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0135140560 pp1a



BSA105: Business English

BSA105: Business English
Section 1: Grammar

Yavapai College
Lindsay Henning
Associate Professor



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    0135140560 pp1a 0135140560 pp1a Presentation Transcript

    • Pearson Business Reference and Writer’s Handbook Section One Grammar
    • This section provides
      • Fundamentals of effective writing through mastery of basic sentence structure and the foundations of correct grammar.
    • Objectives
      • Recognize basic sentence structure
      • Write complete sentences by properly using the parts of speech to logically form a complete thought
      • Place phrases and clauses correctly to form complete sentences
      • Locate verbs, pronouns, adjectives and adverbs within sentences
    • Grammar helps you …
      • Write sentences that clearly convey your message and reflect an educated command of English
      • Use proper word forms and functions to clearly state your meaning.
      • Vary the style of the sentences you write, which makes your writing more interesting to read.
    • Grammar is important because
      • Grammar rules provide the framework for using words correctly as different parts of speech to construct sentences
      • When you routinely use correct grammar, you can easily spot mistakes and correct them in your writing
    • Basic sentence structure
      • Every sentence must include a subject and a verb
      • The subject and verb must agree in number
      • Objects answer the question whom? or what ?
    • Phrases
      • Phrases play different roles in sentences.
      • They can function as subjects, verbs, and modifiers.
      • Their placement is crucial to clarity.
    • Phrases
      • Phrases may be essential or nonessential to the meaning of the sentence
      • To ensure that sentences make sense, notice whether phrases are connected properly to other parts of the sentence
    • Clauses
      • Clauses contain a subject and a verb.
      • A clause may be dependent or independent .
        • Dependent - cannot stand alone and make sense
        • Independent - can stand alone and make sense
    • Connect independent clauses with:
      • Coordinating conjunctions
      • Transitional words and expressions
      • Punctuation
    • Recognize comma splices and run-ons
      • Comma splice - occurs when you place a comma between independent
      • Run-on sentence - occurs when you join independent clauses with no punctuation at all.
    • Recognize fragments
      • A sentence fragment is a group of words lacking a subject or a verb but punctuated as if it were a complete sentence
    • Verbs
      • A verb is a word that expresses action or state of being.
      • State-of-being verbs, also called linking verbs, include forms of the verb to be and verbs of the senses, as well as others.
      • Helping verbs, also called auxiliary verbs, are used with other verbs to show time, possibility, or emphasis.
      • Verbs are also categorized as transitive or intransitive.
        • A transitive requires an object to complete the meaning of the sentence.
        • An intransitive verb does not need an object to complete its meaning .
    • Verb Tense
      • Verb tense indicates the time that an action takes place.
      • The four simple tenses are
        • Present
        • Past
        • Present participle
        • Past participle
    • Forming verb tenses
      • Regular verbs form the past and past participle by adding d or ed.
      • Irregular verbs form the past tense by changing their spelling in other ways.
      • Most irregular verbs are so commonly used that we know their forms without thinking
    • Active Voice of Verbs
      • The subject performs the action
      • Places emphasis on the doer of the action
      • Is clear and direct and, in general, makes writing more effective
    • Passive Voice of Verbs
      • The subject is the receiver of the action.
      • Used it to invoke a formal tone.
      • Use it to de-emphasize the doer of the action.
      • Use it to create tactful expression of the action.
      • Otherwise, use the active voice
      • for more lively, clear
    • Types of Pronouns
      • Demonstrative
      • Indefinite
      • Interrogative
      • Personal
      • Possessive
      • Reflexive
      • Relative
    • Pronoun Case
      • Three forms of personal pronouns that perform different functions in sentences
        • Nominative case
        • Objective case
        • Possessive case
    • Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
      • Personal pronouns replace specific nouns used elsewhere in a sentence.
      • For clarity, the pronoun reference must agree in number and gender with its noun or pronoun antecedent.
    • Adjectives and Adverbs
      • Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns.
      • Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.
    • Types of Adjectives
      • Descriptive adjectives - tell “what kind.”
      • Limiting adjectives - tell “how many.”
      • Articles - are the words a, an, and the .
      • Pointing adjectives - are similar to articles; they signal a noun and tell “which one.”
    • Adverbs
      • Answer How? When? Where? Why? and To what extent?
      • Many adverbs end in ly.
      • However, do not assume that all words
      • ending in ly are adverbs.
    • Adjective and Adverbs show comparison
      • Positive form (first degree)
      • Comparative form (second degree)
      • Superlative form (third degree)
    • Prepositions
      • Words that connect a noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence to show relationships
      • A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition
    • Using prepositions
      • Avoid unnecessary prepositions.
      • Avoid prepositions at the end of a sentence.
      • Use the correct preposition.
    • Grammar must be correct in all written documents.
      • When you are unsure, use the Pearson Reference Manual and Writer’s Handbook to check your writing.