Lecture on nucleic acid and proteins

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Lecture on nucleic acid and proteins

  1. 1. www.psmag.com Nucleic Acids and Proteins Structure & Function PART 2
  2. 2. EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOMES a structure made of DNA and associated proteins carries part or all of a cell’s genetic information thelivingenvironmentcheatsheet.blogspot.com
  3. 3. BACTERIAL CHROMOSOMES ridge.icu.ac.jp biocadmin.otago.ac.nz
  4. 4. CHROMOSOME NUMBER www.nature.com Sum of ALL chromosomes in a cell
  5. 5. NUCLEIC ACIDS: DNA & RNA linear array of NUCLEOTIDES
  6. 6. PURINES & PYRIMIDINES
  7. 7. PHOSPHODIESTER LINKAGES BETWEEN NUCLEOTIDES
  8. 8. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) www.goldiesroom.org DNA was discovered in 1869 by Fredrich Miescher by isolating the nuclei of white blood cells, he extracted an acidic molecule he called nuclein
  9. 9. FUNCTIONS DNA carries genetic info from one generation to the next DNA becomes read and transcribed so that proteins are made and traits are expressed DNA must be replicated each time cells divide
  10. 10. jabrooks01.blogs.wm.edu THE DNA STRUCTURE ROSALIND FRANKLIN MAURICE WILKINS JAMES WATSON & FRANCIS CRICK
  11. 11. PROPERTIES IN A DOUBLE HELIX The strands of DNA are antiparallel biology.tutorvista.com
  12. 12. PROPERTIES IN A DOUBLE HELIX www.ric.edu The strands are complimentary (CHARGAFF’S RULE)
  13. 13. PROPERTIES IN A DOUBLE HELIX There are Hydrogen bond forces academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu
  14. 14. PROPERTIES IN A DOUBLE HELIX There are base stacking interactions dspace.jorum.ac.uk
  15. 15. PROPERTIES IN A DOUBLE HELIX There are 10 base pairs per turn www.bioinfo.org.cn
  16. 16. RNA (Ribonucleic acid) www.biologycorner.com In the early 1900s, Phoebus Levene isolated two types of nucleic acid: RNA and DNA. In 1919, he proposed that both were made up of individual units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide was composed of one of four nitrogen-containing bases, a sugar, and a phosphate group
  17. 17. FUNCTION & TYPE RNA helps to assemble amino acids into proteins (Remember: proteins that determine traits) 3 Types: mRNA, rRNA, tRNA learn.genetics.utah.edu
  18. 18. sbi4u3.weebly.com
  19. 19. PROPERTIES OF RNA SINGLE-STRANDED theconversation.com
  20. 20. PROPERTIES OF RNA RIBOSE SUGAR www.classhelp.info
  21. 21. PROPERTIES OF RNA COMPLEMENTARY BASES www.bio.davidson.edu www.bristol.k12.ct.us
  22. 22. PROTEINS Proteins control the phenotypes (traits) of organisms Proteins regulate our cell functions (chemical reactions) breakingmuscle.com
  23. 23. STRUCTURE esciencenews.com Example: HIV protein shell structure
  24. 24. QUESTION #1: D Identify this molecule: A. amino acid B. carbohydrate C. RNA D. DNA
  25. 25. QUESTION #2: Identify the following molecule A. amino acid B. hydrogen bond C. protein D. Nucleotide D C Phosphate Group Deoxyribose CH2 O Nitrogenous Base
  26. 26. QUESTION #3: How many types of RNA are there? A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 C
  27. 27. QUESTION #4: Which of the following have hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous bases? A. DNA B. RNA C. BOTH A
  28. 28. QUESTION #5: What is the function of tRNA? “Transfer” amino acids to ribosomes/ delivery system of amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
  29. 29. QUESTION #6: Which of the following is found in BOTH DNA and RNA? A. phosphate group, guanine, uracil B. phosphate group, guanine, cytosine C. ribose, phosphate group, uracil D. deoxyribose, phosphate group, thymine B
  30. 30. QUESTION #7: What is the function of mRNA? “Messenger” serves as template during protein synthesis/ RNA version of the gene encoded by DNA
  31. 31. QUESTION #8: Which of the following describes the structure of DNA? A. double-stranded RNA molecule B. double-stranded helix molecule C. double-stranded RNA helix D. single-stranded RNA helix B
  32. 32. QUESTION #9: What is the function of rRNA? “Ribosomal” binds with proteins to form the ribosome during protein synthesis learn.genetics.utah.edu
  33. 33. QUESTION #10: Describe the primary structure of proteins amino acid sequence
  34. 34. THE SEARCH FOR THE GENETIC MATERIAL Before DNA was established as the genetic material in cells, scientists knew: there was a connection between chromosomes and inherited traits the genetic material had to control the production of enzymes and proteins the genetic material had to be able to replicate itself with accuracy and still allow mutations to occur
  35. 35. THE CANDIDATES: PROTEIN AND DNA Once T.H. Morgan’s group showed that genes are located on chromosomes, the two constituents of chromosomes - proteins and DNA - were the candidates for the genetic material Until the 1940s, the great heterogeneity and specificity of function of proteins seemed to indicate that proteins were the genetic material However, this was not consistent with experiments with microorganisms, like bacteria and viruses
  36. 36. GRIFFITH’S TRANSFORMATION EXPERIMENT (1928) education-portal.com
  37. 37. Oswald Avery, Maclyn McCarty and Colin MacLeod EXPERIMENT (1943) www.pixton.com
  38. 38. Oswald Avery, Maclyn McCarty and Colin MacLeod EXPERIMENT (1943) education-portal.com
  39. 39. Oswald Avery, Maclyn McCarty and Colin MacLeod EXPERIMENT (1943) janebiotech.wordpress.com education-portal.com
  40. 40. ALFRED HERSHEY & MARTHA CHASE (1952) lifesciencesfoundation.org • Concluded that the injected DNA of the phage provides the genetic information that makes the infected cells produce new viral DNA and proteins, which assemble into new viruses
  41. 41. TRANSDUCTION EXPERIMENT lifesciencesfoundation.org
  42. 42. IS IT PROTEIN?
  43. 43. SO, IS IT DNA?
  44. 44. QUESTION #11: (BY PAIR) WHAT IS THE COMPLEMENTARY STRAND OF THE GIVEN DNA TEMPLATE: 5’ ATT GGC 3’ 5’ GCC AAT 3’
  45. 45. QUESTION #12: Which of the following is a DNA template? A. GGC TTA GGT B. TTA GGU GGA C. AAU CCT AAG A
  46. 46. QUESTION #13: (BY PAIR) What is the contribution of TH Morgan’s group to molecular genetics? showed that genes are located on chromosomes, the two constituents of chromosomes - proteins and DNA - were the candidates for the genetic material
  47. 47. QUESTION #14: What are the two strains of Streptococcus used in the transformation experiments by Griffith? the “rough” avirulent strain and the “smooth” virulent strain
  48. 48. QUESTION #15: (BY PAIR) According to Griffith’s Experiment, why did he suggest that DNA is the genetic material? DNA as transforming principle: “transformed” avirulent strains to virulent strains
  49. 49. QUESTION #16: (BY PAIR) How did Hershey and Chase monitor the fate of DNA if their experiment radioactive labelling with P
  50. 50. QUESTION #17: (BY PAIR) How did Hershey and Chase monitor the fate of PROTEINS if their experiment radioactive labelling with S

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