Modifications to lecture on microbial control

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Modifications to lecture on microbial control

  1. 1. CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTSMonday, January 23, 2012
  2. 2. CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTSMonday, January 23, 2012
  3. 3. CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS Antibiotics are medicines used to treat infections caused by bacteria only Infections are usually caused by bacteria or viruses Antibiotics, therefore, do not cure all infections Many infections like the common cold, flu, mild sore throat or diarrhea are caused by virusesMonday, January 23, 2012
  4. 4. CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS Antibiotics are medicines used to treat infections caused by bacteria only Infections are usually caused by bacteria or viruses Antibiotics, therefore, do not cure all infections Many infections like the common cold, flu, mild sore throat or diarrhea are caused by virusesMonday, January 23, 2012
  5. 5. Monday, January 23, 2012
  6. 6. WHAT IF ANTIBIOTICS WERE USED INCORRECTLY? No healing effect - If antibiotics are used for viral infections, there will be no effect on the illness Antibiotic resistance - This occurs when one antibiotic no longer works on a specific type of bacteria A stronger antibiotic will be needed to treat the infection caused by this resistant strain of bacteriaMonday, January 23, 2012
  7. 7. WHAT IF ANTIBIOTICS WERE USED INCORRECTLY? No healing effect - If antibiotics are used for viral infections, there will be no effect on the illness Antibiotic resistance - This occurs when one antibiotic no longer works on a specific type of bacteria A stronger antibiotic will be needed to treat the infection caused by this resistant strain of bacteriaMonday, January 23, 2012
  8. 8. ANTIBIOTIC MECHANISMSMonday, January 23, 2012
  9. 9. ANTIBIOTIC MECHANISMSMonday, January 23, 2012
  10. 10. RESISTANCEMonday, January 23, 2012
  11. 11. RESISTANCEMonday, January 23, 2012
  12. 12. Monday, January 23, 2012 RESISTANCE
  13. 13. Monday, January 23, 2012 RESISTANCE
  14. 14. Mechanisms of resistance Imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginos Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to Tetracycline penicillinsMRSA penicillinbinding protein Penicillins, PBP2A Cephalosporins Hawkey, P. M BMJ 1998;317:657-660Monday, January 23, 2012
  15. 15. DO YOU CONTRIBUTE TO RESISTANCE?Monday, January 23, 2012
  16. 16. DO YOU CONTRIBUTE TO RESISTANCE?Monday, January 23, 2012
  17. 17. DO YOU CONTRIBUTE TO RESISTANCE?Monday, January 23, 2012
  18. 18. DO YOU CONTRIBUTE TO RESISTANCE?Monday, January 23, 2012
  19. 19. DO YOU CONTRIBUTE TO RESISTANCE? Another factor that contributes to resistance is that when patients are prescribed antibiotics for a just cause, many do not finish their medication This allows resistant bacteria to survive more easily The practice of saving unused medication to treat themselves or others at a later date can also lead to resistant strainsMonday, January 23, 2012
  20. 20. DO YOU CONTRIBUTE TO RESISTANCE?Monday, January 23, 2012
  21. 21. DO YOU CONTRIBUTE TO RESISTANCE?Monday, January 23, 2012
  22. 22. DO YOU CONTRIBUTE TO RESISTANCE? Also contributing to antibiotic resistance is the widespread use of antibiotics to promote weight gain and to control disease in cattle, pigs, and chickens Forty to fifty percent of antibiotics produced are used in livestock feed This leads to an increase of resistant bacteria in these animals, which is then spread to humansMonday, January 23, 2012
  23. 23. THE CONSEQUENCES OF RESISTANCE: Ecology of pathogenesis Bacteria grow fast High population densities Great competition for resources Pathogen = normal bacterium that has gained access to a new resource through new genes --> Competitive advantageMonday, January 23, 2012
  24. 24. Monday, January 23, 2012
  25. 25. Monday, January 23, 2012
  26. 26. 12 Steps to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance: Hospitalized Adults 12 Steps to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance: Hospitalized Adults Use Antimicrobials Wisely Prevent Infection 5. Practice antimicrobial control 1. Vaccinate 6. Use local data 7. Treat infection, not 2. Get the catheters out contamination 8. Treat infection, not colonization Diagnose and Treat 9. Know when to say “no” to Infection Effectively vanco 3. Target the pathogen 10. Stop treatment when infection is cured or unlikely 4. Access the experts Prevent Transmission 11. Isolate the pathogen 12. Contain the contagionMonday, January 23, 2012
  27. 27. ANY QUESTIONS???Monday, January 23, 2012

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