMPERATURE

  • BODY
MANIFESTATIONS
OF
 HOMEOSTASIS:
TEMPERATURE

  • HOMEOSTASIS:
BLOOD
GLUCOSE
 LEVEL
&
ENERGY
BALANCE

  • POSITIVE
FEEDBACK:
Breast
milk
 secre_on

  • NEGATIVE
FEEDBACK:
giving
birth
and
 blood
pressure
regula_on

  • ARE
YOU
READY
TO
KNOW
HOW
 YOUR
BODY
WORKS?
 The
Human
Organ
Systems

  • ORGAN
SYSTEMS
FOR
HOMEOSTASIS
 •  MEMBRANE
TRANSPORT
SYSTEMS
 – OsmoregulaMon
and
ExcreMon
 – regulaMon
of
water
and
ion
concentraMons
in
the
 body
 •  criMcal
in
maintaining
life
in
a
cell
 – balance
of
water
and
ions
is
partly
linked
to
excreMon
 •  removal
of
metabolic
wastes
from
the
body
 •  ORGAN
SYSTEMS
 – Waste
ExcreMon‐Related

Systems
 – Endocrine
System
 – Nervous
System

  • MEMBRANE

 TRANSPORT

  • FOR
LARGE
MOLECULES

  • HUMAN
EXCRETION
SYSTEMS
 The
Which,
Why’s
and
How’s
of
 Body
wastes
Management

  • WHAT
IS
EXCRETION?
 •  The
removal
of
cellular
waste
products
from
 an
organism
 •  Example
of
Wastes:
 – RespiraMon‐associated
wastes:
carbon
dioxide
+
 water
 – Metabolism‐associated
wastes:
water
(from
 dehydraMon
synthesis;
nitrogenous
wastes/urea
 (from
protein
metabolism
and
those
produced
 from
excess
amino
acids)
and
mineral
salts

  • MAJOR
EXCRETORY
ORGANS
 Liver
***
Lungs
***
Skin
 Large
Intes5nes
***
Kidney

  • LIVER
AND
LUNGS
 LIVER
 LUNGS
 •  deaminates
amino
acids
 •  Excrete
carbon
dioxide
and
 •  converts
ammonia
to
urea
 water
 (ammonia
is
very
toxic)

  • SKIN/SWEAT
GLANDS
AND
LARGE
 INTESTINES
 SKIN/SWEAT
GLANDS
 LARGE
INTESTINES
 •  INCIDENTALLY
EXCRETORY
 •  expels
feces
and
excess
salts
 •  Aid
in
temperature
regulaMon
of
 the
body
 •  conserves
water
 •  evaporaMon
of
the
sweat
(98%
 water
and
2%
salts
and
urea)
 lowers
body
temperature
 (temperature
regulaMon)
 •  Excretes
urine
like
wastes
(water,
 salt,
and
some
urea)

  • KIDNEY:
THE
MAJOR
EXCRETORY
 ORGAN
FOR
FLUIDS

  • •  excrete
most
of
the
 KIDNEYS
 urea
 •  control
the
 concentraMon
of
most
 of
the
consMtuents
of
 the
body
fluids
 •  filters
out
wastes
and
 reabsorbs
needed
 materials
like
water,
 sugar
&
protein

  • HUMAN
URINARY
 •  Kidney:
filters
out
wastes
 and
resorbs
needed
 TRACT
 materials
like
water
 •  Ureter:
carries
urine
from
 the
pelvis
to
the
urinary
 bladder
(one
from
each
 kidney)
 •  Urinary
bladder:
short
 term
storage
area
for
the
 urine
 •  Urethra:
conducts
urine
 from
the
bladder
to
the
 outside
of
the
body

  • YOUR
URINE
&
YOUR
HYDRATION
STATUS

  • HOW
IS
URINE
PRODUCED?
 •  Filtra_on
 –  water
and
dissolved
substances
 out
of
the
blood
 –  Glomeruli
into
Bowman's
capsule
 •  Re‐absorp_on
 –  water
and
dissolved
substances
 out
of
the
kidney
tubules
back
into
 the
blood
 –  this
process
prevents
substances
 needed
by
the
body
from
being
 lost
in
the
urine
 •  Secre_on
 –  hydrogen
ions
(H+),
potassium
 ions
(K+),
ammonia
(NH3),
and
 certain
drugs
out
of
the
blood
into
 the
kidney
tubules

  • •  urinalysis is composed of two examinations: –  Chemical tests for abnormal chemical constituents –  Microscopic exam for abnormal insoluble constituents

  • Test
 Reference Range 
 Pa_ent
Results
 Color
 Straw - Dark yellow 
 Yellow
 Appearance
 Clear - Hazy
 Slightly
turbid
 Specific Gravity
 1.003-1.029 
 1.030
 pH
 4.5-7.8 
 6.0
(acidic)
 Protein
 Negative
 NegaMve
 Glucose
 Negative
 NegaMve
 Ketones
 Negative
 NegaMve
 Bilirubin
 Negative
 NegaMve
 Occult blood
 Negative
 Trace
 Leukocyte Esterase
 Negative
 Trace
 Nitrite
 Negative
 NegaMve
 Urobilinogen
 0.1-1.0 EU/dL 
 3.2umol/L
(normal)
 WBCs
 0-4/hpf 
 10.7
 RBCs
 male: 0-3/hpf 11.7
(female)
 female: 0-5/hpf
 Casts
 0-4/lpf 
 None
seen
 Bacteria Negative
 815.9

  • EXCRETION
PROBLEMS

  • ORGANS
SYSTEM
FOR
 REGULATION
 Nervous
and
Endocrine
Control

  • NERVOUS VERSUS ENDOCRINE REGULATION Characteris_cs
 Nervous
System
 Endocrine
System
 MECHANISM
OF
CONTROL
 Neurotransmiher
released
 Hormones
delivered
to
 in
response
to
nerve
 Mssues
throughout
the
 impulses
 body
by
the
blood
 CELLS
AFFECTED
 Muscle
cells,
gland
cells,
 Virtually
ALL
body
cells
 other
neurons
 TYPE
OF
ACTION
THAT
 Muscular
contracMon
or
 Changes
in
metabolic
 RESULTS
 glandular
secreMon
 acMviMes
 TIME
TO
ONSET
OF
ACTION
 Typically
within
millisecs
 Seconds
to
hours
or
days
 DURATION
OF
ACTION
 Generally
more
brief
 Generally
slower/longer

  • REGULATION
VIA
THE
NERVOUS
 SYSTEM
 •  Communication network that allows an organism to interact in appropriate ways with the environment –  Sensory components •  Detect environmental events –  Integrative components •  Process sensory data and information stored in memory RECALL:
 –  Motor components •  Generate movements and HOMEOSTASIS!!!
 other activities
  • EXAMPLE:
TETANUS/POLIO/RABIES
 (Axonal
Transport)

  • CEPHALIZATION
AND
MECHANISMS

  • REGULATION
VIA
THE
BRAIN
 •  It is the center for registering sensations, correlating them with one another and with stored information, making decisions, and taking action •  It is the center of intellect, emotions, behavior, and memory •  It directs our behavior toward others

  • THE
LOBES:
FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION
 •  THE CASE OF PHINEAS GAGE: •  The inch-thick tamping rod rocketed through his cheek, obliterating his left eye on its way through his brain and out the top of his skull –  Yet a moment later he stood up and spoke –  Within two months: completely recovered--he could walk, speak, and demonstrate normal awareness of his surroundings •  But: the character of the man did not survive the tamping rod's journey through his brain
  • FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION
 SLEEPY
HEAD?
 CAN’T
FIND
THE
WORDS…

  • FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION
 (Can’t
Let
GO???)
 Thalamus
 CEREBRUM
 Hypothalamus
 Prefrontal
 cortex
 Smell
 Olfactory
 bulb
 Amygdala
 Hippocampus

  • FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION
 LEFT‐BRAINED
OR
 RIGHT‐BRAINED???

  • REGULATION
VIA
THE
SPINAL
CORD
 AND
THE
REFLEX
 •  Extension of the brain stem starting at the foramen and ending at L1 (humans) or S2 (animals) •  2 GENERAL ROLES –  Transmission of nerve impulses –  Relays
informa_on
to
and
from
brain
 •  Ascending
and
descending
paths
in
the
 spinal
cord
 –  Spinal reflexes

  • REFLEX:
THE
“BRAINLESS”
PATHWAY
 •  Responses to changes in the environment –  Automatic –  Fast –  Predictable •  Help maintain homeostasis –  Allow rapid response to changes –  Involve spinal cord and nerves
  • FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION:
THE
 STRETCH
REFLEX
 Important in Prevents damage to maintaining muscle muscles and tone and muscle tendons as a result coordination
 of stretching
  • FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION:
THE
 FLEXOR
REFLEX
 Defensive removal of a limb from a threatening or damaging stimulus
  • FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION
 PRIMITIVE
REFLEX:
BABINSKI
 GAG
REFLEX
 •  present in infants; but as the nervous system matures, they are suppressed or overridden •  Example: Babinski or plantar reflex –  When the sole of an infant's foot is stroked, the toes go upward and may fan out –  In a normal adult, this does not happen; instead, the toes go downward

  • THE
PNS
AND
HOMEOSTASIS
 Peripheral
 nervous
system
 Motor
 Sensory
 division
 division
 Sensing
 Sensing
 Autonomic
 Soma_c
 external
 internal
 nervous
system
 nervous
system
 environment
 environment
 (involuntary)
 (voluntary)
 Sympathe_c
 Parasympathe_c
 division
 division

  • The vertebrate PNS consists of paired cranial and spinal nerve and associated ganglia
 •  Cranial nerves –  Originate in the brain and innervate organs of the head and upper body –  Convey
sensory
inputs
to
and
 motor
outputs
from
the
brain •  Spinal nerves –  Originate in the spinal cord and innervate the entire body •  Mammals: 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
  • FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION:
THE
 CRANIAL
NERVES
 Cranial nerve Nerve type (Sensory, Motor, Both) I Olfactory S Sense of smell “On Old Oklahoma’s Towering Tops a Fine Vet II Optic S Vision Gastroenterologist Viewed Some Horses” III Oculomotor M eye movements, pupillary constriction and  accommodation, eyelid muscles “Six Sailors Made Merry But My IV Trochlear M Eye movements Brother Said Bad Business My Man” V Trigeminal B somatic sensations from face, mouth, cornea; muscles of mastication (chewing) VI Abducens M Eye movements VII Facial B controls the muscles of facial expression, taste from anterior tongue, lacrimal (tears) and salivary glands VIII Vestibulocochlear S hearing, sense of balance IX Glossopharyngeal B sensation from pharynx, taste from posterior tongue, carotid baroceptors X Vagus B autonomic functions of gut, sensation from pharynx, muscles of vocal cords, swallowing XI Spinal Accessory M Shoulder and neck muscles XII Hypoglossal M Movement of tongue
  • THE
MOTOR
DIVISION
OF
THE
PNS:
 AUTONOMIC
OR
SOMATIC


  • PARASYMPATHETIC
DIVISION
 SYMPATHETIC
DIVISION
 •  Sympathetic (active mode) Brain
 Eye
 –  Correlates with arousal Constricts
 pupil
 Dilates
 pupil
 and energy generation Salivary
 glands
 –  Heart beats faster, liver S_mulates
 saliva
 Inhibits
 converts glycogen to saliva
 produc_on
 produc_on
 glucose, bronchi of lungs dilate and support Constricts
 Lung
 Relaxes
 increased gas exchange bronchi
 bronchi
 –  Inhibits digestion Slows
 Accelerates
 heart
 –  Stimulates secretion of Heart
 Adrenal
 heart
 gland
 adrenaline from the S_mulates
 adrenal medulla epinephrine
 Liver
 and
norepi‐
 Spinal
 Stomach
 nephrine
release
 cord
 •  Parasympathetic S_mulates
 stomach,
 Pancreas
 S_mulates
 glucose
 (relaxed mode) pancreas,
 release
 and
intes_nes
 –  Causes the mirror image Inhibits
 Intes_nes
 stomach,
 –  A calming and a return pancreas,
 and
intes_nes
 emphasis on self- Bladder
 S_mulates
 Inhibits
 maintenance functions urina_on
 urina_on
 –  Decreases heart rate Promotes
 Promotes
ejacu‐
 and energy storage erec_on
of
 genitals
 Genitals
 la_on
and
vaginal
 contrac_ons
 –  Enhances digestion

  • FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION
 •  LEARNING: A process by which behavior is modified on the basis of experience •  MEMORY: storage of information that has been learned
  • REGULATION
VIA
THE
ENDOCRINE
 SYSTEM

  • CAN
HORMONES
 •  Regulate the chemical composition and volume of the internal environment (extracellular fluid) CONTROL
YOU?
 •  Help regulate metabolism and energy balance •  Help regulate contraction of smooth and cardiac muscles and secretion by glands •  Help maintain homeostasis despite disruptions such as infection, trauma, emotional stress, dehydration, starvation, etc. •  Regulate certain activities of the immune system •  Play a role in the smooth, sequential integration of growth and development •  Contribute to the basic processes of reproduction (gamete formation, fertilization, nourishment of embryo and fetus, delivery, and nourishment of newborn
  • TYPES
OF
HORMONES
AND
THEIR
 MECHANISM
 •  STEROIDS
 –  Testosterone
(male
sex
 hormone)
 –  Estradiol
(responsible
for
 many
female
sex
 characterisMcs)
 •  NON‐STEROIDS
 –  PEPTIDES
 –  AMINES

  • FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION
 •  ESTROGENS OR THYROID •  ENDOCRINE‐RELATED
 HORMONES DISORDERS
 –  Steroid hormones; lipid-soluble –  OverproducMon
of
a
hormone

 –  Not split apart during digestion –  Easily cross the intestinal lining because they are lipid soluble –  UnderproducMon
of
a
hormone

 •  INSULIN –  NonfuncMonal
receptors
that
 –  Water-soluble peptide and cause
target
cells
to
become
 protein hormone insensiMve
to
hormones

 –  Not effective oral medications because digestive enzymes destroy them by breaking their peptide bonds –  That is why they are taken by injection

  • FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION:
THE
 HYPOTHALAMUS
IS
THE
“BOSS”

  • FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION:
GROWTH
 HORMONE
 DURING
GROWTH
YEARS:
 DWARFISM
OR
GIGANTISM
 DURING
ADULTHOOD:
 ACROMEGALY

  • FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION:
 PROLACTIN
 •  WHY
YOUR
BREAST
IS
ENLARGED
 AND
PAINFUL
BEFORE
YOUR
 PERIOD:
 •  PIH (dopamine) inhibits release of PRL from the anterior pituitary gland •  As the levels of estrogen and progesterone fall just before menstruation begins, the secretion of PIH diminishes and blood level of PRL increases •  Breast tenderness just before menstruation may be caused by elevated levels of PRL
  • FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION:
STRESSED?

  • FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION:
 HORMONES
AND
YOUR
URINE
 •  STIMULATES ADH (antidiuretic •  CAUSES of DI –  Neurogenic DI: Results from hormone) SECRETION hyposecretion of ADH due to brain –  Pain, Stress, Trauma, Anxiety tumor, head trauma or brain surgery that may have damaged the posterior pituitary –  Acetylcholine, Nicotine gland and hypothalamic nuclei –  Nephrogenic DI: The kidneys do not –  Drugs (morphine, tranquilizers respond to ADH; ADH receptors may be and some anesthetics) non-functional or the kidneys may be damaged •  INHIBITS ADH SECRETION •  SYMPTOMS –  Alcohol, Caffeine –  Bed wetting –  Exclusion of large volumes of urine •  Increases urine output (dehydration and thirst) •  Dehydration causes both •  TREATMENT the thirst and typical –  Hormone replacement therapy (ADH hangover the day after injection or sprays) –  Restriction of salt in the diet and diuretic drugs •  Diabetes
insipidus
 –  ADH
disorder

  • THE
THYROID
AND
PARATHYROID
 HORMONES
 •  Parathormone – Controls the calcium ion concentration of the body by: ENDEMIC
 •  Absorption of GOITER
 calcium from the CRETINISM
 EXOPHTHALMOS
 gut •  Excretion of calcium by the kidneys •  Release of calcium GOITER
IN
 from the bones
 MYXEDEMA
 EWE

  • HORMONES
OF
THE
ADRENAL
 GLANDS
 •  The adrenal glands produce the hormones that stimulate the thirst center •  When enough water is provided, the tongue, the stomach and the intestine send the message that the reserves are filled •  The hypothalamus orders the saliva glands to stop production, and the result is a dry mouth •  Many times in the course of a day we feel thirsty and so drink a glass of water –  Cells in the various organs of the body determine the water needs of the body and work with one another in a series of operations by which a person is urged to drink water
  • FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION:
THE
 ADRENALINE
RUSH
 •  Adrenaline is secreted immediately in the body of a pilot whose airplane malfunctions •  This fluid sends more sugar and blood to the brain, making the pilot more attentive •  His blood pressure and heartbeat increase, heart beats faster = sugar in her blood increases = added strength in making him more alert 
 muscles = able to escape the danger

  • FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION:
OXYTOCIN
 =
THE
LOVE/ATTRACTION
HORMONE

  • FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION:
 HORMONES
FOR
CHILD
BEARING
 •  Human
chorionic
 •  Progesterone
 gonadotropin
 –  Promotes
special
development
 –  Promotes
growth
of
the
corpus
 of
the
uterine
endometrium
in
 luteum
and
secreMon
of
 advance
of
implantaMon
of
the
 estrogens
and
progesterone
by
 ferMlized
ovum
 the
corpus
luteum
 –  Promotes
development
of
 some
fetal
Mssues
and
organs
 •  Estrogens
 –  Promote
development
of
the
 secretory
apparatus
of
the
 –  Promote
growth
of
the
 mother’s
breast
 mother’s
sex
organs
and
of
 some
of
the
Mssues
of
the
fetus
 •  Human
somatomammotropin
 –  Promotes
growth
of
some
fetal
 Mssues
as
well
as
mother’s
 breast

  • FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION:
CAN’T
 SLEEP
WITH
THE
LIGHTS
ON?
 •  PINEAL
GLAND:
 SUPRACHIASMATIC
 SUPERIOR
 Consists of nueroglia RETINA
 NUCLEUS

 (IN
 CERVICAL
 GANGLION
 PINEAL
 
GLAND
 and secretory cells HYPOTHALAMUS)
 (SYMPATHETIC)
 called pinealocytes IN
 •  Hormone: melatonin IN
THE
 LIGHT
 DARKNESS
 (biogenic amine) •  Timing of the body’s LACK
OF
 biological clock NOREPINEPRHINE
 INHIBITS
 NOREPINEPHRINE
 STIMULATES
 MELATONIN
 MELATONIN
 SECRETION
 SECRETION
 ALERT!
 ZZZZ….

  • FOR
YOUR
APPRECIATION:
 MELATONIN
AND
JET
LAGS
 •  SAD (seasonal affective disorder) –  Type of depression that arises during winter months when day- length is short –  Due to overproduction of melatonin –  Relief: bright light therapy (exposure to artificial light as bright sunlight) •  JETLAGS –  Tiredness suffered by travelers who cross several time zones –  Relief: 3-6 hours of bright light exposure •  INSOMNIA –  Inadequate production of melatonin –  Research: small doses of melatonin before bedtime

  • END
COVERAGE
FOR
 EXAMINATION
1