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Bio 22 Post Lab Exam 3
Bio 22 Post Lab Exam 3
Bio 22 Post Lab Exam 3
Bio 22 Post Lab Exam 3
Bio 22 Post Lab Exam 3
Bio 22 Post Lab Exam 3
Bio 22 Post Lab Exam 3
Bio 22 Post Lab Exam 3
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Bio 22 Post Lab Exam 3
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Bio 22 Post Lab Exam 3
Bio 22 Post Lab Exam 3
Bio 22 Post Lab Exam 3
Bio 22 Post Lab Exam 3
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Bio 22 Post Lab Exam 3
Bio 22 Post Lab Exam 3
Bio 22 Post Lab Exam 3
Bio 22 Post Lab Exam 3
Bio 22 Post Lab Exam 3
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Bio 22 Post Lab Exam 3

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  • 1. POST-LABORATORY DISCUSSION FOR EXAMINATION 3 Respiratory, Digestive, Circulatory and Urogenital
  • 2. DISCUSSION OUTLINE • Exercise 14: Respiratory System • Exercise 16: Digestive System • Exercise 18: Circulatory System • Exercise 20: Urogenital System • Physiology of Respiration, Digestion and Circulation shall be taken cared of by the reporters
  • 3. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • RESPIRATION: process by which gaseous exchange occurs between organism and its environment • RESPIRATORY PROCESS: involves diffusion of gases through moist semi-permeable membranes • simple organisms: simple diffusion via integument • complex organisms: Respiratory System
  • 4. RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM • Sponges and Jellyfish lack specialized organs for gas exchange and take in gases directly from the surrounding water
  • 5. RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM • GILLS • internal • external
  • 6. Gills greatly increase the surface area for gas exchange Water flows over gills in one direction while blood flows in the opposite direction through gill capillaries
  • 7. RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM • TRACHEA • tubes that carry air directly to cells for gas exchange • Spiracles: openings at the body surface that lead to tracheae (branch into smaller tubes known as tracheoles) • LUNGS
  • 8. LUNGS: birds • Birds depend on their respiratory system for temperature control and to provide a tremendous amount of oxygen to support the production of energy needed during flight • have evolved air sacs that extend off their lungs • air sacs occupy space within the body cavity = help to reduce weight as well • the air in the air sacs moves into the lungs when bird exhales = allows the lungs to be filled with large volumes air • ROUTE: posterior air sac->lungs- >anterior air sac->out of body
  • 9. LUNGS : frogs • Gas exchange in frogs and toads is through: • cutaneous respiration (1/3) • via skin • pulmonary respiration (2/3) • via lungs • buccopharyngeal respiration (small amount) • via mouth and lining of pharynx
  • 10. HOW DO FROGS RESPIRE WHEN UNDERWATER • SKIN: a uniform capillary network lies in a plane directly beneath the epidermis facilitates gas exchange between the capillary bed and the environment by both diffusion and convection (mucus layer aids in this gas exchange by dissolving respiratory gases) • Internal Nares (nostrils): opening to allow air in helps frog breathe while floating on water
  • 11. NEGATIVE vs POSITIVE PRESSURE BREATHING • NEGATIVE: small throat pouch pulls down drawing air through the nostrils into the mouth • POSITIVE: valves in the nostrils close and the throat pouch pushes upwards forcing the air into the lungs • With the valves in the nostrils still closed, the throat pouch pulls down sucking the air from the lungs back into the mouth • The valves in the nostrils open, the tongue blocks passage to the lungs, and the throat pouch pushes the air from the mouth back into the atmosphere • A rich supply of blood vessels to its thin skin enables it to absorb large amounts of oxygen while under water
  • 12. WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW • PARTS AND GLOTTIS FUNCTION OF lungs FROG RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • COMPARE BREATHING IN FROG AND MAN
  • 13. VOCAL CORDS VS VOCAL SACS • vocal cords: two muscular cords that run longitudinally along the larynx • PURPOSE: croaking sound is produced by air passing over the vocal cords in the larynx of the throat, so it continues a true voice (loud call is produced usually by males during the breeding season) • vocal sac: a flap of skin in the front of their throats which allows frogs to croak, trill and ribbit • HOW: frog inhales = vocal sac filled with air = vocal sac stretch out like a balloon (with its mouth closed, frog forces air from this sac back and forth over its vocal cords, producing a loud, repetitive sound
  • 14. RESPIRATION: IMPORTANT POINTS TO REMEMBER • MOIST SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE: moisture allows oxygen gas to dissolve and at the same time allow it to diffuse across the membrane • RESPIRATION AND CIRCULATION: cardiovascular system carries exchanges gases with respiratory system for transport of important gases throughout the body
  • 15. EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL RESPIRATION • EXTERNAL RESPIRATION • gas exchange • between lungs (alveoli) and blood • INTERNAL RESPIRATION • gas transport • between blood to tissues
  • 16. EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL RESPIRATION
  • 17. INHALATION & EXHALATION
  • 18. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Ingestion and Mechanical Digestion Defecation Chemical Digestion
  • 19. HOW DO ORGANISMS EAT? • Modes of Nutrition • Autotrophy • Heterotrophy • Types of Digestion • Intracellular • Extracellular • Modes of feeding • Filter feeding • Fluid feeding • Bulk feeding
  • 20. DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS • INCOMPLETE • single opening • both for input and output • sponges, cnidarians, ctenophores, flatworms • COMPLETE • two openings • one for input and the other for output • nematodes, annelids, molluscs, arthropods, echinoderms and chordates
  • 21. WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW • PARTS AND FUNCTION OF FROG DIGESTIVE TRACT (review!) • DIGESTIVE GLANDS AND THEIR FUNCTION • HISTOLOGY: HOW THEY RELATE WITH THEIR FUNCTION
  •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
  •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
  • 24. IMPORTANT DIGESTION FACTS YOU NEED TO KNOW • SUSPENSORY STRUCTURES AND FUNCTION • PYLORIC SPHINCTERS AND FUNCTION • MICROVILLI AND FUNCTION • GOBLET CELLS AND FUNCTION • ACINAR CELLS AND CRYPTS OF LIEBERKUHN AND FUNCTION
  • 25. SUSPENSORY STRUCTURES • mesogastrium • membrane suspending the stomach • mesenterium • membrane suspending the small intestines • mesorectum • membrane suspending the large intestines
  • 26. SUSPENSORY STRUCTURES •gastroduodenal omentum •connects duodenum to the stomach •hepatoduodenal omentum Mesentery: organ to •connects liver to body wall duodenum Omentum: organ to organ
  • 27. HISTOLOGY IN RELATION TO FUNCTION: STOMACH RUGAE • tunica serosa • tunica muscularis • submucosa • tunica mucosa • muscularis mucosa • lamina propria • simple columnar epithelium
  • 28. • tunica mucosa • simple columnar epithelium • muscularis mucsa • lamina propria
  • 29. HISTOLOGY IN RELATION TO FUNCTION: SMALL INTESTINE VILLI • tunica serosa • tunica muscularis • tela submucosa • tunica mucosa • lamina propria • simple columnar epithelium • goblet cells • crypts of Lieberkuhn
  • 30. • BRUSH BORDER/MICROVILLI: increase area for absorption • GOBLET CELLS: secretes mucus which protects the digestive organs digest themselves; eases passage of food • CRYPTS OF LIEBERKUHN: secretes sucrase, maltase, endopeptidase and exopeptidase
  • 31. HISTOLOGY IN RELATION TO FUNCTION: LIVER HEPATIC TRINITY • hepatic trinity/triad • bile duct • hepatic artery • hepatic vein
  • 32. HISTOLOGY IN RELATION TO FUNCTION: PANCREAS ACINAR CELLS • acinar cells (exocrine) • zymogen granules: secretory vesicles • islets of Langerhans (endocrine) • release insulin and glucagon to regulate blood glucose level
  • 33. CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS • OPEN: • CLOSED: • Circulatory medium directly bathes • Circulatory medium in vessels; peripheral tissues tissues are not bathed in CM • Blood is conveyed directly to organs • Blood is conveyed directly to organs • Less readily regulated blood • Well-regulated blood distribution (via distributed the sphincters, valves and hormones) • Usually a low pressure system • Usually high pressure system • Sustained pressure is possible (due to • Hydraulic pressure sustained small body size) • requires high peripheral resistance • Return to heart is often slow (provided by arteries’ elastic vessels)
  • 34. THE FROG’S HEART • PARTS: pericardial cavity; pericardium; ventricle; atria/auricle; conus arteriosus; sinus venosus • HEART: pumps blood to different parts of the body • VALVES: prevents back flow of blood • spiral valves: prevents mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood
  • 35. THE BLOOD VESSELS: ARTERY, VEIN AND CAPILLARIES
  • 36. FROG ARTERIAL AND VENOUS SYSTEM
  • 37. CHALLENGE: Can you trace the path of blood?
  • 38. UROGENITAL SYSTEM • EXCRETORY • elimination of metabolic wastes • Example: urea, uric acid, ammonia • REPRODUCTIVE • production of sex cells or gametes
  • 39. EXCRETION BY ANIMALS Excretory system of an earthworm: metanephridium Many invertebrates such as flatworms use Paired Kidneys of a nephridium as their excretory organ. At Vertebrates the end of each blind tubule of the nephridium is a ciliated flame cell. As fluid passes down the tubule, solutes are reabsorbed and returned to the body fluids. Body fluids are drawn into the Malphigian tubules by osmosis due to large concentrations of potassium inside the tubule. Body fluids pass back into the body, nitrogenous wastes empty into the insect's gut. Water is reabsorbed and waste is expelled from the insect.
  • 40. URINE FORMATION IN VERTEBRATES 1 3 Urine Production 5 1. Filtration in the glomerulus and nephron capsule. 2. Reabsorption in the proximal 2 4 tubule. 3. Tubular secretion in the Loop of Henle.
  • 41. KIDNEYS: histology Bowman’s capsule: simple squamous !"#$%&'() *%+(,-.) epithelium Glomerulus: simple cuboidal epithelium
  • 42. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS • MALE • TESTIS/ TESTES • FEMALE • OVARY • OVIDUCT
  • 43. MALE: histology • spermatocysts • spermatids • seminiferous • spermatozoa tubules • leydig cells: • spermatogonia synthesis of testosterone • primary spermatocytes • sertoli cells: nourishment of • secondary the spermatogenic spermatocytes cells
  • 44. FEMALE: histology • oogonium: • oocyte: • nucleolus: • follicle cells:
  • 45. IMPORTANT POINTS • arrangement of cells in seminiferous tubules: man vs frog
  • 46. IMPORTANT POINTS • SPERMATOGENESIS: male form of gametogenesis; results in the formation of spermatocytes possessing half the normal complement of genetic material • SPERMIOGENESIS: the spermatids begin to grow a tail, and develop a thickened mid-piece, where the mitochondria gather and form an axoneme • OOGENESIS: process of meiosis in female organisms from an oogonium to a primary oocyte, to a secondary oocyte, and then to an ovum • connective tissue covering developing oocytes: theca externa and theca interna
  • 47. end of exam coverage

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