Chemistry of life and Metabolism

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Chemistry of life and Metabolism

  1. 1. CALENDAR OF ACTIVITIES Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  2. 2. CALENDAR OF ACTIVITIES Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  3. 3. CALENDAR OF ACTIVITIES Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  4. 4. Lecture 2 MBB1 The Fundamentals! ! 1. Chemistry of Life! 2. The cellular and the acellular world! 3. Functional Anatomy of Cells: Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes! 4. Metabolism! ! Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  5. 5. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • CHEMISTRY! • the science that deals with the interaction between atoms and molecules Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  6. 6. LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong knowledgeclass.blogspot.com
  7. 7. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • THE ATOMS! • the smallest unit of chemical elements that are involved in chemical reactions • consist of nucleus (protons and neutrons) and electrons moving around the nucleus • Atomic Number = number of protons • Atomic Weight = number of protons and neutrons Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong chemistry.tutorvista.com
  8. 8. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • THE ELEMENTS OF LIFE Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  9. 9. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • THE ATOMS: Electronic Configurations! • in an atom, electrons are arranged around the nucleus in electron shells • each shell can hold a characteristic maximum number of electrons • THUS: chemical properties of an atom is due largely to the number of electrons in its outermost shell Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  10. 10. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong ≤ 2 e ≤ 8 e
  11. 11. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • THE ATOMS: Electronic Configurations Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong chemistry.tutorvista.com The combining capacity of an atom (VALENCE) is the number of EXTRA or MISSING electrons in the outermost shell. Example: C = 4 (4); N = 5 (3); O = 6 (2); H = 1(1)
  12. 12. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • ATOMS TO MOLECULES: CHEMICAL BONDS! • Compounds are molecules made up of two or more atoms • NOTE: compounds are formed to fill the outermost shell (unfilled spaces) • Chemical Bonds are attractive forces that bind atomic nuclei of two atoms together • e.g. Ionic, Covalent, H-bonds Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  13. 13. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • IONIC BONDS! • chemical attraction between ions of opposite charge • electron donor and electron acceptor Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  14. 14. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • COVALENT BONDS! • atoms share pair of electrons • stronger than ionic bonds and more common in organisms • determine POLARITY • polar -unequal sharing • non-polar - equal sharing Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu
  15. 15. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • HYDROGEN BONDS! • exists when a hydrogen atom COVALENTLY bonded with oxygen or nitrogen atoms are ATTRACTED to another oxygen or nitrogen atom • form WEAK links between molecules Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu
  16. 16. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu The H-bonds of LIFE
  17. 17. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • MOLECULAR WEIGHT and the MOLES! • sum of atomic weights of all atoms in a molecule • Application in the lab: MW = g/L or g/mole Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong Example: Tris base used to make Tris-HCL buffer ! If MW = 121.14 g/mole… you need 121.14 g per Liter of buffer to be prepared (1M)
  18. 18. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • CHEMICAL REACTIONS! • Synthesis - combines to form a larger molecule • A + B AB! • Decomposition - large molecule broken down into smaller components • AB A + B • Exchange - two molecules are decomposed and their subunits are used to synthesize two new molecules • AB + CD AC + BD Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  19. 19. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • REVERSIBLE CHEMICAL REACTION Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong www.umich.edu
  20. 20. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • IMPORTANT BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES: INORGANIC COMPOUNDS! • Inorganic compounds are small ionically- bonded molecules • Water • Acids, Bases and Salts Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  21. 21. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • WATER! • most abundant substance in cells • polar THUS an excellent solvent and a temperature buffer Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong bio1151.nicerweb.com
  22. 22. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • ACID, BASES & SALTS! • ACID dissociates into H+ and anions • HCl = H+ and Cl - • BASE dissociates into OH - and cations • NaOH = Na+ and OH - • SALT dissociates into negative and positive ions • NaCl = Na+ and Cl - Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  23. 23. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong • pH is the concentration of H+ in a solution academic.cuesta.edu
  24. 24. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • IMPORTANT BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS! • organic compounds always contain C and H • mostly covalently bonded Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong www.proprofs.com
  25. 25. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • IMPORTANT BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  26. 26. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • CARBOHYDRATES (CHOs)! • contains C, H, O • examples: sugars and starches Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong bodybuilding-wizard.com
  27. 27. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • Monosaccharide, Disaccharide and Polysaccharide Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong bioserv.fiu.edu
  28. 28. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • LIPIDS! • insoluble in water • simple lipid (fat) = glycerol + 3 FA • unsaturated FA - one or more double bonds • saturated FA - no double bonds between carbon atoms (have higher melting points) Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  29. 29. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • saturated versus unsaturated FA Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong www.dradvice.co.uk www.tackleacne.com
  30. 30. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • PROTEINS! • amino acids are the building blocks of proteins (C, H, O, N, sometimes S) • peptide bonds link amino acids to form proteins • primary (sequence), secondary (helices or pleats), tertiary (overall 3D structure) and quaternary (2 or more polypeptide chains) structures Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  31. 31. Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong www.womens-protein.com
  32. 32. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • NUCLEIC ACIDS! • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) • NUCLEOTIDE = pentose + phosphate group + nitrogen-containing base • NUCLEOSIDE = pentose + nitrogen-containing base Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  33. 33. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • DNA versus RNA Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  34. 34. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • NUCLEOTIDE versus NUCLEOSIDE Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong www.siumed.edu
  35. 35. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE • ATP! • stores chemical energy for various cellular activities • hydrolysis of ATP will release energy • energy from oxidation reaction will form ATP from ADP and Pi Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  36. 36. Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong www.abc.net.au
  37. 37. THE DOMAINS OF LIFE Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong faculty.southwest.tn.edu
  38. 38. THE VIRUSES: ACELLULAR Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong www.emporia.edu
  39. 39. PROKARYOTES & EUKARYOTES Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong www.phschool.com
  40. 40. PROKARYOTES & EUKARYOTES Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong www.vce.bioninja.com.au
  41. 41. ANIMAL CELLS Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong hubpages.com
  42. 42. PLANT CELLS Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong hubpages.com
  43. 43. BACTERIAL CELLS Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong micro.magnet.fsu.edu indianapublicmedia.org
  44. 44. YEAST CELLS Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong cnx.org sharon-taxonomy2009-p3.wikispaces.com
  45. 45. METABOLISM Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong www.elmhurst.edu
  46. 46. CATABOLISM & ANABOLISM Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong library.med.utah.edu
  47. 47. RESPIRATION & FERMENTATION Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong classes.midlandstech.edu

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