Metabolic pathways and energy production
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Metabolic pathways and energy production Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Metabolic Pathways and Energy Production
    • Metabolism and ATP Energy
    • Important Coenzymes
    • Glycolysis
  • 2. Metabolism
    • All the chemical reactions that occur in the cells of our bodies.
    • Catabolic reactions
    • Break down large molecules
    • Provide energy for ATP
    • Anabolic reactions
    • Use small molecules to build large ones
    • Require energy
    catabolic anabolic
  • 3. Cell Structure
    • Typical animal cell
    • Nucleus
    • Chromosomes in the nucleus contain genetic material
    • Cytoplasm is material between nucleus and cell membrane
    • Mitochondria are where energy-producing reactions occur
  • 4. ATP
    • Energy is released as food is oxidized
    • Used to form ATP from ADP and P i
    • ADP + P i + Energy ATP
    • In cells, energy is provided by the hydrolysis of ATP
    • ATP ADP + P i + Energy
  • 5. Structure of ATP
  • 6. Digestion of Foods
    • Digestion is the first step of catabolism
    • Carbohydrates glucose, fructose, galactose
    • Proteins amino acids
    • Lipids glycerol
    • fatty acids
  • 7. Coenzymes
    • Substances that connect metabolic pathways
    • In reduction, coenzymes accept H atoms
    • In oxidation, coenzymes remove H atoms
    • FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)
    • FAD + -CH 2 -CH 2 - FADH 2 + -CH=CH-
    • NAD + (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
    • NAD + + -CH-OH NADH + H + + -C=O
  • 8. Glycolysis: Oxidation of Glucose
    • 2ATP
    • 2 NAD +
    • 2ADP 2NADH + 2H +
    • 4 ADP
    • 4 ATP
    Glucose two Glyceraldehyde-3-PO 4 two Pyruvate
  • 9. Glycolysis: Oxidation of Glucose
  • 10. Glycolysis: Oxidation of Glucose
    • 2 NAD + 2 NADH + 2 H +
  • 11. Glycolysis: Oxidation of Glucose
    • Glycolysis generates
    • 2 ATP molecules and 2 NADH + 2 H +
    • Two ATP used in adding phosphate groups to glucose and fructose-6-phosphate (- 2 ATP)
    • Four ATP generated in direct transfer to ADP by two 3-C molecules (+ 4 ATP)
    • Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 P i + 2 NAD +
    • 2pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H +
  • 12. Pathways for Pyruvate
    • Aerobic conditions
    • O
    • ||
    • CH 3 –C –COO - + NAD + + CoA
    • pyruvate
    • O
    • ||
    • CH 3 –C –CoA + CO 2 + NADH + H +
    • acetyl CoA
  • 13. Pathways for Pyruvate
    • Anaerobic conditions (No O 2 available)
    • Reduce to lactate to replenish NAD + for glycolysis
    • O OH
    • || |
    • CH 3 –C –COO - + NADH + H + CH 3 –CH –COO - + NAD +
    • pyruvate lactate
    • enzyme: lactate dehydrogenase
  • 14. Lactate in Muscles
    • Strenuous exercise leads to anaerobic conditions
    • Oxygen in muscles is depleted
    • Lactate builds up as glycolysis continues
    • Muscles tire and become painful
    • Breathing rate increases
    • Rest repays oxygen debt
    • Lactate re-forms pyruvate in liver
  • 15. Learning Check M1
    • Match the following with the terms below:
    • (1) Catabolic reactions (2) Coenzymes
    • (3) Glycolysis (4) Lactate
    • A. Produced during anaerobic conditions
    • B. Reactions that convert glucose to pyruvate
    • C. Metabolic reactions that break down large molecules to smaller molecules + energy
    • D. Substances that remove or add H atoms in oxidation and reduction reactions
  • 16. Solution M1
    • Match the following with the terms below:
    • (1) Catabolic reactions (2) Coenzymes
    • Glycolysis (4) Lactate
    • A. 4 Produced during anaerobic conditions
    • B. 3 Reactions that convert glucose to pyruvate
    • C. 1 Metabolic reactions that break down large
    • molecules to smaller molecules + energy
    • D. 2 Substances that remove or add H atoms in
    • oxidation and reduction reactions