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Making Content AccessibleEDESL 771 PreK-12 ESL Curriculum and Materials through the Content Areas                         ...
Legal Precedent for Sheltered Instruction and ELD       •     1964   -    Civil Rights Act, Title VI       •     1974   - ...
Sheltering Content and English Language Development                                                                       ...
What is Sheltered Instruction?Sheltered Language Instruction is:          Sheltered Language Instruction is not:•    Usual...
What is English Language Development?ELD is:                                          ELD is not:•    A separate, graded c...
The Need for Content to be Made AccessiblePersistent gap in academic achievement for  those from culturally and linguistic...
Being a CBI (CLIL) Teacher is Double the Work                           •  CLIL is complex                           •  Th...
CLIL Involves the “Four C’s”•  Content - Progression in knowledge, skills and understanding   related to specific elements...
CLIL Considers Language FOR and THROUGH Content Learning•  L of learning – content obligatory language related to the subj...
Analysis of Content ObjectivesContent Area ObjectivesRead the objectives below and determine:-the content area-whether the...
Analysis of Content Objectives                                Content Area Objectives                       Read the objec...
Analysis of Content Objectives                                Content Area Objectives                       Read the objec...
Analysis of Content Objectives                                Content Area Objectives                       Read the objec...
Analysis of Content Objectives                                 Content Area Objectives                        Read the obj...
Plan the Content ObjectiveQues%ons	  to	  ask	  yourself	                                  Considera%ons	  What	  is	  the...
Planning for Content-Based ESLDiscourse	  Adapta3ons	       Cultural	  Responsiveness	     Text	  Modifica3ons	            ...
Need for Background Knowledge Sejong is a well knownDaewang in Korea. Every   Korean school child    knows about him.     ...
Build Background Knowledge  Sejong is a well known Daewang in  Korea. Every Korean school child                           ...
Modify your SpeechQues%ons	  to	  ask	  yourself	                                     Considera%ons	  What	  will	  I	  do...
Bring in Hands-on Learning ActivitiesQues%ons	  to	  ask	  yourself	                                  Considera%ons	  How	...
Sheltering and Language Teaching                                   Sheltering Involves:                                   ...
Implications for Lesson Planning in                  Content-Based ESLAsk yourself…                 Am I sheltering conten...
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Making Content Accessible

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Transcript of "Making Content Accessible"

  1. 1. Making Content AccessibleEDESL 771 PreK-12 ESL Curriculum and Materials through the Content Areas Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 1
  2. 2. Legal Precedent for Sheltered Instruction and ELD •  1964 - Civil Rights Act, Title VI •  1974 - Lau vs. Nichols •  1981 - Castañeda vs. Pickard •  1982 - Plyler vs. DoeAll school districts and therefore all teachers have a dual obligation in the law to serve English learners by: Developing students’ English proficiency •  English Language Development (ELD) Providing meaningful access to academic content instruction •  Sheltered Instruction 2
  3. 3. Sheltering Content and English Language Development Sheltered  Content                                                               Both  Involve:     Focus  on  Content   Opportuni3es  for   Objec3ve                                         Interac3on                       Making  Content   Purposeful  and  Flexible   Comprehensible     Grouping     Recognizing  Linguis3c    Hands-­‐on  Ac3vi3es   Demands  of  Texts                                           Ac3va3ng  Prior  Knowledge   English  Language  Development                               Focus  on  Language  Objec3ve     Modeling  Target  Language  Language   Development  Ac3vi3es  Feedback  on   Form   Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 3
  4. 4. What is Sheltered Instruction?Sheltered Language Instruction is: Sheltered Language Instruction is not:•  Usually delivered by the core content •  Only the responsibility of the ESL teacher teacher •  Making core content standards •  Lecture only style teaching accessible to all learners •  Faulting students’ lack of English•  Clear grade level, content and proficiency as the barrier to their language objectives access to content learning •  Active student engagement •  Just one strategy (i.e. word wall) •  Building background knowledge •  An extra adult in the classroom/•  Uses visuals, manipulative, gestures, Teacher Assistant paraphrasing, etc. •  Academic Support •  Multiple strategies (including those •  Study Hall used in programs such as, SIOP, •  Independent Study CALLA, CLIL and SDAIE) •  Necessarily a class just of ELLs •  Thinking, “How do I make my academic content accessible to this student?” Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 4
  5. 5. What is English Language Development?ELD is: ELD is not:•  A separate, graded class in systematic •  Reading instruction, “Reading English Language Development Recovery”, “Double Dose” reading, A•  A state mandated program based on literacy class state ELP (English Language Proficiency) •  An extra adult to help in the standards classroom/Teacher Assistant •  A class in which students are grouped by •  Sheltered content instruction language proficiency levels •  Tutoring time, Academic Support, •  Explicitly reflected in the school’s master •  Special help with classroom projects/ schedule Independent Study •  Assessed using the statewide ELPA •  Just vocabulary (English Language Proficiency •  SIOP, SDAIE (although some of these Assessment) strategies can be used in an ELD•  A scope and sequence of vocabulary, class) language functions and grammatical •  Just a software program (can be forms used to supplement live instruction) •  Meeting minimum minutes mandated by state and beyond Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 5
  6. 6. The Need for Content to be Made AccessiblePersistent gap in academic achievement for those from culturally and linguistically diverse groups: "  Many teachers are underprepared to make content comprehensible for ELLs. "  Few teachers trained to teach initial literacy or content-area literacy to secondary ELLs. "  ELLs are tested in all subject areas well before they reach proficiency in English "  ELLs take 6-8 years to develop academic English and during that time cannot lose years of content- area learning Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 6
  7. 7. Being a CBI (CLIL) Teacher is Double the Work •  CLIL is complex •  There is no single model for CLIL – the context is to be taken into account •  Who is to teach CLIL (language or subject teachers), and how to combine both? •  New concepts are always difficult to accept •  Insufficient understanding of content through the medium of foreign language •  CLIL methodology and CLIL= assessment are not clear –Content and Language teachers have to be supported Integrated Learning •  Teacher overload, shortage of materials Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 7
  8. 8. CLIL Involves the “Four C’s”•  Content - Progression in knowledge, skills and understanding related to specific elements of a defined curriculum.•  Communication – Using language to learn and learning to use language. Language does not necessarily follow the grammatical progression found in language-learning settings•  Cognition-Developing thinking skills which link concept formation (abstract and concrete), understanding and language•  Culture- understanding of otherness and self, deepened feelings of community and global citizenship Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 8
  9. 9. CLIL Considers Language FOR and THROUGH Content Learning•  L of learning – content obligatory language related to the subject theme or topic•  L for learning – language needed to operate in foreign language environment (for pair/ group work, asking questions, debating, etc.)•  L through learning- new language that cannot be planned. This emerging language needs to be captured, recycled and developed so that it becomes a part of a learner’s repertoire Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 9
  10. 10. Analysis of Content ObjectivesContent Area ObjectivesRead the objectives below and determine:-the content area-whether the desired “understanding” is clearly expressed-whether it’s feasible in a 40 minute lesson-whether you will be able to assess students’ understanding at the end of the period-whether it’s worded as an assessment instead of a learning objective-whether it’s worded as an activity instead of a learning objectiveA. Content Objective: Students will develop basic understanding of the concept of Nomadicpeople.B. Content Objective: Students will be able to recognize the 6 basic nutrients and identifythe foods these are found in.C. Content Objective: Students will use product design elements to create their ownchocolate bars.D. Content Objective: Students are able to identify and demonstrate an understanding ofthe five senses used by humans by exploring bags filled with items related to the sensesincluding a lemon (taste), a nail file (touch and hearing), a cotton ball (touch), soap, vanillabeans (smell and taste) Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 10
  11. 11. Analysis of Content Objectives Content Area Objectives Read the objectives below and determine: -the content area -whether the desired “understanding” is clearly expressed -whether it’s feasible in a 40 minute lesson -whether you will be able to assess students’ understanding at the end of the period -whether it’s worded as an assessment instead of a learning objective -whether it’s worded as an activity instead of a learning objectiveOriginal: Students will develop basic understandingof the concept of Nomadic people.Revised: Students will understand that Nomadic people arethose who have no permanent home, but move from place toplace based on factors such as seasons and work. Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 11
  12. 12. Analysis of Content Objectives Content Area Objectives Read the objectives below and determine: -the content area -whether the desired “understanding” is clearly expressed -whether it’s feasible in a 40 minute lesson -whether you will be able to assess students’ understanding at the end of the period -whether it’s worded as an assessment instead of a learning objective -whether it’s worded as an activity instead of a learning objectiveOriginal: Students will be able to recognize the 6basic nutrients and identify the foods these are foundin.Revised: Students will understand that our bodiesrequire six basic nutrients (Carbohydrates, Protein,Fat, Water and Minerals) to survive. Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 12
  13. 13. Analysis of Content Objectives Content Area Objectives Read the objectives below and determine: -the content area -whether the desired “understanding” is clearly expressed -whether it’s feasible in a 40 minute lesson -whether you will be able to assess students’ understanding at the end of the period -whether it’s worded as an assessment instead of a learning objective -whether it’s worded as an activity instead of a learning objectiveOriginal: Students will use product design elementsto create their own chocolate bars.Revised: Students will understand that designelements such as color, lettering, and position of textcan make a product appear more appealing. Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 13
  14. 14. Analysis of Content Objectives Content Area Objectives Read the objectives below and determine: -the content area -whether the desired “understanding” is clearly expressed -whether it’s feasible in a 40 minute lesson -whether you will be able to assess students’ understanding at the end of the period -whether it’s worded as an assessment instead of a learning objective -whether it’s worded as an activity instead of a learning objectiveOriginal: Students are able to identify and demonstrate anunderstanding of the five senses used by humans byexploring bags filled with items related to the senses includinga lemon (taste), a nail file (touch and hearing), a cotton ball(touch), soap, vanilla beans (smell and taste)Revised: Students will understand that we use all of our fivehuman senses (sight, smell, touch, hearing, taste) whenencountering objects. Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 14
  15. 15. Plan the Content ObjectiveQues%ons  to  ask  yourself   Considera%ons  What  is  the  big  idea  you  are  working   Check  on  state  and  na3onal  standards  towards  and  the  final  performance  piece?   documents.  What  understanding  can  you  “bite  off  and   Know  the  proficiency  and  developmental  chew”  in  one  class  session?   levels  of  your  learners.  How  will  students  be  able  to  show  you  their   Keep  all  students  of  all  proficiency  levels  level  of  this  understanding  at  the  end  of  the   working  towards  the  same  understandings.  class?   Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 15
  16. 16. Planning for Content-Based ESLDiscourse  Adapta3ons   Cultural  Responsiveness   Text  Modifica3ons   Vocabulary  Focus  Par3cipa3on  Structures   English  Language   Development   Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 16
  17. 17. Need for Background Knowledge Sejong is a well knownDaewang in Korea. Every Korean school child knows about him. Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 17
  18. 18. Build Background Knowledge Sejong is a well known Daewang in Korea. Every Korean school child Rather than assume prior knows about him. knowledge, provide background information. Henry the VIII is a well known Daewang in England. Every British school child knows about him.Ques%ons  to  ask  yourself   Considera%ons  What  do  my  students  already  know  about   Look  into  and  learn  cultural  references  that  this  topic?  Do  they  have  cultural  knowledge   can  bridge  your  students’  learning.  or  experiences  that  can  bridge  this  content?  What  visual,  graphic,  video,  music,  map,   Always  have  visuals!  drawing,  etc.  can  convey  important  background  informa3on  without  words?   Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 18
  19. 19. Modify your SpeechQues%ons  to  ask  yourself   Considera%ons  What  will  I  do  when  I  speak  to  make  my   Modify  your  speech  through  text  support,  speech  more  easily  understood  and   visual  aids,  gestures,  expressions,  body  meaningful  for  my  learners?   language,  slower  rate,  repe33on,  re-­‐ phrasing,  and  word  choice.   How will I know my input is comprehensible? Assessment checks such as circulating, thumbs up/down, pencils up, response boards. Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 19
  20. 20. Bring in Hands-on Learning ActivitiesQues%ons  to  ask  yourself   Considera%ons  How  can  students  gain  access  to  the  ideas   Bringing  in  realia,  manipula3ves,  concrete  behind  the  content  without  a  language   objects    and  visuals,  rather  than  referring  to  barrier?   distant  and  abstract  concepts  only  through   language.  How  can  the  learning  be  structured  to   Provide  induc3ve  rather  than  deduc3ve  provide  students  with  opportuni3es  to   presenta3ons,  with  plenty  of  opportunity  construct  or  arrive  at  their  own   for  discovery  (construc3vist)  learning.  understandings?   Tell me, I’ll forget, Show me, I’ll remember, Involve me, I’ll understand. Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 20
  21. 21. Sheltering and Language Teaching Sheltering Involves: •  ontent objectives C •  nowledge of the linguistic KSheltering opens the door demands of the contentfor ELLs to content •  iscourse adaptations Dlearning. •  ext modifications T •  urposeful grouping PLanguage teaching getsstudents through the door Language Teaching involves:and beyond. •  anguage objectives L •  nowledge of the linguistic K demands of the required student activity • nstruction in grammar, I vocabulary, pragmatics, L-S-R-W Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 21
  22. 22. Implications for Lesson Planning in Content-Based ESLAsk yourself… Am I sheltering content or teaching language? What student language learning need am I responding to by designing this language objective? Am I clearly focusing on teaching and applying ONE skill? Am I cycling through content material using the different language skills?. Hunter College MA in TESOL, Laura Baecher 22
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