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Non Living Resources Ns 5 Non Living Resources Ns 5 Presentation Transcript

  • LECTURE
ON
NON‐LIVING
 RESOURCES
 Natural
Sciences
5
 (Parungao)

  • NON‐LIVING
RESOURCES
RESOURCES
 •  More
than
6
billion
people
now
inhabit
the
 Earth.

 •  Materials
removed
from
the
Earth
and
used
by
 people
are
called
natural
resources.

 •  Scien;sts
divide
the
Earth’s
natural
resources
 into
two
groups,
nonrenewable
and
 renewable.

  • NON
RENEWABLE
and
RENEWABLE
 RESOURCES
 •  Nonrenewable
Resources
cannot
be
replaced
by
 nature
 – Example:
Fossil
fuels,
Minerals
(copper,
iron,
etc)
 •  Renewable
resources
can
be
replaced
by
nature
 – Example:
Wood,
Water,
Soil
(forma;on
is
an
extremely
 slow
process)
 – Scenario
on
how
slow:
Nature
can
take
anywhere
 from
500
years
to
1000
years
to
replace
every
2.5cm
 of
topsoil
lost


 View slide
  • WATER
RESOURCES
 •  Even
though
water
is
a
renewable
resource,
there
 is
a
limited
supply
of
fresh
water
 – No
life
could
ever
exist
in
its
absence
(e.g.
65‐70%
of
 human
body
is
composed
of
water)
 – Biological
importance:
universal
solvent
 – Environmental
importance:
water
cycle


 •  Most
of
the
Earth’s
water,
97%,
is
in
the
oceans
 •  Primary
Concern:
to
maximize
availability
and
 reduce
loss
 View slide
  • USES
OF
WATER
 •  Residen;al
or
Domes;c:
Each
person
uses
 more
than
260
liters
of
water
daily


 •  Agriculture:
Irriga;on
 •  Industry:
Product
processing

  • •  CLASS SA –  PROPAGATION, SURVIVAL AND HARVEST OF SHELL FISH (COMMERCIAL PURPOSES) •  CLASS SB –  RECREATIONAL WATER (BATHING, SWIMMING, SKINDIVING) –  FISHERIES (BANGUS) •  CLASS SC –  RECREATIONAL WATER (BOATING ETC.) –  SUSTENANCE FISHING –  MANGROVE AS WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES •  CLASS SD –  INDUSTRIAL WATER SUPPLY (COOLING)
  • •  CLASS AA –  PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY –  REQUIRES APPROVED DISINFECTION ONLY •  CLASS A –  COMPLETE TREATMENT REQUIRED (COAGULATION, SEDIMENTATION, FILTRATION, DISINFECTION) •  CLASS B –  PRIMARY CONTACT RECREATION (BATHING, SWIMMING) •  CLASS C –  PROPAGATION OF FISH –  BOATING –  MANUFACTURING WATER AFTER TREATMENT •  CLASS D –  IRRIGATION
  • WATER
CYCLE
 •  The
Earth’
supply
of
fresh
water
is
constantly
 renewed
by
the
water
cycle.


 •  The
water
cycle
is
the
movement
of
water
 from
the
Earth’s
surface
to
the
atmosphere
 and
back
to
the
surface.



  • •  DEVELOPMENT-RELATED CHANGES –  URBANIZATION –  OVERGRAZING –  OVERCULTIVATION –  DEFORESTATION •  POLLUTING THE WATER CYCLE –  EMMISIONS AND SOLID WASTES •  OVERDRAWING WATER RESOURCES –  DIMINISHING WATER SURFACE –  SALT WATER INTRUSION
  • NEW
SOURCES
OF
FRESHWATER
 •  Most
of
the
Earth’s
water
resources
are
in
 oceans,
lakes,
rivers
and
streams
 •  Desalina;on
 – process
by
which
salt
is
removed
from
ocean
water

 – 
may
supply
20
million
liters
of
fresh
water
daily.
 •  Icebergs/Glaciers
 – could
possible
be
moved
to
large
coastal
ci;es
and
 mined
for
fresh
water
 – not
sure
of
the
environmental
effects
the
movement
 of
glaciers
might
have

  • GROUNDWATER
 •  More
than
300
billion
liters
of
groundwater
are
taken
 out
of
the
ground
daily
for
use
on
farms
and
in
 factories.

 –  EXAMPLE:
Half
the
drinking
water
supply
comes
form
 groundwater.
 •  It
takes
hundreds
of
years
for
groundwater
to
 accumulate.


 –  In
many
areas
of
the
country
it
is
being
used
faster
than
it
 is
being
replaced.
 •  The
levels
of
groundwater
are
dropping
and
lakes
and
 rivers
may
dry
up.



  • WATER
MONITORING
 •  Parameters:
COD,
BOD,
Coliforms
and
Heavy
 Metals
for
household
and
environmental
 waters
 •  EMB‐DENR
 •  Water‐related
Tragedies:
 – Semirara
(2005)
 – Guimaras
(2006)
 – Others????

  • LAND
USE
 •  One‐third
of
the
Earth’s
 •  Land
is
needed
for
building
 surface
is
covered
by
land.


 ci;es
to
house
the
 –  Only
a
small
amount
of
this
 increasing
human
 land
can
be
used
for
farming
 popula;on.
 or
for
living
space.


 –  All
land
is
not
suitable
for
all
 uses.
 •  Land
is
also
needed
for
 farming
and
industry.


 •  Land
is
used
for
ci;es,
 –  These
needs
have
to
be
 carefully
weighed
and
 highways,
forests,
farms
and
 balanced.

 pastures.
 –  If
too
much
is
used
for
cites,
 then
not
enough
will
be
le_
 for
farms.


 •  Even
though
the
popula;on
 –  Both
uses
are
important.

 con;nues
to
grow,
land
is
a
 limited
resource.

  • •  LAND: AN ECOSYSTEM – FOOD BASE – CRUCIAL LIFE-SUPPORT SYSTEM •  LAND CULTIVATION: DEVELOPED TO MEET FOOD NEEDS •  PROVIDE RAW MATERIALS
  • •  GRASSLANDS •  14.2 M HECTARES –  HIGHEST RATE OF SOIL LOSS (268 TONS/HEC/YEAR) SUITABLE FOR CROP CULTIVATION •  RP GROSS EROSION RATE –  2, 046 M METRIC TONS/YEAR –  GRASSLANDS (76.34%) –  AGRICULTURE (22.34%) •  4% OF TOTAL RP –  WOODLANDS (1.32%) LAND AREA •  TOP SOIL LOSS –  LOSS OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER AND MOISTURE- HOLDING CAPACITY •  5.2M HECTARES •  CAUSES INCREASED RUN-OFF SEVERELY ERODED •  REDUCED INFILTRATION •  POORER SEEDBED QUALITIES
  • EROSION
AND
LAND
CONVERSION
 •  ECOLOGICAL/ECONOMIC –  SOIL EROSION ON SITE –  SEDIMENTATION: OFF SITE •  DEFORESTATION –  MAJOR CAUSE OF SOIL EROSION AND LAND DEGRADATION IN UPLAND AREAS •  IMPROPER LAND USE –  DESTRUCTIVE PRACTICES –  LAND CONVERSION –  LAND MANAGEMENT

  • FOOD
PRODUCTION
 •  An
increasing
popula;on
requires
an
increase
in
 food
produc;on.


 – New
and
improved
crop
varie;es
must
be
developed.

 – Farms
must
be
made
more
produc;ve
with
beaer
 growing
methods.
 •  Land
that
is
unusable
for
farming
must
be
made
 fer;le.
 – Irriga;on
is
one
way
to
do
this.
 •  Land
is
also
needed
for
raising
animals
and
to
 produce
food
for
the
animals.

  • FARM
MANAGEMENT
 •  Crops
use
up
nutrients
in
the
soil.


 –  When
one
type
of
crop
is
grown
on
the
same
land
for
too
long,
 deple;on
may
result.
 •  Farmers
need
to
alternate
crops
that
extract
different
 nutrients.


 –  This
is
known
as
crop
rota;on.
 •  Contour
plowing
involves
plan;ng
crops
across
the
face
of
a
 slope
of
land.
 •  In
strip
cropping,
farmers
plant
strips
of
low
cover
crops
 between
strips
of
other
crops.


 –  This
holds
down
the
soil.

  • CHALLENGE:
DESERTIFICATION
 •  Regions
too
dry
to
support
crop
growth
can
 support
grasslands.


 – These
grasslands
have
tradi;onally
been
used
for
 grazing.

 – Too
many
animals
on
the
land
results
in
overgrazing.
 •  Overgrazing
leaves
the
topsoil
exposed
to
wind
 erosion.


 •  Dry
grasslands
then
become
deserts.


 •  Deser;fica;on
is
taking
place
all
over
the
world.

  • LAND
AND
SOIL
RECLAMATION
 •  Some;mes
land
is
disturbed
to
reach
valuable
 minerals.

 – It
may
be
possible
for
the
land
to
be
reclaimed,
or
 restored
to
its
original
condi;on.
 •  Land
reclama;on
involves
several
steps.


 – First,
the
valuable
topsoil
is
carefully
removed
and
 stored.


 – Then
the
less
valuable
layers
below
are
stripped
away.


 •  The
needed
minerals
are
removed
and
shipped.


 •  The
disturbed
soil
must
be
protected
from
erosion
and
 pollu;on.


 •  Then
the
layers
are
put
back.


 – The
final
step
is
seeding
and
plan;ng
the
land.

  • MINERAL
RESOURCES
 •  A
mineral
is
defined
as
a
naturally
occurring
 chemical
substance
found
in
soil.


 – Minerals
are
used
to
make
a
variety
of
products,
from
 silver
jewelry
to
aluminum
cans.


 – Minerals
are
nonrenewable
resources.

 – Minerals
are
either
metallic
or
non
metallic.
 •  Metallic
minerals
include
copper,
iron
and
 aluminum.
 •  Nonmetallic
minerals
include
quartz,
limestone
 and
sulfur.

  • ORES
 •  To
obtain
a
useful
mineral,
the
minerals
must
 be
mined
or
removed
from
the
Earth.
 •  Deposits
of
minerals
that
can
be
mined
at
a
 profit
are
called
ores.


 – If
the
percentage
of
a
mineral
in
an
ore
is
high,
the
 ore
is
called
a
high‐grade
ore.

 – Ore
are
found
all
over
the
Earth.
 •  The
Earth’s
crust
is
a
storehouse
of
minerals.


  • IRON
 •  Iron
is
the
most
widely
used
metal
extracted
from
 metallic
ores.

 •  Other
substances
can
be
added
to
iron
to
make
 steel.


 – Steel
is
an
alloy,
or
a
substance
made
of
two
or
more
 metals.

 •  Chromium
is
added
in
the
steel
making
process
to
 provide
resistance
to
rus;ng.



  • OTHER
MINERALS
 •  Other
metals
removed
from
metallic
ores
 include
copper,
which
is
used
in
electric
wires
 and
aluminum,
which
is
used
in
cans.

 •  Gold
and
silver,
used
in
jewelry,
are
also
found
 in
metallic
ores.

  • MINING
AND
PROCESSING
OF
ORES
 •  Once
mineral
deposits
have
been
located,
they
 must
be
mined.
 •  Open‐pit
mining
can
have
disastrous
effect
on
 land
and
groundwater
resources.
 •  Mining
the
ore
is
the
first
step.


 – To
extract
the
mineral
from
the
ore,
impuri;es
in
the
 ore
are
removed.


 – A
purified
mineral
remains.


 – The
mineral
is
then
processed
and
sent
to
the
plant
to
 make
the
final
product.

  • MINING
THE
OCEANS
 •  The
minerals
in
the
Earth’s
crust
have
been
formed
over
millions
or
 billions
of
years.

 –  The
Earth
contains
a
limited
amount
of
mineral.


 –  The
present
rate
of
mining
cannot
con;nue
or
the
supply
will
be
 exhausted.
 •  One
answer
is
to
reuse
or
recycle
minerals.


 –  Another
is
to
find
new
materials
to
take
their
place.


 –  Another
possibility
is
the
ocean
floor.
 •  Many
minerals
such
as
manganese,
nickel,
cobalt,
and
copper
have
 been
found
on
the
ocean
floor.
 •  If
these
deposits
can
be
mined
economically,
they
may
provide
a
 valuable
new
source
of
mineral.
 


  • RP REMAINS IN THE WORLD’S UPPER BRACKET IN TERMS OF MINERAL RESOURCES MINERAL SECTOR : TOP EARNER DUE TO NUMEROUS PROPOSALS FROM FOREIGN COMPANIES MINING INDUSTRY : ALSO ONE OF THE MOST PROBLEMATIC AS FAR AS THE ENVIRONMENT IS CONCERNED
  • •  INVOLVES EXTENSIVE VEGETATION CLEARING •  EARTH MOVING •  REPUTATION : MAJOR POLLUTER OF THE ENVIRONMENT –  Effluent generation •  MAJOR DILEMMA: –  BALANCE BETWEEN UTILIZATION AND CONSERVATION –  SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  • •  6.833B MT OF METALLIC RESERVES –  COPPER 66.79% –  NICKEL 15.87% –  BAUXITE, CHROMITE, COPPER, GOLD, IRON, LEAD, MANGANESE, MERCURY, MOLYBDENUM, NICKEL) •  51.678B MT OF NON-METALLIC RESERVES –  LIMESTONE 46% –  MARBLE 40% –  SILICA, CLAY, SHALE, ROCK AGGREGATES, DOLOMITE, LIMESTONE, MARBLE) •  AREAS –  BAGUIO, ZAMBALES, BENGUET, MARINDUQUE, MINDORO, MASBATE, SAMAR-LEYTE, CEBU-NEGROS, SURIGAO, DAVAO, ZAMBOANGA, PALAWAN
  • Double
lined
landfill
for
hazardous
wastes,
the
 first
of
its
kind
in
the
country

  • •  CORROSIVE •  REACTIVE –  E.G. ACIDS –  E.G. CHLORINE BLEACH AND –  CAN EAT THROUGH METAL AMMONIA –  CAN EXPLODE OR CREATE –  BURN SKIN ON CONTACT POISONOUS GAS WHEN –  GIVES OFF VAPORS THAT COMBINED WITH OTHER BURN THE EYES CHEMICALS •  IGNITABLE •  TOXIC –  E.G. PESTICIDES, WEED –  E.G. GASOLINE, KILLERS, HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE POLISH, PAINT CLEANERS –  CAN BURST INTO FLAMES –  CAN POISON PEOPLE, AND EASILY OTHER LIFE FORMS –  CAN IRRITATE EYES, SKIN –  CAN CAUSE ILLNESS OR AND LUNGS DEATH IF SWALLOWED OR ABSORBED THROUGH THE –  GIVE OFF HARMFUL SKIN VAPORS
  • •  RE-USE AND RECYCLE •  SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS (STORING IN LINE PONDS) •  INCINERATION (CONTROLLED BURNING) •  DEEP WELL INJECTION (PUMPING INTO UNDERGROUND WELLS) •  INNOVATIVE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES
  • •  INHALATION –  VAPORS •  INGESTION –  THROUGH CONTAMINATED WATER OR FOOD •  DERMAL EXPOSURE –  SKIN ABSORPTION •  ACUTE EXPOSURE –  SINGLE EXPOSURE FOR A SHORT TIME –  SYMPTOMS APPEAR IMMIDEATELY •  CHRONIC EXPOSURE –  OCCURS OVER A MUCH LONGER PERIOD OF TIME –  CANCER, LIVER FAILURE, SLOWED GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
  •   RESSING
 P CONCERN
ABOUT
 THE
RESOURCE
:

   LOBAL
CLIMATE
 G CHANGE

   IMINISHING
 D OZONE
LAYER
 PARUNGAO
NS5
2008
 43

  • •  MOBILE
 •  STATIONARY
 •  AREA
 PARUNGAO
NS5
2008
 44

  • GLOBAL
WARMING?

  • OZONE
FORMS
SO
SLOW
BUT
CAN
BE
 DESTROYED
OH
SO
EASY

  •   ARPOOL
OR
RIDE
A
BIKE
 C OR
WALK
   SE
OF
FUEL‐EFFICIENT

 U TRIPS
 •  HOW
TO
MITIGATE
IF
   VOID
USING
EXCESSIVE
 A NOT
ERADICATE
THE
 POWER
 PROBLEM…
   NERGY
EFFICIENT
 E METHODS
 •  YOU
CAN
HELP!
   FC
FREE
APPLIANCES
 C   REVENTS
RELEASE
OF
 P CHLORINE

 PARUNGAO
NS5
2008
 50

  • GROUP
ASSIGNMENT
 •  One
worksheet
per
group
for
Ac;vity
on
 Water,
Land
and
Global
Warming
 •  Submit
Next
Mee;ng