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Microbial genetics & interactions 2011
 

Microbial genetics & interactions 2011

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    Microbial genetics & interactions 2011 Microbial genetics & interactions 2011 Presentation Transcript

    • MICROBIAL GENETICS & MICROBIAL INTERACTIONS Last Lecture Sets for Examination 3Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • LECTURE OUTLINE Microbial Genetics: OVERVIEW Microbial Interactions Principles of Disease and Epidemiology Immunology and Its Applications Environmental Microbiology Applied and Industrial Microbiology Reference: Tortora (10e) Chapters 8 and 9 for Microbial Genetics; Chapters 14-18/27-28 for Microbial Interactions)Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • MICROBIAL GENETICSThursday, September 15, 2011
    • TERMS IN MICROBIAL GENETICS Genome: All of the genetic material in a cell Genomics: The molecular study of genomes Genotype: The genes of an organism Phenotype: Expression of the genesThursday, September 15, 2011
    • OVERVIEWThursday, September 15, 2011
    • IMPORTANT ENZYMESThursday, September 15, 2011
    • REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSIONThursday, September 15, 2011
    • MUTATIONS A change in the genetic material Mutations may be neutral, beneficial, or harmful Mutagen: Agent that causes mutations Spontaneous mutations: Occur in the absence of a mutagenThursday, September 15, 2011
    • TYPES OF MUTATIONS: MISSENSEThursday, September 15, 2011
    • TYPES OF MUTATIONS: NONSENSEThursday, September 15, 2011
    • TYPES OF MUTATIONS: FRAMESHIFTThursday, September 15, 2011
    • REPAIRING MUTATIONS Ionizing radiation (X rays and gamma rays) causes the formation of ions that can react with nucleotides and the deoxyribose-phosphate backbone Nucleotide excision repairs mutations. UV radiation causes thymine dimers Light-repair separates thymine dimers.Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • MUTATIONS IN THE LAB FREQUENCY: Spontaneous mutation rate = 1 in 109 replicated base pairs or 1 in 106 replicated genes AND Mutagens increase to 10–5 or 10–3 per replicated gene SELECTION: Positive (direct) selection detects mutant cells because they grow or appear different Negative (indirect) selection detects mutant cells because they do not grow.Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • CHARACTERIZING MUTATIONSThursday, September 15, 2011
    • MUTAGENICITY TEST: AMES TESTThursday, September 15, 2011
    • GENE TRANSFERS ENDPOINT: RECOMBINATION Vertical gene transfer: Occurs during reproduction between generations of cells Horizontal gene transfer: The transfer of genes between cells of the same generation CONJUGATION, TRANSFORMATION, TRANSDUCTIONThursday, September 15, 2011
    • CONJUGATIONThursday, September 15, 2011
    • CONJUGATIONThursday, September 15, 2011
    • TRANSFORMATIONThursday, September 15, 2011
    • TRANSDUCTIONThursday, September 15, 2011
    • EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE: PLASMIDS Conjugative plasmid: Carries genes for sex pili and transfer of the plasmid Dissimilation plasmids: Encode enzymes for catabolism of unusual compounds R factors: Encode antibiotic resistanceThursday, September 15, 2011
    • EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE: TRANSPOSONS Segments of DNA that can move from one region of DNA to another Contain insertion sequences for cutting and resealing DNA (transposase) Complex transposons carry other genesThursday, September 15, 2011
    • BIOTECHNOLOGY: APPLICATIONS OF MICROBIAL GENETICS Biotechnology: The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product Foods, antibiotics, vitamins, enzymes Recombinant DNA technology: Insertion or modification of genes to produce desired proteins.Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • BIOTECHNOLOGY: APPLICATIONS OF MICROBIAL GENETICSThursday, September 15, 2011
    • BIOTECHNOLOGY: APPLICATIONS OF MICROBIAL GENETICSThursday, September 15, 2011
    • BENEFITS FROM BIOTECHNOLOGYThursday, September 15, 2011
    • BENEFITS FROM BIOTECHNOLOGYThursday, September 15, 2011
    • BENEFITS FROM BIOTECHNOLOGYThursday, September 15, 2011
    • SAFETY ISSUES AND ETHICS Avoid accidental release Genetically modified crops must be safe for consumption and for the environment Who will have access to an individuals genetic information? ASSIGNMENT: GROUP WORK (of 4-5) “Discuss one important safety and ethical issue associated with utilization of BIOTECHNOLOGY and come up with a position paper”Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • PRINCIPLES OF DISEASE AND EPIDEMIOLOGY onlinecourses.science.psu.eduThursday, September 15, 2011
    • MECHANISMS OF PATHOGENICITYThursday, September 15, 2011
    • STAGES OF DISEASEThursday, September 15, 2011
    • TRANSMISSION & SOURCES OF INFECTION Reservoirs of infection: Humans, Animals and Non-living e.g. soil Contact: Direct, Indirect, DropletsThursday, September 15, 2011
    • TRANSMISSION & SOURCES OF INFECTION Vehicles (inanimate) Vectors (ticks, mosquitoes, fleas) Mechanical (flies)Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • TRANSMISSION & SOURCES OF INFECTIONThursday, September 15, 2011
    • REPORTING DISEASES & SURVEILLANCE MORBIDITY (The rate of incidence of a notifiable disease) = How many got sick? MORTALITY (deaths from notifiable diseases) = How many died?Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • REPORTING DISEASES & SURVEILLANCE DALYs (disability-adjusted life year) Estimate the number of years of life lost due to premature death and any years lost in disability Used by policy makers to determine the level of funding for prevention programs, treatment efforts, and researchThursday, September 15, 2011
    • REPORTING DISEASES & SURVEILLANCE PREVALENCE (The total number of cases of a disease in a given population at a specific time) INCIDENCE (number of new cases during some time period)Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • IMMUNOLOGY & Q: Why do you think yourITS APPLICATIONS lymph nodes swell when there is infection?Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • MIAN FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM = DISCRIMINATIONThursday, September 15, 2011
    • MIAN FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM = DISCRIMINATIONThursday, September 15, 2011
    • MIAN FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM = DISCRIMINATIONThursday, September 15, 2011
    • IMMUNOLOGY & ITS APPLICATIONSThursday, September 15, 2011
    • IMMUNOLOGY & ITS APPLICATIONSThursday, September 15, 2011
    • IMMUNOLOGY & ITS APPLICATIONSThursday, September 15, 2011
    • INFLAMMATIONThursday, September 15, 2011
    • THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEMThursday, September 15, 2011
    • CLASSICAL, ALTERNATIVE AND LECTIN PATHWAYSThursday, September 15, 2011
    • IMMUNOLOGY & ITS APPLICATIONSThursday, September 15, 2011
    • INTEGRATION Although the innate mechanisms do not improve with repeated exposure to infection as do the acquired, they play a vital role since they are intimately linked to the acquired systems by two different pathways which all but encapsulate the whole of immunology. Antibody, complement and polymorphs give protection against most extracellular organisms, while T-cells, soluble cytokines, macrophages and NK cells deal with intracellular infectionsThursday, September 15, 2011
    • VACCINES : GLOBAL CHALLENGES Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • PASSIVE AND ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • VACCINES AND IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • COMMON VACCINES (HUMANS) Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • VACCINES AND POLIO ERADICATION EFFORTS Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • VACCINES AND MEASLES Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • VACCINES : TOXOIDS Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • ANTIGENIC PEPTIDES Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • RECOMBINANT VACCINES Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • RECOMBINANT VACCINES Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • RECOMBINANT VACCINES Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • VACCINES & HERD IMMUNITY thepaltrysapien.comThursday, September 15, 2011
    • ECOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS AND MICROBES ANTAGONISMThursday, September 15, 2011
    • ECOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS AND MICROBES (Fungi and algae)Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • ECOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS AND MICROBES : bacteria & legumesThursday, September 15, 2011
    • ECOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS AND MICROBES : ruminants and microbesThursday, September 15, 2011
    • ECOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS AND MICROBES : fungi and plantsThursday, September 15, 2011
    • ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY:RESEARCH AREASThursday, September 15, 2011
    • MICROBES AND THE BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLESThursday, September 15, 2011
    • MICROBES AND THE BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLESThursday, September 15, 2011
    • Microbial decomposition Proteins and waste products Amino acids Microbial ammonification Amino acids (–NH2) Ammonia (NH3) Nitrosomonas Ammonium ion (NH4 +) Nitrite ion (NO2- ) Nitrobacter Nitrite ion (NO2 -) Nitrate ion (NO3- ) Pseudmonas Nitrate ion (NO3 -) N2 Nitrogen - fixation N2 Ammonia (NH3)Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • MICROBES AND THE BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLESThursday, September 15, 2011
    • Microbial decomposition Proteins and waste products Amino acids Microbial dissimilation Amino acids (–SH) H 2S Thiobacillus H 2S SO42– (for energy) Microbial & plant assimilation SO4 2– Amino acidsThursday, September 15, 2011
    • APPLIED AND INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY Bioremediation Use of microbes to detoxify or degrade pollutants; enhanced by nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer Bioaugmentation Addition of specific microbes to degrade of pollutant Composting Arranging organic waste to promote microbial degradationThursday, September 15, 2011
    • APPLIED AND INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY: BIOFILMSThursday, September 15, 2011
    • APPLIED AND INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY: BIOLUMINESCENCEThursday, September 15, 2011
    • Water Quality Microbes are filtered from water that percolates into groundwater. Some pathogens are transmitted to human in drinking and recreational water. Resistant chemicals may be concentrated in the aquatic food chain. Mercury is metabolized by certain bacteria into a soluble compound, concentrated in animalsThursday, September 15, 2011
    • Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • Algal Blooms Pollutants (nutrients) may cause algal blooms. Algal blooms lead to eutrophication.Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • Coliforms Aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative, non– endospore forming rods that ferment lactose to acid + gas within 48 hr, at 35°C Indicator organisms Used to detect fecal contamination MPN Most probable number/100 ml of waterThursday, September 15, 2011
    • Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • Figure 6.18bThursday, September 15, 2011
    • β- galactosidase MUG fluorescent compoundThursday, September 15, 2011
    • WATER TREATMENT PROCESSThursday, September 15, 2011
    • FOOD PRESERVATION : CANNINGThursday, September 15, 2011
    • Food Preservation Pre-sterilized materials assembled into packages and aseptically filled (Aseptic packaging) Gamma radiation kills bacteria, insects, and parasitic worms High-energy electronsThursday, September 15, 2011
    • FERMENTATION Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sugar Ethyl alcohol + CO2 Lactic acid bacteria Malic acid Lactic acid Acetobacter or Gluconobacter Ethyl alcohol Acetic acidThursday, September 15, 2011
    • FERMENTATIONThursday, September 15, 2011
    • Yeast FermentationsThursday, September 15, 2011
    • Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • END OF LECTURESThursday, September 15, 2011
    • SPECIAL TOPICS IN MICROBIOLOGY BIOTERRORISM & DUAL RESEARCHThursday, September 15, 2011
    • OUTLINE ❖ Overview: Dual-Use Research ❖ Overview: Risks ❖ Biotechnology and Bioterrorism ❖ Case StudiesThursday, September 15, 2011
    • Biological Research has led to the development of new drugs, treatments, and medical advancements that have profoundly impacted our health and way of life The General Public holds scientists and their work in high regard and trusts that they will act in the best interest of societyThursday, September 15, 2011
    • “Legitimate scientific work that could be misused to threaten public health or national security” What is Dual-Use Research?Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • THUS: any medical advance that improves the ease of engineering, handling, or delivering treatment has the potential to be applied by those wishing to do harm and can be considered "dual- useThursday, September 15, 2011
    • “advances in biotechnology … have the potential to create a much more dangerous biological warfare threat … engineered biological agents could be worse than any disease known to man.” (CIA, 2003)Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • “advances in biotechnology … have the potential to create a much more dangerous biological warfare threat … engineered biological agents could be worse than any disease known to man.” (CIA, 2003)Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • Case StudiesThursday, September 15, 2011
    • ❖ Dr. Wimmer, Distinguished Professor in the Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook ❖ 1991: Published the chemical formula of the polio virus ❖ 2001:biochemically synthesized (deliberately) poliovirus according to its genomic sequence in the absence of a template without a DNA or RNA template, or the help of living cells ❖ 2002 published in Science ❖ DUAL USE Implications: unnecessarily demonstrating how bioterrorists could use modern scientific techniques to create dangerous pathogens ❖ POLICY: “prior to attempting synthesis of a microbial chromosome we commissioned an independent bioethical review of our proposed scientific plan.”Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • ❖ Dr. Wimmer, Distinguished Professor in the Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook ❖ 1991: Published the chemical formula of the polio virus ❖ 2001:biochemically synthesized (deliberately) poliovirus according to its genomic sequence in the absence of a template without a DNA or RNA template, or the help of living cells ❖ 2002 published in Science ❖ DUAL USE Implications: unnecessarily demonstrating how bioterrorists could use modern scientific techniques to create dangerous pathogens ❖ POLICY: “prior to attempting synthesis of a microbial chromosome we commissioned an independent bioethical review of our proposed scientific plan.”Thursday, September 15, 2011
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    • Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • ❖ Dr. Stuart Levy of the Tufts University School of Medicine (Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2006) identified a gene in Yersinia pestis similar to an Escherichia coli gene known to cause multiple antibiotic resistance ❖ Yesinia pestis causes plague, famously known as the “Black Death” after it caused an estimated 50 million deaths throughout Europe, Africa, and Asia in the 1300’s. ❖ confers resistance to a variety of drugs, oxidative stress agents, and organic solvents ❖ transcriptional regulators of a multidrug efflux pump ❖ MarR protein represses transcription of the efflux pump, whereas the MarA protein increases its expression, thereby activating antibiotic resistance.Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • ❖ In his 1945 Nobel Prize lecture, Fleming ended with a cautionary remark saying; “but I would like to sound one note of warning… it is not difficult to make microbes resistant to penicillin in the laboratory by exposing them to concentrations not sufficient to kill them, and the same thing has occasionally happened in the body.”Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • ❖ PROS: experiments could uncover the reasons why the Spanish flu pandemic was so deadly and could offer insight into avian flu pathology and how it might become transmissible in humans. ❖ CONS: ❖ publication of the viral sequence, conditions under which the virus was handled and the threat of its escape into the environment; ❖ recreate deadly and transmissible though extinct or eradicated viruses; ❖ can be used for the design of a weapon of mass destruction; there is a risk verging on inevitability of accidental… or deliberate release of the virus. ❖ IMPACT TO PUBLIC HEALTH: advancement in tools to sequence genomes and synthesize DNA; BUT could be used to engineer biological weaponsThursday, September 15, 2011
    • VIDEO ON SCIENTISTS’ VIEWSThursday, September 15, 2011
    • “are there potential benefits to public health and safety from application or utilization of this information?” We must PREVENT such MISUSE without IMPEDING research PROGRESS!Thursday, September 15, 2011
    • Thursday, September 15, 2011