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Bio 199 Lecture 3 (Literature Review)
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Bio 199 Lecture 3 (Literature Review)

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  • 1. THE LITERATURE REVIEW Evaluating Others’ and Developing Your Own
  • 2. RELATED LITERATURE • RELATED LITERATURE: Composed of discussions of facts and principles to which the present study is related • RELATED STUDIES: studies, inquiries or investigations conducted to which the present proposed study is related or has some bearing or similarity • usually unpublished materials • manuscripts; theses; dissertations
  • 3. SEARCHING FOR THEORIES We usually survey the literature to arrive at theories.
  • 4. THEORY • DEFINITION • set of interrelated concepts, definitions and propositions that presents a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables (Kerlinger, 1973) • purpose: explaining and predicting the phenomena
  • 5. FUNCTIONS OF THEORY • It identifies the start for the research problem by presenting the gaps, weak points, and inconsistencies in the previous researches. This provides the study with a conceptual framework justifying the need for investigations. • It puts together all the constructs or concepts that are related with the researcher’s topic. The theory then leads you into the specific questions to ask in your own investigation • It presents the relationships among variables that have been investigated. This process enables you to view your topic on hand against the findings earlier bared.
  • 6. OTHER IMPORTANCE, PURPOSES AND FUNCTIONS OF RELATED LITERATURE “WHAT IS IT FOR ME ME ANYWAY?”
  • 7. • It gives the researcher a feeling of confidence since by means of the review of related literature he will have on hand all constructs related to the study. • It provides information about the research methods used, the population and sampling considered, the instruments used in gathering data, and the statistical technique and computation employed in previous research. • It provides findings and conclusions of past investigations which may relate to your own findings and conclusions.
  • 8. CHARACTERISTICS OF RELATED LITERATURE MATERIALS • The surveyed materials must be as recent as possible • Materials reviewed must be objective and unbiased • Materials surveyed must be relevant to the study • Surveyed materials must have been based upon genuinely original and true facts or data to make them valid and reliable • Reviewed materials must not be too few or too many
  • 9. HOW TO CONDUCT THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE “WHERE DO I GO FROM HERE?”
  • 10. WHERE TO SEARCH • personal or school library (magazines, journals, books, etc) • attend seminars, scientific meetings (under your topic of course)...take down notes • do a computer-aided search through databases • example: www.scirus.com; pubmed; toxnet, etc
  • 11. HELP, THEY ARE ALL FOR SALE! • You can actually ask for reprints: • via postcards • via request letters • via emails
  • 12. AFTER ALL THESE PHOTOX WHAT’S NEXT? “ITS TIME TO ORGANIZE YOUR TREASURES!”
  • 13. ORGANIZING YOUR NOTES • General Information • Methods in Other Studies • Support for Objectives • Results to Compare with My Results • Pros and Cons of Controversy • Others...it may be of use (malay mo!)
  • 14. ALSO... • write all bibliographic information, i.e., author(s), complete title, publisher, date and place of publication, and so on • write what others have said on the subject plus your own impressions and comments • Start paraphrasing
  • 15. GUIDE QUESTIONS WHEN YOU REVIEW RESEARCH LITERATURE • Do the accumulated literature indicate gaps and inconsistencies which you hope to fill? • Are the variables adequately described? • What data gathering instruments have been used? Are they reliable and valid tools? • Are the target and sampling populations presented? • Were the hypotheses tested and correctly interpreted? • Are the results logical? Are the conclusions and recommendations data-based?
  • 16. IT’S TIME TO WRITE... AVOIDING PLAGIARISM!
  • 17. • Use headings arranged in logical order to indicate main points • Avoid too long introduction to your main topic. • Include information that are directly related and relevant to your topic. • A maximum of half-page (double-space) must constitute one paragraph • Do not copy in toto the information from your source. No more than 10% of the entire paper is allowed for direct quotation
  • 18. • Give due credit to the real source of your data. Cite the authors at the end of the sentence. • Paraphrase using your own words and style the data gathered. • Summarize important points from your sources and relate them to your topic. • Reinforce your data with selected figures or statistics from your course.
  • 19. A common problem...turning your list of ideas into a BORING review
  • 20. HOW TO AVOID IT • Make subheads (not too many), transitional phrases and unifying ideas to make information flow smoothly
  • 21. HOW TO AVOID IT • Spice your writing with a variety. Keep your paper alive! • Vary the way sentence and paragraph begins: • Author A found out • Author B found out • Replace found out with: • demonstrates; presented evidence for; supported; observed; reported; examined; concluded • Early in the 1980’s, author A • According to Author A,
  • 22. READY TO DO YOUR RRL?
  • 23. But before that, let us learn to critique or evaluate a research study
  • 24. GUIDE QUESTIONS • Why did the Researchers do this particular study? • Who/What was/were studied? • How was the study done? • What did the researchers find? • What were the limitations of the study? • What are the implications of the study?
  • 25. ACTIVITY 2 • For December 3, 2009 • Materials: photocopy of guide questions and uploaded (FB) journal article • Task: To be guided by the questions and critique the research study • One page, single space, Arial, 12 • Submit on December 7, 2009
  • 26. FOR ACTIVITY 3...
  • 27. BRING THE FOLLOWING • December 7, 2009 • Choose 5 abstracts from journal articles related to your desired topic/interest • Inclusive Dates: 2000 to present
  • 28. thank you and see you next meeting!

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