Norma frontalis

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Norma frontalis

  1. 1. Norma Frontalis
  2. 2. Norma Frontalis• The anterior view of the skull.• Presents an irregular surface with 3 excavations: 1. one nasal cavity 2. two orbital cavities.
  3. 3. Six Regions of Norma Frontalis• Frontal Region• Orbital Region• Nasal Region• Zygomatic Region• Maxillary Region• Mandibular Region.
  4. 4. I. THE FRONTAL REGION
  5. 5. Boundaries:Superior - top of the skullInferior - orbits and root of the nose - frontal process of the maxillaeLaterally - frontal process of the zygomatic bone.
  6. 6. CharacteristicsFeatures:1. Frontal Tuberosity or Eminence2. Superciliary Arch3. Glabella4. Nasion5. Supraorbital Margin6. Supraorbital Notch.
  7. 7. II. THE ORBITAL REGION
  8. 8. Bones involved:1. Maxilla2. Zygomatic Bone3. Sphenoid Bone4. Frontal Bone5. Palatine Bone6. Ethmoid Bone7. Lacrimal Bone.
  9. 9. BOUNDARIES OF THEORBITAL CAVITY
  10. 10. Roof- orbital plate of the frontal bone- lesser wings of sphenoid.
  11. 11. Lateral wall- Zygomatic process of the frontal bone- Orbital plate of the zygomatic bone- Orbital plate of the greater wings of sphenoid.
  12. 12. Medial Wall- Frontal process of the maxilla- Lacrimal bone- Orbital plate of ethmoid bone- Body of sphenoid.
  13. 13. Floor- Orbital plate of the maxilla- Orbital plate of the zygomatic bone- Orbital process of the palatine bone.
  14. 14. BaseSuperiorly – frontal boneMedially - frontal process of the maxillaLaterally - frontal process of the zygomatic boneInferiorly - Maxilla medially - zygomatic bone laterally.
  15. 15. Apex- Formed by the convergence of the four walls.
  16. 16. OPENINGS INTO THEORBITAL CAVITY
  17. 17. Opening Location StructureOrbital opening 5/6 of the eyeballSupraorbital notch Superior margin Supraorbital/ foramen nerves/vesselsInfraorbital Floor/orbital Infraorbital nervegroove and canal plate of maxilla and blood vesselsNasolacrimal Medial wall Nasolacrimal ductcanal
  18. 18. Opening Location StructureInferior Orbital Between maxilla and 1. Maxillary nerveFissure greater wing of and its sphenoid zygomatic branch 2. Inferior Opthalmic vein 3. Sympathetic nerves
  19. 19. Opening Location StructureSuperior Orbital Between greater and 1. Lacrimal N.Fissure lesser wings of 2. Frontal N. sphenoid 3. Trochlear N. 4. Occulomotor N. (upper and lower divisions) 5. Abducent N. 6. Superior Opthalmic Vein
  20. 20. Opening Location StructureAnterior Ethmoidal Frontal Bone 1. Nasociliary N.Foramen 2. Anterior Ethmoidal V. A. and N.Posterior Frontal Bone 1. PosteriorEthmoidal Foramen Ethmoidal V., A. and N.Optic Canal Lesser Wing of 1. Optic N. Sphenoid 2. Opthalmic N.
  21. 21. III. THE NASAL REGION
  22. 22. Bones involved1. Nasal Bone2. Frontal Bone3. Ethmoid Bone4. Sphenoid Bone5. Vomer6. Maxilla7. Palatine Bone8. Lacrimal Bone9. Inferior nasal Concha.
  23. 23. BOUNDARIES OF THENASAL CAVITY
  24. 24. Anterior – pyriform aperturePosterior - Pharynx thru the posterior nares.
  25. 25. Superior Wall1. Anterior – nasal bone -nasal process of the frontal bone2. Middle - cribriform plate of ethmoid bone3. Posterior - body of the sphenoid
  26. 26. Median Wall- Perpendicular plate of ethmoid- Vomer.
  27. 27. Lateral Wall1. Contain turbinates or conchae which are bony elevations made up of: a. Superior and middle conchae of the ethmoid bone b. Inferior nasal conchae or turbinates2. Bounded by the posterior nares3. Contain meatuses between nasal conchaes.
  28. 28. The Paranasal SinusesThese are pneumatic bones surrounding the nasal cavity.Functions:1. Lighten the bone of the skull2. Resonating chambers.
  29. 29. Meatuses and Sinus Drainage of the Lateral Wall of the Nasal Cavity Meatus Sinus DrainageSupreme or highest nasal Sphenoidal sinusmeatus or spheno-ethmoidal recessSuperior Nasal Meatus Posterior ethmoidal sinus
  30. 30. Meatuses and Sinus Drainage of the Lateral Wall of the Nasal Cavity Meatus Sinus DrainageMiddle nasal meatus Anterior and middle ethmoidal sinus; frontal sinus; and maxillary sinusInferior nasal meatus Nasolacrimal duct
  31. 31. IV. THE ZYGOMATIC REGION
  32. 32. - forms the prominence of a cheek, contributes to the lateral orbital wall and floor, parts of the walls of temporal and infratemporal fossae and completes the zygomatic arch.- roughly quadrangular with anteromedial and frontal processes.- It can be described as having three surfaces, five borders and two processes.
  33. 33. Lateral View of the Zygomatic BoneThe Three Processes ofthe Zygomatic Bone:1. Temporal process2. Frontal process3. Maxillary process
  34. 34. THE THREE SURFACES OF THEZYGOMATIC BONE
  35. 35. 1. Anterolateral Surface-is convex and pierced near itsorbital border by thezygomaticofacial foramen (forthe zygomaticofacial nerve andvessels); below this zygomaticusminor and, posteriorly,zygomaticus major areattached.
  36. 36. 2. Posteromedial Temporal Surface- has a rough anterior area for articulation with the maxilla and a smooth, concave posterior area extending up posteriorly on its frontal process as the anterior aspect of the temporal fossa.
  37. 37. 3. Orbital Surface- smooth and concave, is the anterolateral part of the orbital floor and adjoining lateral wall, extending up on the medial aspect of its frontal process.
  38. 38. THE FIVE BORDERS OF THEZYGOMATIC BONE
  39. 39. 1. Orbital2. Maxillary3. Temporal4. Posteroinferior5. Posteromedial
  40. 40. OPENINGS OF THEZYGOMATIC REGION
  41. 41. Foramen Location StructureZycomatico-facial Below the lateral zygomatigo- 1.foramen part of the lower facial branch margin of the of the orbit Zygomatic N. 2. Lacrimal A.Zygomatico- Temporal process Zygomatico-temporal foramen of the zygomatic temporal N. and bone blood vessels
  42. 42. V. MAXILLARY REGION
  43. 43. Characteristic Features:1. Anterior nasal spine2. Infraorbital foramen3. Canine fossa4. Subnasal/incisive fossae5. Canine emminence6. Jugum or zygomatico- alveolar arch7. Alveolar processes of the maxilla.
  44. 44. Lateral View of the MaxillaThe 4 processes:1. Frontal process2. Zygomatic process3. Alveolar process4. Palatine process.
  45. 45. OPENINGS OF THE MAXILLA IN NORMA FRONTALIS
  46. 46. Opening Location StructureInfraorbital Below the Infraorbital N.,foramen infraorbital A., and V. marginAlveolar processes Lower margin of Roots of the maxilla maxillary teeth
  47. 47. VI. THE MANDIBULAR REGION
  48. 48. - Involves the mandible which is the strongest bone of the face- Houses the lower teeth- Develops in 2 symmetrical halves which fuse and ossify in the first year of life.
  49. 49. Characteristic Features of the Mandible1. Symphisis menti2. Mental protruberance3. Alveolar processes4. Mental foramen.
  50. 50. OPENINGS IN THE MANDIBLE
  51. 51. Opening r Location StructureMental foramen Between the apices of Mental nerve the mandibular premolarsAlveolar processes Upper border of the Roots of mandibular mandible teethMandibular foramen Lingual side of the Mandibular N. ramus of the mandible

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