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BSA105: Business English

BSA105: Business English
Section 1: Grammar

Yavapai College
Lindsay Henning
Associate Professor

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0135140560 pp1a 0135140560 pp1a Presentation Transcript

  • Pearson Business Reference and Writer’s Handbook Section One Grammar
  • This section provides
    • Fundamentals of effective writing through mastery of basic sentence structure and the foundations of correct grammar.
  • Objectives
    • Recognize basic sentence structure
    • Write complete sentences by properly using the parts of speech to logically form a complete thought
    • Place phrases and clauses correctly to form complete sentences
    • Locate verbs, pronouns, adjectives and adverbs within sentences
  • Grammar helps you …
    • Write sentences that clearly convey your message and reflect an educated command of English
    • Use proper word forms and functions to clearly state your meaning.
    • Vary the style of the sentences you write, which makes your writing more interesting to read.
  • Grammar is important because
    • Grammar rules provide the framework for using words correctly as different parts of speech to construct sentences
    • When you routinely use correct grammar, you can easily spot mistakes and correct them in your writing
  • Basic sentence structure
    • Every sentence must include a subject and a verb
    • The subject and verb must agree in number
    • Objects answer the question whom? or what ?
  • Phrases
    • Phrases play different roles in sentences.
    • They can function as subjects, verbs, and modifiers.
    • Their placement is crucial to clarity.
  • Phrases
    • Phrases may be essential or nonessential to the meaning of the sentence
    • To ensure that sentences make sense, notice whether phrases are connected properly to other parts of the sentence
  • Clauses
    • Clauses contain a subject and a verb.
    • A clause may be dependent or independent .
      • Dependent - cannot stand alone and make sense
      • Independent - can stand alone and make sense
  • Connect independent clauses with:
    • Coordinating conjunctions
    • Transitional words and expressions
    • Punctuation
  • Recognize comma splices and run-ons
    • Comma splice - occurs when you place a comma between independent
    • Run-on sentence - occurs when you join independent clauses with no punctuation at all.
  • Recognize fragments
    • A sentence fragment is a group of words lacking a subject or a verb but punctuated as if it were a complete sentence
  • Verbs
    • A verb is a word that expresses action or state of being.
    • State-of-being verbs, also called linking verbs, include forms of the verb to be and verbs of the senses, as well as others.
    • Helping verbs, also called auxiliary verbs, are used with other verbs to show time, possibility, or emphasis.
    • Verbs are also categorized as transitive or intransitive.
      • A transitive requires an object to complete the meaning of the sentence.
      • An intransitive verb does not need an object to complete its meaning .
  • Verb Tense
    • Verb tense indicates the time that an action takes place.
    • The four simple tenses are
      • Present
      • Past
      • Present participle
      • Past participle
  • Forming verb tenses
    • Regular verbs form the past and past participle by adding d or ed.
    • Irregular verbs form the past tense by changing their spelling in other ways.
    • Most irregular verbs are so commonly used that we know their forms without thinking
  • Active Voice of Verbs
    • The subject performs the action
    • Places emphasis on the doer of the action
    • Is clear and direct and, in general, makes writing more effective
  • Passive Voice of Verbs
    • The subject is the receiver of the action.
    • Used it to invoke a formal tone.
    • Use it to de-emphasize the doer of the action.
    • Use it to create tactful expression of the action.
    • Otherwise, use the active voice
    • for more lively, clear
  • Types of Pronouns
    • Demonstrative
    • Indefinite
    • Interrogative
    • Personal
    • Possessive
    • Reflexive
    • Relative
  • Pronoun Case
    • Three forms of personal pronouns that perform different functions in sentences
      • Nominative case
      • Objective case
      • Possessive case
  • Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
    • Personal pronouns replace specific nouns used elsewhere in a sentence.
    • For clarity, the pronoun reference must agree in number and gender with its noun or pronoun antecedent.
  • Adjectives and Adverbs
    • Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns.
    • Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.
  • Types of Adjectives
    • Descriptive adjectives - tell “what kind.”
    • Limiting adjectives - tell “how many.”
    • Articles - are the words a, an, and the .
    • Pointing adjectives - are similar to articles; they signal a noun and tell “which one.”
  • Adverbs
    • Answer How? When? Where? Why? and To what extent?
    • Many adverbs end in ly.
    • However, do not assume that all words
    • ending in ly are adverbs.
  • Adjective and Adverbs show comparison
    • Positive form (first degree)
    • Comparative form (second degree)
    • Superlative form (third degree)
  • Prepositions
    • Words that connect a noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence to show relationships
    • A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition
  • Using prepositions
    • Avoid unnecessary prepositions.
    • Avoid prepositions at the end of a sentence.
    • Use the correct preposition.
  • Grammar must be correct in all written documents.
    • When you are unsure, use the Pearson Reference Manual and Writer’s Handbook to check your writing.