Biology 120 lecture 1 2011 2012
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    Biology 120 lecture 1 2011 2012 Biology 120 lecture 1 2011 2012 Presentation Transcript

    • BIOLOGY 120 (MICROBIOLOGY) Lecture 1 (Introduction to Microbiology) Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • MICROBIOLOGY : Definition Deals with the study of microorganisms Morphology, Interaction, Physiology, Genetics, Classification, etc. Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • MICROORGANISMS : Definition Living organisms and agents too small to be seen clearly by the unaided eye Organisms with a dimension of 1mm or less Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • BACTERIA Simple unicellular organisms Prokaryotes Exhibits major forms: Coccus Bacillus Spirals etc (others) Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • BACTERIA Motile or Non-motile Flagella Cilia etc (others) Reproduction: Binary Fission Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • BACTERIA Cell Wall: Peptidoglycan Acquiring Nutrition: Free-living Parasitic Saprophytic Photosynthetic Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • ARCHAEBACTERIA Prokaryotes Lacks Peptidoglycan cell wall Found in extreme environments Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • ARCHAEBACTERIA 3 MAJOR GROUPS Methanogens Extreme Halophiles Extreme Thermophiles Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • FUNGI EUKARYOTES Unicellular (Yeasts) Multicellular (Molds) Forms visible mass called mycelia (mass of hyphae) cell wall: chitin Reproduction: Sexual or asexual Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • PROTOZOA EUKARYOTES Unicellular Motility: psuedopods, flagella, cilia Comes in various shapes and form Free-living or Parasitic Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • ALGAE Photosynthetic eukaryote Form: unicellular, multicellular or colonial (cellular to filamentous) Reproduction: sexual or asexual Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • ALGAE Important producers in aquatic and freshwater ecosystems Microscopic and macroscopic forms exists Cell walls of most representative compose of cellulose Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • VIRUS Acellular forms Minute organisms, filterable Visible with electron microscope Can infect bacteria, plants, animals and humans Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • VIRUS Contains either RNA or DNA enclosed by a protein coat and sometimes an additional lipid envelope Reproduces only on a living host (obligate parasites) Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • VIROIDS Infectious plant RNA (similar to introns) Short strand of RNA with 300-400 nucleotides without protein coat ???? RNA is a closed, folded 3D structure (does not code for any protein) Pathogenic to plants only damaging crops (e.g. potato = PSTV) Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • PRIONS Proteinaceous, infectious particles Causative agent of spongiform encephalopathies Scrapie in sheep Mad cow disease of cattle Kuru in man Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • PRIONS INFECTED SHEEP/ COW INGESTION OF UNDERCOOKED MEAT DISEASE Parungao-Balolong 2011-2012Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • COMPARISON OF SIZES ORGANISM AVERAGE SIZE (diameter/length) Thiomargarita namibiensis * in nm) 1, 000, 000 Epulopiscium fishelsoni * 600, 000 RBC 7, 000 Oscillatoria (a cyanobacteria) 7, 000 Escherichia coli 4, 000 Rickettsia 475 Nanoarchaeum equitans 400 Poxvirus 450 Mycoplasma genitalium 300 Some nanobacteria 20 Parvovirus 18 Ribosomes 25-30 Smallest mycoplasmas 150Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • COMPARISON OF GENOME SIZES ORGANISM GENOME SIZE (number of base) Human pairs) 3120 million Mouse 3000 million Rice 430 million Fruit Fly 120 million Yeast 12 million Escherichia coli 4 million Prochlorococcus (a cyanobacteria) 1.66 million Rickettsia prowazekii 1.1 million Chlamydia trachomatis 1.1 million Mycoplasma genitalium 580, 000 Nanoarchaeum equitans 490, 000 Human mitochondrion 16, 500 E. coli virus 5, 400Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • WHERE CAN YOU FIND THEM? HABITAT APPROXIMATE POPULATION Garden Soil (surface) 9.7 x 106 per gram Garden Soil (30cm deep) 5.7 x 105 per gram Lake water (shallow) 104 per ml Lake water (deep) 102 per ml Seawater 1.1 x 103 per ml Human skin 106 per m2 Human mouth 107 per ml Human intestine 4 x 1010 per gram Milk 103 to 106 per ml Cheese 108 per gram Sunlit Surface Few Air FewThursday, June 16, 2011
    • LOOKING BACK... The History of MicrobiologyThursday, June 16, 2011
    • 3000 years ago... Discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Egyptian Mummies Proof that “Microbes are already present even before the science to study them”Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • BREAKTHROUGHS IN THE SCIENCE OF MICROBIOLOGY MICROSCOPY AND THE DISCOVERY OF MICROORGANISMS CULTURE METHODS GERM THEORY OF DISEASE DEFENSE OR CONTROL OF MICROBES MAJOR BREAKTHROUGHS: Virology and Molecular MethodsThursday, June 16, 2011
    • MICROSCOPY & DISCOVERY OF MICROORGANISMS 1677 (Anton Van Leeuwenhoek) animalculesThursday, June 16, 2011
    • MICROSCOPY & DISCOVERY OF MICROORGANISMS 1882 (Paul Erlich) discovery of acid fast stainThursday, June 16, 2011
    • MICROSCOPY & DISCOVERY OF MICROORGANISMS 1884: (Christian Gram) Gram stain (2 groups of bacteria)Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • CULTURE METHODS 1882(Robert Koch) solid culture media (basic technique of isolating pure cultures) initially used potatoes to culture microbesThursday, June 16, 2011
    • CULTURE METHODS 1887 (R. J. Petri) modified culture techniques a by Koch and introduced Petri dishThursday, June 16, 2011
    • GERM THEORY OF DISEASE 1860 (Louis Pasteur) microorganisms cause diseaseThursday, June 16, 2011
    • GERM THEORY OF DISEASE 1867 (Joseph Lister) antiseptic in the practice of surgeryThursday, June 16, 2011
    • GERM THEORY OF DISEASE 1876 (Robert Koch) Koch’s PostulateThursday, June 16, 2011
    • DEFENSE OR CONTROL OF MICROBES 1796 (Edward Jenner) vaccination (small pox)Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • DEFENSE OR CONTROL OF MICROBES 1850 (Ignaz Semmelweis) hand washing in preventing diseaseThursday, June 16, 2011
    • DEFENSE OR CONTROL OF MICROBES 1885 (Louis Pasteur) Sterilization and PasteurizationThursday, June 16, 2011
    • DEFENSE OR CONTROL OF MICROBES 1900 (Walter Reed) yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoThursday, June 16, 2011
    • DEFENSE OR CONTROL OF MICROBES 1910 (Paul Erlich) salvarsan as cure for syphilisThursday, June 16, 2011
    • DEFENSE OR CONTROL OF MICROBES 1928 (Alexander Fleming) penicillin antibiotic (a contaminant)Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • MAJOR BREAKTHROUGHS VIROLOGY 1892 (Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovski) viruses in tobacco (“wildfire”)Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • MAJOR BREAKTHROUGHS VIROLOGY 1899 (Martinus Beijerinck) isolation of first virusThursday, June 16, 2011
    • MAJOR BREAKTHROUGHS MOLECULAR METHODS 1977 (Walter Gilbert & Frederick Sanger) sequence of nucleotide in nucleic acid (base sequences)Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • MAJOR BREAKTHROUGHS MOLECULAR METHODS 1983 (Kary Mullis) polymerase chain reaction (PCR)Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • SPONTANEOUS GENERATION The Grand Microbiology Debate through ExperimentationThursday, June 16, 2011
    • SPONTANEOUS GENERATION Production of mice required placing sweaty underwear and husks of wheat in an open-mouthed jar, then waiting for about 21 days, during which time it was alleged that the sweat from the underwear would penetrate the husks of wheat, changing them into miceThursday, June 16, 2011
    • Francisco Redi (1668) Believed that maggot developed from eggs laid by flies on the meatThursday, June 16, 2011
    • John Needham (1745) Heated infusion of chicken broth and corn, poured into covered “clean” flasks Soon contaminated (turbid) Said could only be due to spontaneous generationThursday, June 16, 2011
    • Lazaro Spallanzani (1765) Modified Needham’s experiment: the fluid was sealed in the flasks, and then boiled. noted that they did not show contamination if sterilized in the sealed flask Proponents of spontaneous generation argued that Spallanzani had only proven that spontaneous generation could not occur without airThursday, June 16, 2011
    • Louis Pasteur (1859)Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • Louis Pasteur (1859)Thursday, June 16, 2011
    • Louis Pasteur (1859) Disproving the theory of spontaneous generation led to the development of effective sterilization procedures. The development of vaccines for the diseases anthrax, fowl cholera, and rabiesThursday, June 16, 2011
    • ROLE OF MICROBESThursday, June 16, 2011