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Bio 151 lecture 2 innate immunity
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Bio 151 lecture 2 innate immunity



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  • 1. INNATE IMMUNITY Our Non-Specific Defenses References: 1. Immunology by Kuby 2. Microbiology by Tortora 3. Essentials of Immunology by Roitt Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong
  • 2. WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW Differentiate innate from adaptive immunity Define important terms related to innate immunity Be familiar with the 4 types of defense/ barriers in innate immunity Be familiar with cells of the innate immunity and their important roles
  • 3. Innate vs Adaptive Immunity Susceptibility: Lack of Resistance to a Disease Immunity: Ability to ward off disease Innate immunity: Defenses against any pathogen Adaptive immunity: Immunity, resistance to a specific pathogen
  • 4. Recall: the Lymphatic System Q: Why do you think your lymph nodes swell when there is infection?
  • 5. 4 Types of Defensive Barriers in Innate Immunity Anatomic/Physical Physiologic Phagocytic Inflammatory
  • 6. Anatomic: Skin Serves as a Physical Barrier Epidermis consists of tightly packed cells with KERATIN, a protective protein Normal Microbiota: Microbial antagonism/ competitive exclusion: Normal microbiota compete with pathogens
  • 7. Anatomic: Mucous Membranes Ciliary escalator: Microbes trapped in mucus are transported away from the lungs Lacrimal apparatus: Washes eye Saliva: Washes microbes off Urine: Flows out Vaginal secretions: Flow out
  • 8. SUMMARY: Skin & Mucous Membranes
  • 9. physiologic: low pH & Chemicals Fungistatic fatty acid in sebum Low pH (3-5) of skin Lysozyme in perspiration, tears, saliva, and tissue fluids Low pH (1.2-3.0) of gastric juice Transferrins in blood find iron (Bind Serum iron) NO inhibits ATP production
  • 10. Physiologic: Temperature (FEVER) Increased in Body Temperature Hypothalamus normally set at 37°C Gram-negative endotoxin cause phagocytes to release interleukin–1 (IL–1) Hypothalamus releases prostaglandins that reset the hypothalamus to a high temperature Body increases rate of metabolism and shivering which raise temperature When IL–1 is eliminated, body temperature falls (crisis)
  • 11. Physiologic: Temperature (FEVER) Advantages Increase transferrins Increase IL–1 activity Disadvantages Tachycardia Acidosis Dehydration
  • 12. Nice to KNow: Sickle Cell Gene & Malaria Resistance
  • 13. Differential White Cell Count 1. Neutrophils: Phagocytic 2. Basophils: Produce histamine 3. Eosinophils: Toxic to parasites and some phagocytosis 4. Dendritic cells: Initiate adaptive immune response 5. Monocytes: Phagocytic as mature macrophages a. Fixed macrophages in lungs, liver, and bronchi b. Wandering macrophages roam tissues 6. Lymphocytes: Involved in specific immunity
  • 14. To Be Discussed Fully in the next Lecture : Adaptive Immunity
  • 15. phagocytosis Phago: from Greek, meaning eat Cyte: from Greek, meaning cell Ingestion of microbes or particles by a cell, performed by phagocytes
  • 16. Phagocytic Barrier *** PLay Detailed Video
  • 17. Who Can Evade This Process...
  • 18. Inflammatory Barriers Signs & Symptoms: Redness, Pain, Heat, Swelling (edema) Processes Involved Acute-phase proteins activated (complement, cytokine, and kinins) Vasodilation (histamine, kinins, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes) Margination and emigration of WBCs Tissue repair
  • 19. What are Released?
  • 20. Important Steps: 1. Tissue Damage 2. Vasodilation & Increased Blood Vessel Permeability
  • 21. 3. Migration 4. Tissue Repair *** PLAY Detailed Video
  • 22. the complement system Serum proteins activated in a cascade *** PLay Detailed Video
  • 23. alternative versus classical be Familiar with the Similarities & Differences...
  • 24. the lectin pathway
  • 25. Effects of Complement Activation Opsonization or immune adherence: Enhanced phagocytosis Membrane attack complex: Cytolysis Attract phagocytes
  • 26. Some Bacteria Can Evade This Process... How? Capsules Prevent C Activation Surface lipid-carbohydrates prevent MAC formation Enzymatic digestion of C5a
  • 27. Interferons Host-Cell Specific but not Virus Specific SO HOW DOES IT STOP VIRUSES??? Alpha IFN and Beta IFN: Cause cells to produce antiviral proteins that inhibit viral replication Gamma IFN: Causes neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytize bacteria
  • 28. Interferons
  • 29. To Summarize....