Invertebrate Portfolio
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Invertebrate Portfolio Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Invertebrate Portfolio Portfolio Item 2
  • 2. Portfolio Item 2
    • Invertebrate – An animal that does not have a backbone.
    • Vertebrate – Animals with an endoskeleton and a backbone.
  • 3. Portfolio Item 2
    • Heterotroph – An organism that must consume its food from an outside source because it cannot manufacture organic carbon compounds from an inorganic source.
  • 4. Portfolio Item 3
    • Embryo – Organism’s early pre-birth stage of development.
    • Symmetry – Balance or similarity in body structures of organisms.
  • 5. Portfolio Item 3
    • Radial Symmetry – Can be divided along any plane through a central axis into roughly equal halves.
    • Bilateral Symmetry – Can be divided down its length into similar right and left halves that form mirror images of each other.
  • 6. Portfolio Item 3
    • Asymmetrical Symmetry – An animal that has no symmetry.
  • 7. Portfolio Item 4
    • Endoderm – Inner layer of cells in the gastrula that develops into digestive organs and the digestive tract lining.
  • 8. Portfolio Item 4
    • Ectoderm – An embryological tissue that forms the outer covering of the animal’s body.
  • 9. Portfolio Item 4
    • Mesoderm – An embryological tissue found between the ectoderm and endoderm that eventually differentiates into muscle.
  • 10. Portfolio Item 4
    • Blastula – A hollow ball of undifferentiated cells.
  • 11. Portfolio Item 4
    • Gastrula – Two-layer-cell sac with an opening at one end that forms from the blastula during embryonic development.
    • Differentiation – The process in which identical cells start to develop and become specialized based on their eventual function in the organism.
  • 12. Portfolio Item 4
    • Coelom – A fluid filled body cavity that is lined with mesoderm on each side.
    • Psuedocoelom – A body cavity that is not lined with mesoderm on each side.
    • Acoelomate – Organisms that do not have a body cavity
  • 13. Portfolio Item 4
  • 14. Portfolio Item 5
    • Cnidarians have:
      • Radial Symmetry
      • Two true tissue layers:
        • Ectoderm
        • Endoderm
  • 15. Portfolio Item 5
    • Cnidarians have:
      • Three classes: Examples:
      • Hydrozoa Hydra, Portuguese man-o-war
      • Scyphozoa Jellyfish, sea wasps
      • Anthozoa Coral, anemone
  • 16. Portfolio Item 5
    • Cnidarians have:
      • Two body forms:
        • Polyp
        • Medusa
  • 17. Portfolio Item 5
    • Cnidarians have:
      • Gastrovascular cavity that serves as:
        • Digestion
        • Circulatory System
        • Hydrostatic skeleton
  • 18. Portfolio Item 5
    • Cnidarians have:
      • Possess tentacles with nematocysts used for:
        • Catching food
        • Defense
  • 19. Portfolio Item 5 - Hydra
  • 20. Portfolio Item 6 – Nematoda and Platyhelminthes
    • Flatworms have a coelom - Disagree
  • 21. Portfolio Item 6 – Nematoda and Platyhelminthes
    • Flatworms chew their food with teeth - Disagree
  • 22. Portfolio Item 6 – Nematoda and Platyhelminthes
    • Flatworms have no nervous system - Disagree
  • 23. Portfolio Item 6 – Nematoda and Platyhelminthes
    • Roundworms have radial symmetry - Disagree
  • 24. Portfolio Item 6 – Nematoda and Platyhelminthes
    • Regeneration is a from of sexual reproduction - Disagree
  • 25. Portfolio Item 6 – Nematoda and Platyhelminthes
    • Some flatworms are parasitic - Agree
  • 26. Portfolio Item 6 – Nematoda and Platyhelminthes
    • Roundworms have a coelom – agree and disagree
  • 27. Portfolio Item 6 – Nematoda and Platyhelminthes
    • Hookworms and pinworms can infect humans - Agree
  • 28. Portfolio Item 6 – Nematoda and Platyhelminthes
    • Roundworms can regenerate body parts that have been lost - Agree
  • 29. Portfolio Item 6 – Nematoda and Platyhelminthes
    • Three classes of Phylum Platyhelminthes:
      • Turbellaria
      • Trematoda
      • Cestoda
  • 30. Portfolio Item 6 – Nematoda and Platyhelminthes - Trichinella
  • 31. Portfolio Item 8 – Key Features of Arthropods
  • 32. Portfolio Item 8 – Key Features of Arthropods
    • Arthropods have an exoskeleton made of chitin (polysaccharide bound with protein)
  • 33. Portfolio Item 8 – Key Features of Arthropods
    • As arthropods grow, they shed their old exoskeleton in a process called molting.
  • 34. Portfolio Item 8 – Key Features of Arthropods
    • Arthropod appendages are jointed.
  • 35. Portfolio Item 8 – Key Features of Arthropods
    • Arthropods are like earthworms in that they have segmentation.
  • 36. Portfolio Item 8 – Key Features of Arthropods
    • Most arthropods have three major body regions called:
      • Thorax – Middle
      • Abdomen – Posterior
      • Cephalothorax – Head
      • Some arthropods only have a abdomen and cephalothorax!
  • 37. Portfolio Item 8 – Key Features of Arthropods
    • Arthropods have several types of structures for obtaining oxygen:
      • Spiders have book lungs
  • 38. Portfolio Item 8 – Key Features of Arthropods
    • Arthropods have several types of structures for obtaining oxygen:
      • Insects have tracheal tubes
  • 39. Portfolio Item 8 – Key Features of Arthropods
    • Arthropods have several types of structures for obtaining oxygen:
      • Crustaceans have gills
  • 40. Portfolio Item 8 – Key Features of Arthropods
    • Some arthropods such as bees exhibit parthenogenesis which means that reproduction occurs without fertilization!
  • 41. Portfolio Item 8 – Key Features of Arthropods Three distinct body parts – head, thorax, and abdomen – and three pairs of legs. Bees, Beetles, Butterflies, Flies, and Grasshoppers Insecta Rounded bodies and two pairs of legs per body segment Millipedes Diplopoda Flat bodies and one pair of legs per body segment Centipedes Chilopoda Chewing jaws, and a pair of appendages on each segment of the thorax Crabs, Lobsters, and Shrimp Crustacea They have eight legs Spiders, Scorpions Arachnida Unique Features Example Name of Class
  • 42. Biolab – Dissection of a Grasshopper: External Anatomy Long wings used for flying. Forewing / hind wing Hearing organ. Tympanum Valve-like opening in exoskeleton used for air. Spiracles Perceives odor, touch, humidity, vibration, wind velocity and direction. Antennae Simple – Detect light intensity, but cannot see. Compound – Made of individual units call ommatidia. Sees shape, color, movement, and distance. Eyes: Simple / Compound Allows for jumping – Has claws for clasping to objects. Legs Function Structure
  • 43. Biolab – Dissection of a Grasshopper: External Anatomy
  • 44. Biolab – Dissection of a Grasshopper: Internal Anatomy
    • Crop: Sac in which food is stored until it can make its way through the gizzard.
  • 45. Biolab – Dissection of a Grasshopper: Internal Anatomy
    • Gizzard: Muscular sac that contains hard particles that helps grind food before they pass into the intestine.
  • 46. Biolab – Dissection of a Grasshopper: Internal Anatomy
    • Gastric Caeca: Transports undigested food from the stomach to the intestine.
    • Intestine: Stores undigested material until it can be eliminated through the anus.
  • 47. Biolab – Dissection of a Grasshopper: Internal Anatomy
    • Malphigian Tubules: Waste excreting structure that also helps maintain homeostatic water balance.
  • 48. Biolab – Dissection of a Grasshopper
    • The eye of the grasshopper is composed of many independent lenses and “retinas”, giving the eye a faceted appearance. Nerve tissues, found in the head, assemble the multiple images into a single image.
  • 49. Biolab – Dissection of a Grasshopper
    • Compared with single-aperture eyes, compound eyes have poor image resolution; however, they possess a very large view angle and the ability to detect fast movement and, in some cases, the polarization of light.
  • 50. Biolab – Dissection of a Grasshopper
    • A grasshopper’s ability to see is that of a single image with a 160 degree angle.
  • 51. Biolab – Dissection of a Grasshopper
    • The first two segments of the legs are ball and socket, which give the grasshopper a wide range of movement.
    • The bottom of the leg gives extra traction.
    • The first two pairs of legs are for crawling, clinging, and climbing.
    • Rear legs are for jumping!
  • 52. Biolab – Dissection of a Grasshopper
    • Spiracles are located all along the abdomen so that all cells of the insect’s body are richly supplied with oxygen.
  • 53. Biolab – Dissection of a Grasshopper
    • You did not find blood vessels in the grasshopper because it has an open circulatory system. Blood flows through the open body cavity and around vital organs, supplying them with nutrients.
  • 54. Portfolio Item 9
    • Spinnerets are the second pair of arachnid appendages used for sensation and holding prey.
  • 55. Portfolio Item 9
    • Segmentation allows arthropods to move efficiently in a variety of ways.
  • 56. Portfolio Item 9
    • A series of major changes after an insect’s larval form is called metamorphosis.
  • 57. Portfolio Item 9
    • Arthropods have jointed appendages that grow and extend from the main body.
  • 58. Portfolio Item 9
    • During the pupa stage and insect transforms into and adult form.
  • 59. Portfolio Item 9
    • Honeybees communicate information about food sources by performing dances!
  • 60. Portfolio Item 9
    • Immature insects that hatch from eggs during incomplete metamorphosis are called nymphs.
  • 61. Portfolio Item 9
    • Insects have three pairs of legs.
  • 62. Portfolio Item 9
    • The thorax is the middle body region to which legs and wings are attached.
  • 63. Portfolio Item 9
    • The two body sections of most arachnids are called the cephalothorax and abdomen.
  • 64. Portfolio Item 9
    • Horseshoe crabs are a primitive marine species that are related to arachnids. One main difference between horseshoe crabs and arachnids is that arachnids have segmented exoskeletons.
  • 65. Portfolio Item 9
    • Swimmerets are appendages used by crustaceans, such as this lobster, for swimming.
  • 66. Portfolio Item 9
    • Arthropods are classified by their segments, appendages, and mouthparts. Arthropods are coelomates, which means they have body cavities, so this does not provide a means of classification.
  • 67. Portfolio Item 9
    • Arthropods have three primary respiratory organs: gills, tracheal tubes, and book lungs. Spinnerets are silk formation on the abdomens of spiders.
  • 68. Portfolio Item 9
    • This evolutionary tree shows that annelids and arthropods share certain evolutionary features such as segmentation.
  • 69. Portfolio Item 9
    • The benefit of a segmented body is efficient and complex movement.
  • 70. Portfolio Item 9
    • Arthropod’s wings are attached to it’s thorax.
  • 71. Portfolio Item 9 – Incomplete Metamorphosis
  • 72. Portfolio Item 9 – Complete Metamorphosis