Material Cycling lecture

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Material Cycling lecture

  1. 1. MATERIAL CYCLING HOW NUTRIENTS CYCLE /CTKNGP/2CTWPICQ$CNQNQPI
  2. 2. RECALL: PERCEPTIONS OF HUMANS /CTKNGP/2CTWPICQ$CNQNQPI TO NATURE A.Nature is FRAGILE - delicate balance - could easily be upset by changes ! B. Nature is DURABLE - very sturdy - may change without much adverse consequence - can restore itself back
  3. 3. RECALL: ENERGY CANNOT BE CREATED NOR DESTROYED The movement of elements and compounds that are essential to life Materials are transported through organisms, the atmosphere, water and land in a series of CYCLES /CTKNGP/2CTWPICQ$CNQNQPI
  4. 4. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING “Bio” – life, participation of organisms “Geo” - abiotic environment as source of nutrients “Chemical” – nature of substances being cycled www.myfreephotoshop.com /CTKNGP/2CTWPICQ$CNQNQPI
  5. 5. BASIC TYPE OF CYCLES /CTKNGP/2CTWPICQ$CNQNQPI www.colorado.edu Gaseous type – the reservoir is the atmosphere and/or hydrosphere (e.g. N2, CO2, O2) Sedimentary type – the reservoir is the Earth’s crust (e.g. Phosphorus) Linkage type – the reservoir includes major pathways in air, water, and crust (e.g. sulfur)
  6. 6. WHEN DO THE PROBLEMS COME IN? Errors in Nutrient Cycling www.foe.co.uk
  7. 7. SOURCES OF ERRORS Pollution – accumulation of a chemical form that is higher than the standards njitvector.com
  8. 8. Clean Air Act of 1998
  9. 9. SOURCES OF ERRORS Non-biodegradable substances – change to form new chemical structure where no organism has yet to utilize it A to A’ to A’’ to A’’’ sarahmosko.wordpress.com
  10. 10. SOURCES OF ERRORS Reduction of the concentration of other chemical forms – limits growth of the subsequent components of the cycle www.conserve-energy-future.com
  11. 11. SOURCES OF ERRORS Eutrophication - the channeling of a substance to other pathways (greater amounts of phosphates in aquatic systems) ericrumble.typepad.com
  12. 12. THE DIFFERENT BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES HOW NUTRIENTS CYCLE /CTKNGP/2CTWPICQ$CNQNQPI
  13. 13. THE WATER CYCLE water.usgs.gov
  14. 14. PURPOSE: Mediates Nutrient Cycle and A Major Energy Dissipation Pathway IMPACTS OF HUMAN INTRUSION More consumption than supply Pumping waters from aquifers - not a normal part of the water cycle Garbage and wastes pollute the water and clog drainage systems induces flooding Asphalting – render the ground impervious to water blocks infiltration
  15. 15. WATER POLLUTION www.conserve-energy-future.com
  16. 16. WHAT ELSE CAN YOU THINK OF?
  17. 17. environ.andrew.cmu.edu THE OXYGEN CYCLE
  18. 18. TYPE: Gaseous ! Major Reservoir: Atmosphere Forms: Free and Molecular Oxygen Sources: Photosynthesis from producer AND Photodissociation of Water Vapor Fate of Free O2: Reach higher levels of trophosphere and reduced to ozone (provides protection by filtering out the sun's UV rays) May react with chemicals and organic compounds of the earth’s crust May be used up in cell respiration which release CO2 to be used by autotrophs to produce more O2
  19. 19. IMPACTS OF HUMAN INTRUSION CFC’s (chlorofluorocarbons) deplete ozone layer “ozone hole” Eutrophication (nutrient enrichment from agricultural and domestic wastes) leads to depletion of oxygen in water Combustion of fossil fuels and removal of vegetation (deforestation) deplete the supply of oxygen in the atmosphere
  20. 20. DEPLETION OF OXYGEN www.wri.org
  21. 21. DEPLETION OF OXYGEN www.theguardian.com
  22. 22. www.onlyzerocarbon.org THE CARBON CYCLE
  23. 23. TYPE: Gaseous ! Major Reservoir: Atmosphere but also calcium carbonate in shells and limestone, as well as fossil fuel Significance : Major element of organic compounds; building blocks of all biomolecules
  24. 24. TYPE: Gaseous ! Processes: Photosynthesis removes CO2 while respiration and combustion add CO2 to the atmosphere. CO2 from air and water combine to form bicarbonate (HCO3) – source of carbon for aquatic producers. Carbonic acid makes rainwater also slightly acidic Similarly, when aquatic organisms respire, CO2 is released and combine with water to form HCO3. HCO3 (water) = CO2 (air)
  25. 25. CRUCIAL ISSUE Excess Carbon Emissions (Anthropogenic) www.foe.co.uk
  26. 26. mpe.dimacs.rutgers.edu NORMALLY….
  27. 27. HOWEVER… croesy-gcse-geography.doomby.com
  28. 28. tygae.weebly.com THE NITROGEN CYCLE
  29. 29. TYPE: Gaseous ! Major reservoir – ATMOSPHERE Importance – Essential for many biological processes, constitutes part of proteins (amino acids), in bases of nucleic acids that make up DNA and RNA 79% of atmosphere is made up of nitrogen (N2) but this is INERT It must be fixed for organisms to utilize it
  30. 30. blog.targethealth.com micro-scopic.tumblr.com THE NITROGEN FIXERS
  31. 31. IMPACTS OF HUMAN INTRUSION USE OF NITROGEN FERTILIZERS NITROGEN OXIDES RELEASED THROUGH COMBUSTION Human use of nitrogen fertilizers causes runoff, leading to eutrophication in aquatic systems (e.g. eutrophication) Ozone + PAN Photochemical Smog
  32. 32. www.marketplace.org NITROGEN IN FISH FARMING
  33. 33. IMPACTS OF HUMAN INTRUSION LIVESTOCK RELEASE OF LARGE AMOUNTS OF AMMONIA (FROM WASTES) The ammonia released from wastes of livestock can have detrimental effects on fish and other organisms NITRATES LEACHING INTO GROUNDWATER Nitrogen level in drinking water rises A large rise of nitrogen in drinking water supplies leads to Methemoglobinemia / Blue-Baby Syndrome There is reduction in diversity
  34. 34. LEACHING www.artinaid.com
  35. 35. reefkeeping.com THE PHOSPHORUS CYCLE
  36. 36. TYPE: PURELY SEDIMENTAL Major reservoir – Earth’s crust Importance Phosphorous -also found in bones, in phospholipids which are found in biological membranes.
  37. 37. TYPE: PURELY SEDIMENTAL Gradual cycle - It has no gaseous phase Phosphorous normally occurs in nature as part of phosphate ion. Most phosphates found as salts in ocean sediments or in rocks. Over time : geologic processes can bring sediments from ocean to land, and weathering can bring it from land to ocean Phosphorous constituent of nucleic acids in DNA, and energy currency of cell ATP
  38. 38. www.apsu.edu www.lactate.com PHOSPHATES IN YOUR BODY
  39. 39. IMPACTS OF HUMAN INTRUSION Humans mine phosphate ores for use in fertilizer production and detergents Human actions could lead to eutrophication of aquatic systems which cause algal blooms Algal blooms cause fish kills
  40. 40. eatinglocalandorganic.com PHOSPHATES IN FERTILIZERS
  41. 41. ALGAL BLOOM aklanforum.blogspot.com
  42. 42. sulfurcycle.tripod.com THE SULFUR CYCLE
  43. 43. TYPE: SEDIMENTARY WITH ATMOSPHERIC COMPONENT Major reservoir – inorganic sulfur in rocks and fossil fuel Biological Importance Sulfur is an important element in protoplasm which is an important component of some amino acids Sulfur is part of proteins, vitamins and hormones
  44. 44. ISSUE ASSOCIATED WITH SULFUR CYCLE: ACID RAIN www.ypte.org.uk science.howstuffworks.com
  45. 45. HEAVY METALS POISONING THE CYCLE www.watersafe.co.za
  46. 46. Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  47. 47. Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  48. 48. Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  49. 49. Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  50. 50. BIOMAGNIFICATION It is the increase in concentration of an element or compound that occurs in the food chain as a result of food chain energetics or degradation of substance Accumulation of chemicals in higher predators or in higher trophic levels
  51. 51. sustainable-nano.com
  52. 52. BIOMAGNIFICATION Chemical concentration is said to be magnified thousand fold in tissues of higher trophic level organisms It is important in ecology because : it indicates that solution to certain types of pollution is not dilution because food chains will concentrate the pollutant
  53. 53. BIOREMEDIATION FINDING SOME SOLUTION www.expertsbuzz.com
  54. 54. BIOREMEDIATION BY BACTERIA
  55. 55. BIOREMEDIATION BY FUNGI (Mycoremediation) www.kolumbus.fi
  56. 56. BIOREMEDIATION BY FUNGI (Mycoremediation)
  57. 57. BIOREMEDIATION BY PLANTS (Phytoremediation) systemsbiology.usm.edu
  58. 58. BIOREMEDIATION BY ALGAE (Phycoremediation) www.emerginginvestigators.org

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