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Immunity and vaccines for exam 3

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  • 1. SO.... HOW DO YOU FIGHT BACK?Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 2. HOST FACTORS: WHAT YOU DO TO FIGHT INFECTIONS Immune System Overview Factors that affects the immune status of the host age, nutrition, hygiene, etcMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 3. BEFORE THE IMMUNITY...Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 4. Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 5. OVERVIEW: HOW WE FIGHT INFECTIONS... www.youtube.com/watch?v=T_4TrNRa3v8Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 6. THE CELLS...Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 7. INNATE HUMORAL : THE COMPLEMENTMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 8. THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM & THEIR FUNCTIONMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 9. INNATE CELLULAR MONOCYTES dendritic cells (antigen presenting cells) macrophages (ingest foreign cells) NATURAL KILLER CELLS releases proteins to kill foreign cells GRANULOCYTES mast cells (releases histamines during allergic reactions) neutrophils, eosinophil, basophilsMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 10. DENDRITIC CELLS & ANTIGEN PRESENTATIONMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 11. MACROPHAGESMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 12. NATURAL KILLER CELLSMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 13. MAST CELLSMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 14. THE PHILS... NEUTROPHILS EOSINOPHILS BASOPHILS INFLAMMATIONMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 15. ADAPTIVE HUMORALMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 16. ADAPTIVE HUMORALMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 17. ADAPTIVE HUMORALMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 18. Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 19. ADAPTIVE CELLULAR B cells Th plasma cells = helpers differentiates to activates humoral antibodies response (immune cells) memory cells = for Tc secondary exposure to cytotoxic antigens kills and clearsMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 20. B CELLSMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 21. T HELPER CELLMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 22. CYTOTOXIC T CELLMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 23. MHC CLASSES A. Which T cell will perform B. Which pathogen typeIntracellular ExtracellularMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 24. INFECTION BY BACTERIA Bacterial Infections Are Neutralization Of Toxins Eliminated By Humoral Exotoxins (Ex. Immunity Diptheria) Exception: intracellular Endotoxins (Ex. LPS) bacteria Ex. TB Lysis Of Bacteria Thru Antibodies Eliminate Complement Pathway Bacteria Or Bacterial Toxins Bacteria Enter Host Thru Opsonization Of Bacteria Respiratory Tract, GI Tract, Genitourinary Tract, SkinMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 25. Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 26. EVASION BY BACTERIA Some Bacteria Have Pili Some Bacteria Secrete Adhesion Molecules (Bordetella pertussis) Immune System Response To Attachment Is IgA Prevents Attachment Some Bacterial Evade IgA Thru Proteases That Decrease ½ Life Of IgA Ex. Haemophilus influenzae Some Bacteria Avoid Phagocytosis By Surrounding Themselves In A Polysaccharide Capsule. Ex. Streptococcus pneumoniaeMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 27. OVERZEALOUS IMMUNE SYSTEM NOT BENEFICIAL Bacterial Septic Shock In Tuberculosis, MΦ Ingest MTB But Cannot Digest It Predominant Cytokines Involved: IL-1 and TNF-α Eventually Burst - Releasing Bacilli Source: MΦ MΦ And TH1 Cells Form Intracellular Bacteria Cause Granulomatous Lesion, Granulomas Containment+Destruction Of Extensive Tissue Damage Healthy Tissue Ex. Tuberculosis INF-γ and IL-12 Are Crucial In Eliminating PathogenMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 28. Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 29. INFECTION BY VIRUSES The Immune Response Against Virus Is Primarily Mediated Thru Interferons Double stranded RNA induces production of IFN Main producers of IFNα and IFNβ are pDCs TLR-3 (dsRNA); TLR-7 (ssRNA) Interferons produce an anti-viral state A state that inhibits viral replication A state that inhibits viral infectionMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 30. Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 31. Antibody Protection Against Viruses Antibodies Bind To Viral Surface Antigens Protect against re-infection Huge amounts of secretory IgA in lumen block viral attachment Viral Entry Into Cells Is Mediated Thru Receptors Influenza virus binds to sialic acid on glycoproteins Rhinovirus binds to ICAMs If Receptor Is Blocked, Infection Is Blocked Oral Polio vaccine Relies On IgA ProductionMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 32. Antibody Protection Against VirusesMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 33. Antibody Protection Against Viruses Antibodies Are Efficient In Preventing InfectionMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 34. Antibody Protection Against Viruses Antibodies Are Efficient In Preventing Infection Once Infection Has Occurred, Only Cell Mediated Immunity Can Eliminate Infected CellsMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 35. Antibody Protection Against Viruses Antibodies Are Efficient In Preventing Infection Once Infection Has Occurred, Only Cell Mediated Immunity Can Eliminate Infected Cells Examples Of Cell Mediated Immunity TH1, CTL Are the major participantsMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 36. Antibody Protection Against VirusesMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 37. Antibody Protection Against Viruses TH1 Produce IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α IL-2 expands CTL-P IFN-γ induces antiviral state IL-2 and IFN-γ activate NK cells (first line of defense)Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 38. Antibody Protection Against Viruses TH1 Produce IFN-γ, IL-2, CTL (cytotoxic and TNF-α lymphocytes) IL-2 expands CTL-P Peaks 7-10 days post infection IFN-γ induces antiviral state Eliminate virally infected cells IL-2 and IFN-γ activate NK cells (first line of defense)Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 39. VACCINES & VPDMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 40. THERE ARE 2 WAYS TO PROTECT YOURSELF... A. B.Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 41. Monday, February 27, 2012
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  • 45. Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 46. Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 47. Monday, February 27, 2012
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  • 49. Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 50. Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 51. Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 52. Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 53. BACTERIAL VACCINES Bacteria Disease Antigen Efficacy Streptococcus Pneumonia Capsular 85% pneumoniae polysaccharide Neisseria meningitis Capsular 85% meningitidis polysaccharide Hemophilus meningitis Capsular 85% influenzae polysaccharide Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Toxoid >90% diphtheriae Clostridium tetani tetanus Toxoid >90% Bordetella pertussis Whooping cough Killed organism >90% Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Live attenuated 0 – 70 % bovis (BCG) Salmonella typhi Typhoid fever Killed/Live 80% attenuatedMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 54. IMMUNIZATION FOR INFANTS Vaccine Reason for Immunization BCG Given at the earliest possible age protects against the possibility of infection from family members DPT Early start with DPT reduces chance of severe pertussis OPV Protection against polio increased the earlier the OPV is given Hepatitis B Early start of HBV vaccination reduces chance of being infected and becoming a carrier Measles At least 80% of measles can be prevented by immunization at this ageMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 55. SCHEDULE Age Diseases to be immunized against Birth Tuberculosis 6 weeks DPT; Polio; HBV 10 weeks DPT; Polio; HBV 14 weeks DPT; Polio; HBV 9 months MeaslesMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 56. SIDE EFFECTS OF BCG 30 minutes  wheal SIDE EFFECTS: disappears 1. Koch’s phenomenon- an acute 2 weeks: a small red inflammatory reaction tender swelling 10 cm appearing within 2-4 days of appears vaccination 3 weeks: swelling 2. Deep abscess at vaccination site becomes a small – due to subcutaneous or abscess which then deeper injection (I & D) ulcerates 3. Indolent ulceration- an ulcer 12 weeks: course from which persists after 12 weeks or vaccination to healing & > 10cm deep (Tx –INH powder) scarification 4. Lymph node enlargementMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 57. SIDE EFFECTS DPT SIDE EFFECTS: Advice/ Management Fever: many children develop fever after  Antipyretic or tepid sponge injection , lasting only bath one day; fever that lasts more than 24  Reassure mother that hours after a dose of swelling needs no treatment DPT is not due to the and will disappear within vaccine but to other 3-4 days causes Local Soreness: Pain or swelling at injection siteMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 58. SIDE EFFECTS DPT SIDE EFFECTS: Advice/ Management Abscess: If this appears a week or more after the  Incision and drainage is injection, it is due to necessary wrong technique. Either the vaccine was not  If convulsions occur, give injected deep enough or proper management and the needed was not do not continue the sterile normal course Convulsions: Very rare; occurs more in >3 months; usually due to pertussis component of the vaccineMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 59. SIDE EFFECTS MEASLES VACCINE SIDE EFFECTS: Advice/ Management Fever and rash: Children may develop Reassure the mother and fever after 5-7 days advise antipyretic for from the time of the child vaccination Fever lasts only from 1-3 days. Sometimes a mild rash appearsMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 60. TETANUS TOXOID Vaccine Minimum age/ Percent Duration of protected interval protection As early as possible during TT1 pregnancy At least 4 weeks later * Infants born to the mother TT2 80% protected from neonatal tetanus; 3 years protection to mother At least 6 months later * Infants protected; TT3 95% 5 years protection to mother At least one year later * Infants protected; TT4 99% 10 years protection to mother At least one year later Lifetime protection for mother; TT5 99% * all infants born to that mother will be protectedMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 61. VACCINES AND POLIO ERADICATION EFFORTS (smallpox as model) Parungao-Balolong 2011Monday, February 27, 2012
  • 62. MEASLES & HERD IMMUNITY thepaltrysapien.comMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 63. EMERGING & RE- EMERGING INFECTIONSMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 64. EMERGING & RE-EMERGING INFECTIONSMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 65. PUBLIC HEALTH PLANNING & INTERVENTION Disaster and Outbreak Preparedness Accessibility to Intervention and Good Clinical Management Environmental Sanitation and Hygiene Research: Diagnostics, Therapy and Pathogenic Mechanisms Surveillance and Prevention Control Programs Health Promotion and Awareness Ads and CampaignsMonday, February 27, 2012
  • 66. END OF BIO 120 LECTURESMonday, February 27, 2012

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